Microturbulence

Microturbulence is a form of turbulence that varies over small distance scales. (Large-scale turbulence is called macroturbulence.)

Stellar

Microturbulence is one of several mechanisms that can cause broadening of the absorption lines in the stellar spectrum.[1] Stellar microturbulence varies with the effective temperature and the surface gravity.[2]

The microturbulent velocity is defined as the microscale non-thermal component of the gas velocity in the region of spectral line formation.[3] Convection is the mechanism believed to be responsible for the observed turbulent velocity field, both in low mass stars and massive stars. When examined by a spectroscope, the velocity of the convective gas along the line of sight produces Doppler shifts in the absorption bands. It is the distribution of these velocities along the line of sight that produces the microturbulence broadening of the absorption lines in low mass stars that have convective envelopes. In massive stars convection can be present only in small regions below the surface; these sub-surface convection zones can excite turbulence at the stellar surface through the emission of acoustic and gravity waves.[4] The strength of the microturbulence (symbolized by ξ, in units of km s−1) can be determined by comparing the broadening of strong lines versus weak lines.[5]

Magnetic nuclear fusion

Microturbulence plays a critical role in energy transport during magnetic nuclear fusion experiments, such as the Tokamak.[6]

References

  1. ^ De Jager, C. (1954). "High-energy Microturbulence in the Solar Photosphere". Nature. 173 (4406): 680–1. Bibcode:1954Natur.173..680D. doi:10.1038/173680b0. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
  2. ^ Montalban, J.; Nendwich, J.; Heiter, U.; Kupka, F.; et al. (1999). "The Effect of the microturbulence parameter on the Color-Magnitude Diagram". Reports on Progress in Physics. 61 (S239): 77–115. Bibcode:2007IAUS..239..166M. doi:10.1017/S1743921307000361.
  3. ^ Cantiello, M. et al. (2008). "On the origin of Microturbulence in hot stars" (PDF).
  4. ^ Cantiello, M. et al. (2009); Langer, N.; Brott, I.; De Koter, A.; Shore, S. N.; Vink, J. S.; Voegler, A.; Lennon, D. J.; Yoon, S.-C. (2009). "Sub-surface convection zones in hot massive stars and their observable consequences". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 499 (1): 279. arXiv:0903.2049. Bibcode:2009A&A...499..279C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911643.
  5. ^ Briley, Michael (July 13, 2006). "Stellar Properties from Spectral Lines: Introduction". University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
  6. ^ Nevins, W.M. (August 21, 2006). "The Plasma Microturbulence Project". Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-05-21.

External links

Blitzar

Blitzars are a hypothetical type of astronomical object in which a spinning pulsar rapidly collapses into a black hole. They are proposed as an explanation for fast radio bursts (FRBs). The idea was proposed in 2013 by Heino Falcke and Luciano Rezzolla.

Bright giant

The luminosity class II in the Yerkes spectral classification is given to bright giants. These are stars which straddle the boundary between ordinary giants and supergiants, based on the appearance of their spectra.

CN star

A CN star is a star with strong cyanogen bands in its spectrum. Cyanogen is a simple molecule of one carbon atom and one nitrogen atom, with absorption bands around 388.9 and 421.6 nm. This group of stars was first noticed by Nancy G. Roman who called them 4150 stars.

Electroweak star

An electroweak star is a theoretical type of exotic star, whereby the gravitational collapse of the star is prevented by radiation pressure resulting from electroweak burning, that is, the energy released by conversion of quarks to leptons through the electroweak force. This process occurs in a volume at the star's core approximately the size of an apple, containing about two Earth masses.The stage of life of a star that produces an electroweak star is theorized to occur after a supernova collapse. Electroweak stars are denser than quark stars, and may form when quark degeneracy pressure is no longer able to withstand gravitational attraction, but may still be withstood by electroweak burning radiation pressure. This phase of a star's life may last upwards of 10 million years.

Frozen star (hypothetical star)

In astronomy, a frozen star, besides a disused term for a black hole, is a type of hypothetical star that, according to the astronomers Fred Adams and Gregory P. Laughlin, may appear in the future of the Universe when the metallicity of the interstellar medium is several times the solar value. Frozen stars would belong to a spectral class "H".

HD 197027

HD 197027 (HIP 102152) is a star in the constellation Capricornus that is located about 250 light years from the Sun.

The measured properties of this star are very similar to those of the Sun, making it a candidate older solar twin. The abundances of 21 elements overall are more similar to the Sun than any other known solar twin. Additionally, the effective temperature, surface gravity, and microturbulence are nearly identical to the Sun's. However, it is significantly older than the Sun, being approximately 2.2 billion years older than the Sun, at 6.9 billion years old. The fact that the abundances are so similar to the Sun's suggests that it is a potential candidate for hosting terrestrial type planets.

HD 59612

HD 59612 is a class A5Ib supergiant star in the constellation Puppis. Its apparent magnitude is 4.86 and it is approximately 3,100 light years away based on parallax.It has one companion, B, at magnitude 10.7 and separation 3.0".

Helium-weak star

Helium-weak stars are chemically peculiar stars which have a weak helium lines for their spectral type. Their helium lines place them in a later (ie. cooler) spectral type then their hydrogen lines.

Lambda Boötis star

A Lambda Boötis star is a type of peculiar star which has an unusually low abundance of iron peak elements in its surface layers. One possible explanation for this is that it is the result of accretion of metal-poor gas from a circumstellar disc, and a second possibility is the accretion of material from a hot Jupiter suffering from mass loss. The prototype is Lambda Boötis.

Lead star

A lead star is a low-metallicity star with an overabundance of lead and bismuth as compared to other products of the S-process.

Model photosphere

The photosphere denotes those solar or stellar surface layers from which optical radiation escapes. These stellar outer layers can be modeled by different computer programs. Often, calculated models are used, together with other programs, to calculate synthetic spectra for stars. For example, in varying the assumed abundance of a chemical element, and comparing the synthetic spectra to observed ones, the abundance of that element in that particular star can be determined.

As computers have evolved, the complexity of the models has deepened, becoming more realistic in including more physical data and excluding more of the simplifying assumptions. This evolution of the models has also made them applicable to different kinds of stars.

Photometric-standard star

Photometric-standard stars are a series of stars that have had their light output in various passbands of photometric system measured very carefully. Other objects can be observed using CCD cameras or photoelectric photometers connected to a telescope, and the flux, or amount of light received, can be compared to a photometric-standard star to determine the exact brightness, or stellar magnitude, of the object.A current set of photometric-standard stars for UBVRI photometry was published by Arlo U. Landolt in 1992 in the Astronomical Journal.

Photosphere

The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated. The term itself is derived from Ancient Greek roots, φῶς, φωτός/phos, photos meaning "light" and σφαῖρα/sphaira meaning "sphere", in reference to it being a spherical surface that is perceived to emit light. It extends into a star's surface until the plasma becomes opaque, equivalent to an optical depth of approximately 2/3, or equivalently, a depth from which 50% of light will escape without being scattered.

In other words, a photosphere is the deepest region of a luminous object, usually a star, that is transparent to photons of certain wavelengths.

Q star

A Q-Star, also known as a grey hole, is a hypothetical type of a compact, heavy neutron star with an exotic state of matter. The Q stands for a conserved particle number. A Q-Star may be mistaken for a stellar black hole.

Starfield (astronomy)

A starfield refers to a set of stars visible in an arbitrarily-sized field of view, usually in the context of some region of interest within the celestial sphere. For example: the starfield surrounding the stars Betelgeuse and Rigel could be defined as encompassing some or all of the Orion constellation.

Stellar atmosphere

The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone.

Stellar mass

Stellar mass is a phrase that is used by astronomers to describe the mass of a star. It is usually enumerated in terms of the Sun's mass as a proportion of a solar mass (M☉). Hence, the bright star Sirius has around 2.02 M☉. A star's mass will vary over its lifetime as additional mass becomes accreted, such as from a companion star, or mass is ejected with the stellar wind or pulsational behavior.

Stellar rotation

Stellar rotation is the angular motion of a star about its axis. The rate of rotation can be measured from the spectrum of the star, or by timing the movements of active features on the surface.

The rotation of a star produces an equatorial bulge due to centrifugal force. As stars are not solid bodies, they can also undergo differential rotation. Thus the equator of the star can rotate at a different angular velocity than the higher latitudes. These differences in the rate of rotation within a star may have a significant role in the generation of a stellar magnetic field.The magnetic field of a star interacts with the stellar wind. As the wind moves away from the star its rate of angular velocity slows. The magnetic field of the star interacts with the wind, which applies a drag to the stellar rotation. As a result, angular momentum is transferred from the star to the wind, and over time this gradually slows the star's rate of rotation.

Yellow giant

A yellow giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.5–11 solar masses (M)) in a late phase of its stellar evolution. The outer atmosphere is inflated and tenuous, making the radius large and the surface temperature as low as 5,200-7500 K. The appearance of the yellow giant is from white to yellow, including the spectral types F and G. About 10.6 percent of all giant stars are yellow giants.

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