Originally built with Microsoft's own EdgeHTML and Chakra engines, Edge is currently being rebuilt as a Chromium-based browser, using the Blink and V8 engines, based upon WebKit. As part of this big change, Microsoft intends to add support for Windows 7, 8, 8.1, and macOS.
As of April 2019, according to StatCounter, Edge still has lower market share than Internet Explorer and even with the market share of the both combined would only manage 3rd place after Firefox.
Microsoft Edge on Windows 10, using the light theme (as opposed to the dark theme)
|Initial release||July 29, 2015|
(1903) 44.18219.1000 with EdgeHTML 18.18219
|Operating system||iOS, Android, Xbox One System Software, Windows 10|
|Included with||Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile, Xbox One System Software|
|License||Proprietary software; a component of Windows 10|
Microsoft Edge is the default web browser on Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile, and Xbox One consoles, replacing Internet Explorer 11 and Internet Explorer Mobile. As its development and release is dependent on the model of Windows as a service, it is not included in Windows 10 Enterprise Long-term servicing branch (LTSB) builds.
Microsoft initially announced that Edge would support the legacy Trident (MSHTML) layout engine for backwards compatibility, but later said that, due to "strong feedback", Edge would use a new engine, while Internet Explorer would continue to provide the legacy engine.
The browser includes an integrated Adobe Flash Player (with an internal whitelist allowing Flash applets on Facebook websites to load automatically, bypassing all other security controls requiring user activation) and a PDF reader. It also supports asm.js.
Edge does not support legacy technologies such as ActiveX and Browser Helper Objects, and instead uses an extension system. Internet Explorer 11 remains available alongside Edge on Windows 10 for compatibility; it remains nearly identical to the Windows 8.1 version and does not use the Edge engine as was previously announced.
Edge integrates with Microsoft's online platforms in order to provide voice control, search functionality, and dynamic information related to searches within the address bar. Users can make annotations to web pages that can be stored to and shared with OneDrive, but can't save HTML pages to their own computers. It also integrates with the "Reading List" function and provides a "Reading Mode" that strips unnecessary formatting from pages to improve their legibility.
Preliminary support for browser extensions was added in March 2016, with build 14291; three extensions were initially supported. Microsoft indicated that the delay in allowing extensions and the small number was due to security concerns.
EdgeHTML is a proprietary layout engine developed for Edge. It is a fork of Trident that has removed all legacy code of older versions of Internet Explorer and rewritten the majority of its source code to support web standards and interoperability with other modern browsers. EdgeHTML is written in C++. The rendering engine was first released as an experimental option in Internet Explorer 11 as part of the Windows 10 Preview 9926 build.
EdgeHTML is meant to be fully compatible with the WebKit layout engine used by Safari, Chrome and other browsers. Microsoft has stated that "any Edge–WebKit differences are bugs that we’re interested in fixing."
In December 2014, writing for ZDNet, technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was developing a new web browser codenamed "Spartan" for Windows 10. She said that "Spartan" would be treated as a new product separate from Internet Explorer, with Internet Explorer 11 retained alongside it for compatibility.
In early January 2015 The Verge obtained further details surrounding "Spartan" from sources close to Microsoft, including reports that it would replace Internet Explorer on both the desktop and mobile versions of Windows 10. Microsoft officially unveiled "Spartan" during a Windows 10-focused keynote on January 21, 2015. It was described as a separate product from Internet Explorer; its final name was not announced.
"Spartan" was first made publicly available as the default browser of Windows 10 Technical Preview build 10049, released on March 30, 2015. The new engine used by "Spartan" was available in Windows 10 builds as part of Internet Explorer 11; Microsoft later announced that Internet Explorer would be deprecated on Windows 10, and would not use the "Spartan" engine.
On April 29, 2015, during the Build Conference keynote, it was announced that "Spartan" would officially be known as Microsoft Edge. The browser's logo and branding was designed to maintain continuity with the branding of Internet Explorer. The Project "Spartan" branding was used in versions released after Build 2015. On June 25, Microsoft released version 19.10149 for Windows 10 Mobile which included the new brand. On June 28, version 20.10158 followed for the desktop versions, also including the updated branding. On July 15, Microsoft released version 20.10240 as the final release to Insiders. The same version was rolled out to consumers on July 29.
On August 12, Microsoft started the preview program for the next version of Microsoft Edge. They released version 20.10512 to Mobile-users. 6 days later followed by version 20.10525 for desktop users. The preview received multiple updates. On November 5, 2015, Microsoft released version 25.10586 as the final release for Edge's second public release for desktop users. On November 12, the update was rolled out to both desktop users and Xbox One users as part of the New Xbox Experience Update. On November 18, the update was to Windows 10 Mobile. Finally, on November 19, the update was also made available as part of the Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 4.
In November 2017, Microsoft released ports of Edge for Android and iOS. The apps feature integration and synchronization with the desktop version on Windows 10 PCs. Due to platform restrictions and other factors, these ports do not use the same layout engine as the desktop version, and instead use OS-native Webkit-based engines.
In April 2018, Edge added tab audio muting. In June 2018, support for the Web Authentication specifications were added to Windows Insider builds, with support for Windows Hello and external security tokens.
On December 6, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to base Edge on the Chromium source code, using the same rendering engine as Google Chrome but with enhancements developed by Microsoft. It was also announced that there will be versions of Edge available for Windows 7, Windows 8, and macOS, and that all versions will be updated on a more frequent basis.
On April 8, 2019, the first Chromium-based builds of Edge for Windows were released to the public.
On May 20, 2019, the first Chromium-based preview builds of Edge for macOS were released to the public, marking the first time in 13 years that a Microsoft browser was available on the Mac platform. The last time a Microsoft browser was available on the Mac platform was Microsoft Internet Explorer for the Mac, which was withdrawn in January, 2006.
|Legend:||Old version, no support||Older version, still supported||Current stable version||Latest preview version||Future release|
|Legend:||Old version, no support||Older version, still supported||Current stable version||Latest preview version||Future release|
Later benchmarks conducted with the version included in 10122 showed significant performance improvement compared to both IE11 and Edge back in 10049. According to Microsoft's benchmark result, this iteration of Edge performed better than both Chrome and Firefox in Google's Octane 2.0 and Apple's Jetstream benchmark.
In August 2015, Microsoft released Windows 10 Build 10532 to insiders, which included Edge 21.10532.0. This beta version scored 445 out of 555 points on the HTML5test.
With the release of Windows 10 Build 14390 to insiders in July 2016, the HTML5test score of the browser's development version was 460 out of 555 points. Chrome 51 scored 497, Firefox 47 scored 456, and Safari 9.1 scored 370.
In June 2016, Microsoft published benchmark results to prove superior power efficiency of Edge in comparison to all other major web browsers. Opera questioned the accuracy and provided their own test results where Opera came out on top. Independent testing by PC World confirmed Microsoft's results. However, tests conducted by Linus Sebastian contradicted Microsoft's results, instead showing that Chrome has the best battery performance.
In an August 2015 review of Windows 10 by Dan Grabham of TechRadar, Microsoft Edge was praised for its performance, despite not being in a feature-complete state at launch. Andrew Cunningham of Ars Technica praised the browser for being "tremendously promising", and "a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was", but criticized it for its lack of functionality on launch. Thom Holwerda of OSNews criticized Edge in August 2015 for its hidden URL bar, lack of user friendliness, poor design and a tab system that is "so utterly broken it should never have shipped in a final release". He described the browser's implemented features as "some sort of cosmic joke", saying that "infuriating doesn't even begin to describe it".
Data from August 2015, a few weeks after release, showed that user uptake of Edge was low, with only 2% of overall computer users using the new browser. Among Windows 10 users usage peaked at 20% and then dropped to 14% through August 2015.
In October 2015 a security researcher published a report outlining a bug in Edge's "InPrivate" mode, causing data related to visited sites to still be cached in the user's profile directory, theoretically making it possible for others to determine sites visited. The bug gained mainstream attention in early February 2016, and was fixed with a cumulative update on February 9.
Microsoft's planned switch to Chromium as Edge's engine has faced mixed reception. The move will increase consistency of web platform compatibility between major browsers, and for this reason, the move has attracted criticism, as it reduces diversity in the overall web browser market, and increases the influence of Google (developer of the Blink layout engine) on the overall browser market by Microsoft ceding its independently-developed browser engine.
shows that Edge peaked at approximately 20% usage among Windows 10 users at the end of July, before dropping down to 14% by the end of August
The Animated Portable Network Graphics (APNG) file format is an extension to the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) specification. It allows for animated PNG files that work similarly to animated GIF files, while supporting 24-bit images and 8-bit transparency not available for GIFs. It also retains backward compatibility with non-animated PNG files.
The first frame of an APNG file is stored as a normal PNG stream, so most standard PNG decoders are able to display the first frame of an APNG file. The frame speed data and extra animation frames are stored in extra chunks (as provided for by the original PNG specification). APNG competes with Multiple-image Network Graphics (MNG), a comprehensive format for bitmapped animations created by the same team as PNG. APNG's advantage is the smaller library size and compatibility with older PNG implementations.
As of 22 June 2017, the only well-known web browsers not to support APNG are Internet Explorer (discontinued) and Microsoft Edge.
In a comparison made between GIF, APNG and WEBP it was shown that APNG kept lower file size while keeping at least equal quality.ActiveX
ActiveX is a software framework created by Microsoft that adapts its earlier Component Object Model (COM) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technologies for content downloaded from a network, particularly from the World Wide Web. Microsoft introduced ActiveX in 1996. In principle, ActiveX is not dependent on Microsoft Windows operating systems, but in practice, most ActiveX controls only run on Windows. Most also require the client to be running on an x86-based computer because ActiveX controls contain compiled code.ActiveX is still supported as of Windows 10 through Internet Explorer 11, while ActiveX is not supported in their default web browser Microsoft Edge (which has a different, incompatible extension system) and will be compatible with the new Chromium-based Microsoft Edge using IE Mode.AdBlock
AdBlock is a content filtering and ad blocking browser extension for the Google Chrome, Apple Safari (desktop and mobile) Firefox, Opera, and Microsoft Edge web browsers. AdBlock allows users to prevent page elements, such as advertisements, from being displayed. It is free to download and use, and it includes optional donations to the developers. The AdBlock extension was created on December 8, 2009, which is the day that support for extensions was added to Google Chrome.AdBlock's efforts are not related to Adblock Plus. The developer of AdBlock, Michael Gundlach, claims to have been inspired by the Adblock Plus extension for Firefox, which is itself based on the original Adblock that ceased development in 2004.Since 2016 AdBlock has been based on the Adblock Plus source code.Address bar
In a web browser, the address bar (also location bar or URL bar) is a graphical control element that shows the current URL. The user can type a URL into the bar to navigate to a chosen website. In a file browser, it serves the same purpose of navigation, but through the file-system hierarchy. Many address bars offer features like autocomplete and a list of suggestions while the address is being typed in. This auto-completion feature bases its suggestions on the browser's history. Some browsers have keyboard shortcuts to auto-complete an address. These are generally configured by the user on a case-by-case basis. Address bars have been a feature of web browsers since NCSA Mosaic.Browser engine
A browser engine is a core software component of every major web browser. The primary job of a browser engine is to transform HTML documents and other resources of a web page into an interactive visual representation on a user's device.Chakra (JScript engine)
Chakra is a JScript engine developed by Microsoft for its 32-bit version of the Internet Explorer 9 (IE9) web browser.
EdgeHTML is a discontinued proprietary browser engine from Microsoft used in the Edge web browser. In December 2018, Microsoft announced that Edge was being rebuilt as a Chromium-based browser, which means using the Blink engine and terminating EdgeHTML. This ended a 21-year legacy of Microsoft developing its own engines.Features new to Windows 10
Windows 10 introduced a number of new elements, including the option to use a touch-optimized interface (known as tablet mode) or a traditional desktop interface similar to that of Windows 7 along with live tiles from Windows 8. However, unlike previous versions of Windows, where most, if not all, major features for that release were completed by its RTM, Windows 10 continues to receive major features and changes beyond its initial release to market. Microsoft describes Windows 10 as an 'operating system as a service' that will receive ongoing updates to its features and functionality. This is supplemented with the ability for enterprise environments to receive non-critical updates at a slower pace, and to use long-term support milestones that will only receive critical updates, such as security patches, over their ten-year lifespan of support. Terry Myerson, executive vice president of Microsoft's Windows and Devices Group, argued that the goal of this model was to reduce fragmentation across the Windows platform.HTML5 audio
HTML5 Audio is a subject of the HTML5 specification, incorporating audio input, playback, and synthesis, as well as speech to text, in the browser.Internet Explorer 11
The use of JS engines is not limited to browsers. For example, the Chrome V8 engine is a core component of the popular Node.js runtime system.List of web browsers
The following is a list of web browsers that are notable.Microsoft Pay
Microsoft Pay (previously Microsoft Wallet) is a mobile payment and digital wallet service by Microsoft that lets users make payments and store loyalty cards on certain devices. Making payments is currently supported on the Microsoft Edge browser. Microsoft Pay does not require Microsoft Pay-specific contactless payment terminals, and can work with existing contactless terminals if used on mobile devices. Similar to Android Pay, Microsoft Pay utilizes Host card emulation (HCE) for making in-store payments. The service's original name was also originally used for a credit card manager feature included in Windows 98 and Internet Explorer 5, which required support from each web site for it to work.Microsoft Translator
Microsoft Translator is a multilingual machine translation cloud service provided by Microsoft. Microsoft Translator is integrated across multiple consumer, developer, and enterprise products; including Bing, Microsoft Office, SharePoint, Microsoft Edge, Microsoft Lync, Yammer, Skype Translator, Visual Studio, Internet Explorer, and Microsoft Translator apps for Windows, Windows Phone, iPhone and Apple Watch, and Android phone and Android Wear.
Microsoft Translator also offers text and speech translation through cloud services for businesses. Service for text translation via the Translator Text API ranges from a free tier supporting two million characters per month to paid tiers supporting billions of characters per month. Speech translation via Microsoft Speech services is offered based on time of the audio stream.
The service supports 65 language systems as of May 2019. It also supports 11 speech translation systems that currently power the Microsoft Translator live conversation feature, Skype Translator, and Skype for Windows Desktop, and the Microsoft Translator Apps for iOS and Android.Subresource Integrity
Subresource Integrity or SRI is a W3C recommendation to provide a method to protect website delivery. Specifically, it validates assets served by a third party, such as a content delivery network (CDN). This ensures these assets have not been compromised for hostile purposes.
To use SRI, a website author wishing to include a resource from a third party can specify a cryptographic hash of the resource in addition to the location of the resource. Browsers fetching the resource can then compare the hash provided by the website author with the hash computed from the resource. If the hashes don't match, the resource is discarded.As of May 2018, SRI is supported by Microsoft Edge, Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome, and Opera.Sample link element with integrity attribute used by SRI:
Trident (also known as MSHTML) is a proprietary browser engine for the Microsoft Windows version of Internet Explorer, developed by Microsoft.
It was first introduced with the release of Internet Explorer version 4.0 in October 1997; it has been steadily upgraded and remains in use today. For versions 7 and 8 of Internet Explorer, Microsoft made significant changes to the Trident layout engine to improve compliance with web standards and add support for new technologies.In the Microsoft Edge browser, Trident is superseded by its fork, EdgeHTML.WebGL
WebGL is designed and maintained by the non-profit Khronos Group.Windows 10 version history
Windows 10 is an operating system developed by Microsoft. Microsoft described Windows 10 as an "operating system as a service" that would receive ongoing updates to its features and functionality, augmented with the ability for enterprise environments to receive non-critical updates at a slower pace, or use long-term support milestones that will only receive critical updates, such as security patches, over their five-year lifespan of mainstream support. Terry Myerson, executive vice president of Microsoft's Windows and Devices Group, said that the goal of this model was to reduce fragmentation across the Windows platform.
|Version||EdgeHTML version||Release date(s)||Highlights|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.10.10049||12.10049||Desktop: March 30, 2015||
Initial release on Windows 10
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.11.10051||12.10051||Mobile: April 10, 2015||
Initial release on Windows 10 Mobile; adds the following:
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.11.10052||12.10052||Mobile: April 21, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.11.10061||12.10061||Desktop: April 22, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.11.10074||12.10074||Desktop: April 29, 2015
Server: May 4, 2015
|Initial release on Windows Server 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0.11.10080||12.10080||Mobile: May 14, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 13.10122||12.10122||Desktop: May 20, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 15.10130||12.10130||Desktop: May 29, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 16.10136||12.10136||Mobile: June 16, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 19.10149||12.10149||Mobile: June 25, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 20.10158||12.10158||Desktop: June 29, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 20.10159||12.10159||Desktop: June 30, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 20.10162||12.10162||Desktop: July 2, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 20.10166||12.10166||Desktop: July 9, 2015
Mobile: July 10, 2015
|Older version, yet still supported: 20.10240||12.10240||Desktop: July 15, 2015||
First public release
|Old version, no longer supported: 20.10525||12.10525||Desktop: August 18, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 20.10532||12.10532||Desktop: August 27, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 20.10536||12.10536||Mobile: September 15, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 21.10547||13.10547||Desktop: September 18, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 21.10549||13.10549||Mobile: October 14, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 23.10565||13.10565||Desktop: October 12, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 25.10572||13.10572||Mobile: October 20, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 25.10576||13.10576||Desktop: October 29, 2015||
|Old version, no longer supported: 25.10581||13.10581||Mobile: October 29, 2015|
|Older version, yet still supported: 25.10586||13.10586||Desktop: November 5, 2015
Xbox: November 12, 2015
Mobile: November 18, 2015
Server: November 19, 2015
Second public release and initial release on Xbox One
|Old version, no longer supported: 25.11082||13.11082||Desktop: December 16, 2015||
Initial release on Windows Mixed Reality
|Old version, no longer supported: 27.11099||13.11099||Desktop: January 13, 2016||
|Old version, no longer supported: 28.11102||13.11102||Desktop: January 21, 2016||
|Old version, no longer supported: 28.14251||13.14251||Desktop: January 27, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 28.14257||13.14257||Desktop: February 3, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 31.14267||14.14267||Desktop: February 18, 2016
Mobile: February 19, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 31.14271||14.14271||Desktop: February 24, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 31.14279||14.14279||Desktop: March 4, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 31.14283||14.14283||Mobile: March 10, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 34.14291||14.14291||Desktop: March 17, 2016
Mobile: March 17, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 34.14295||14.14295||Desktop: March 25, 2016
Mobile: March 25, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 34.14300||14.14300||Server: April 27, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 37.14316||14.14316||Desktop: April 6, 2016||
|Old version, no longer supported: 37.14322||14.14322||Mobile: April 14, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 37.14327||14.14327||Mobile: April 20, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 37.14328||14.14328||Desktop: April 22, 2016
Mobile: April 22, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 37.14332||14.14332||Desktop: April 26, 2016|
Mobile: April 26, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 38.14342||14.14342||Desktop: May 10, 2016||
|Old version, no longer supported: 38.14352||14.14352||Desktop: May 31, 2016|
|Older version, yet still supported: 38.14393||14.14393||Desktop: August 2, 2016
Mobile: August 16, 2016
Third public release
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14901||14.14901||Desktop: August 11, 2016||
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14905||14.14905||Desktop: August 17, 2016|
Mobile: August 17, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14915||14.14915||Desktop: August 31, 2016
Mobile: August 31, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14926||14.14926||Desktop: September 14, 2016
Mobile: September 14, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14931||14.14931||Desktop: September 21, 2016||
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14936||14.14936||Desktop: September 28, 2016|
Mobile: September 28, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14942||15.14942||Desktop: October 7, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14946||15.14946||Desktop: October 13, 2016
Mobile: October 13, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14951||15.14951||Desktop: October 19, 2016|
Mobile: October 19, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14955||15.14955||Desktop: October 25, 2016|
Mobile: October 25, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14959||15.14959||Desktop: November 3, 2016|
Mobile: November 3, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14965||15.14965||Desktop: November 9, 2016|
Mobile: November 9, 2016
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14971||15.14971||Desktop: November 17, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14977||15.14977||Mobile: December 1, 2016|
|Old version, no longer supported: 39.14986||15.14986||Desktop: December 14, 2016||
|Older version, yet still supported: 40.15063||15.15063||Desktop: April 11, 2017||
Fourth public release
|Older version, yet still supported: 41.16299.15||16.16299||Desktop: September 26, 2017||
|Older version, yet still supported: 42.17134||17.17134||Desktop: April 30, 2018||
|Older version, yet still supported: 44.17763||18.17763||Desktop: November 13, 2018|
|Current stable version: 44.18362.1.0||18.18362||Desktop: May 21, 2019|
|Version||Chromium version||Release date(s)||Highlights|
|Future release: To be announced||To be announced||Desktop: Fall 2019||
Initial release of the Chromium-based version
|Spun off to|