# Microcrystalline cellulose

Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is a term for refined wood pulp and is used as a texturizer, an anti-caking agent, a fat substitute, an emulsifier, an extender, and a bulking agent in food production.[1] The most common form is used in vitamin supplements or tablets. It is also used in plaque assays for counting viruses, as an alternative to carboxymethylcellulose.[2]

## Structure

A naturally occurring polymer, it is composed of glucose units connected by a 1-4 beta glycosidic bond. These linear cellulose chains are bundled together as microfibril spiralled together in the walls of plant cell.

Each microfibril exhibits a high degree of three-dimensional internal bonding resulting in a crystalline structure that is insoluble in water and resistant to reagents. There are, however, relatively weak segments of the microfibril with weaker internal bonding. These are called amorphous regions; some argue that they are more accurately called dislocations, because of the single-phase structure of microfibrils. The crystalline region is isolated to produce microcrystalline cellulose.

## Uses

Approved within the European Union as a thickener, stabilizer or emulsifiers microcrystalline cellulose was granted the E number E460(i) with basic cellulose given the number E460.[3]

MCC has use in cosmetics as an abrasive, absorbent, anti-caking agent, aqueous viscosity increasing agent, binder, bulking agent, emulsion stabilizer, slip modifier, and texturizer,[4][5] which can be found in various hair and skin care products as well as makeup.

The MCC is a valuable additive in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. Different properties of MCC are measured to qualify its suitability to such utilization, namely particle size, density, compressibility index, angle of repose, powder porosity, hydration swelling capacity, moisture sorption capacity, moisture content, crystallinity index, crystallite size, and mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength.

## Synthesis

MCC is pure partially depolymerized cellulose synthesized from α-cellulose precursor.[6] The MCC can be synthesized by different processes such as reactive extrusion, enzyme mediated, steam explosion and acid hydrolysis. The later process can be done using mineral acids such as H2SO4, HCl and HBr as well as ionic liquids. The role of these reagents is to destroy the amorphous regions leaving the crystalline domains.

The degree of polymerization is typically less than 400. The MCC particles with size lower than 5 µm must not be more than 10%.

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are also important to predict the thermal behavior of the MCC upon heat stresses.

## Allergic reactions

At least one case of an allergic reaction to microcrystalline cellulose has been documented.[7]

## References

1. ^ "Agricultural Marketing Service". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
2. ^ Matrosovich, Mikhail; Tatyana Matrosovich; Wolfgang Garten; Hans-Dieter Klenk (2006). "New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays". Virology Journal. BioMed Central. 3: 63. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-3-63. PMC 1564390. PMID 16945126.
3. ^ "FOODS". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
4. ^ Decorative skin and hair cosmetics containing microcrystalline cellulose as enhancing agent, 2004-01-06, retrieved 2018-05-21
5. ^ "Microcrystalline Cellulose | Cosmetics Info". www.cosmeticsinfo.org. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
6. ^ "Hindi, S. S. Z. 2016. Microcrystalline cellulose: Its specifications and pharmaceutical processing. Biocrystals Journal. 1 (1): 26-38". BioCrystals. Retrieved 2016-04-22.
7. ^ "Letter from Allergy Clinic of Tulsa". Retrieved 2012-02-03.
Altovis

Altovis is a herbal supplement. Its main active ingredients are caffeine and ginseng.Altovis is produced and sold by Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals (best known for Enzyte), initially via subsidiary Wagner Nutraceuticals.When originally introduced, the active ingredients in Altovis were green tea leaf extract (provides caffeine), cordyceps extract (mycelium), Eleutherococcus (Siberian ginseng), vinpocetine (from vocanga tree seeds), and octacosanol. It also contains the following other ingredients: Dicalcium phosphate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, stearic acid, silica, magnesium stearate, and film coat (hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, titanium dioxide, FD&C yellow #6 lake, riboflavin, FD&C blue #2 lake).As of 2008, the active ingredients—green tea leaf extract (provides 100 mg caffeine and 350 mg polyphenols), Eleuthero root 12:1 extract (equivalent to 2000 mg eleuthero root), Korean ginseng root 5:1 extract (Panax ginseng), and Octacosanol—have been the same since at least late 2006. The new formula has the same other ingredients, except silica is now listed after magnesium stearate.

Baconnaise

Baconnaise is a bacon-flavor mayonnaise-based product that is ovo vegetarian and kosher certified. It was created by Justin Esch and Dave Lefkow, founders of J&D's Foods, in November 2008, and sold 40,000 jars within six months. It was test-marketed in Grand Forks, North Dakota, to determine consumer interest. After being featured on both The Daily Show and The Oprah Winfrey Show, sales of Baconnaise increased significantly, with more than a million jars sold.

Binder (material)

A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.

In a more narrow sense, binders are liquid or dough-like substances that harden by a chemical or physical process and bind fibres, filler powder and other particles added into it. Examples include glue, adhesive and thickening.

Examples of mechanical binders are bond stones in masonry and tie beams in timber framing.

Cellulose

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton.Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and potentially aiding in defecation.

Delafloxacin

Delafloxacin (trade name Baxdela) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

Dividing territories

Dividing territories (also market division) is an agreement by two companies to stay out of each other's way and reduce competition in the agreed-upon territories. The process known as geographic market allocation is one of several anti-competitive practices outlawed under United States antitrust laws. The term is generally understood to include dividing customers as well.

For example, in 1984, FMC Corp. and Asahi Chemical agreed to divide territories for the sale of microcrystalline cellulose, and later FMC attempted to eliminate all vestiges of competition by inviting smaller rivals also to collude.

Dynamic vapor sorption

Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is a gravimetric technique that measures how quickly and how much of a solvent is absorbed by a sample: such as a dry powder absorbing water. It does this by varying the vapor concentration surrounding the sample and measuring the change in mass which this produces. Water vapor is most commonly used, but it is also possible to use a wide range of organic solvents.

Dr Daryl Williams, founder of Surface Measurement Systems Ltd, invented Dynamic Vapor Sorption in 1991 and the first instrument was delivered to Pfizer UK in 1992. DVS was originally developed to replace the time and labor-intensive desiccators and saturated salt solutions to measure water vapor sorption isotherms.

ExtenZe

Extenze is an herbal nutritional supplement claiming to promote "natural male enhancement", a euphemism for penis enlargement. Additionally, television commercials and advertisements claim an "improved" or "arousing" sexual experience. Extenze paid \$6 million to settle a class-action false advertising lawsuit in 2010.Websites selling the product make several more detailed claims, including acquiring a "larger penis". Their enlarging effects are described as "temporary" while under the use of Extenze. Early infomercials featured a studio audience and porn star Ron Jeremy. Former Dallas Cowboys and Miami Hurricanes head coach Jimmy Johnson has also appeared in an ExtenZe commercial. ExtenZe makes pills and 2-ounce shots that are sold in over 75,000 retail stores.

Feruloyl esterase

In enzymology, a feruloyl esterase (EC 3.1.1.73) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

feruloyl-polysaccharide + H2O ${\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }$ ferulate + polysaccharide

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are feruloyl-polysaccharide and H2O, whereas its two products are ferulate and polysaccharide.

This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is feruloyl esterase. Other names in common use include ferulic acid esterase (FAE), hydroxycinnamoyl esterase, hemicellulase accessory enzyme, cinnamoyl ester hydrolase (cinnAE).

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives

The Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives was an international report of the World Health Organization. The Expert Committee commissioned to evaluate the safety for human consumption of selected food additives and contaminants and to establish acceptable daily intakes for these substanc

Levoglucosenone

Levoglucosenone is a bridged, unsaturated heterocyclic ketone formed from levoglucosan by loss of two molecules of water. It is the major component produced during the acid-catalysed pyrolysis of cellulose, D-glucose, and levoglucosan.

Malvern Instruments

Malvern Instruments is a Spectris plc company. Founded in the late 1960s, the company is a manufacturer and supplier of laboratory analytical instruments,

was influential in the development of the Malvern Correlator,

and remains notable for its work in the advancement of particle sizing technology. The company produces technology for materials analysis; principally instruments designed to measure the size, shape and charge of particles. Additional areas of development now include equipment for rheology measurements,chemical imaging

and chromatography.

Microcrystalline

A microcrystalline material is a crystallized substance or rock that contains small crystals visible only through microscopic examination.

Mylanta

Mylanta is a brand of over-the-counter drugs for digestive problems, manufactured by Infirst Healthcare USA under license from McNeil Consumer Healthcare, a division of Johnson & Johnson (formerly Pfizer since 2007 following its acquisition). It includes several different products intended to treat heartburn and bloating.

Orally disintegrating tablet

An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. ODTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. The ODT serves as an alternative dosage form for patients who experience dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) or for where compliance is a known issue and therefore an easier dosage form to take ensures that medication is taken. Common among all age groups, dysphagia is observed in about 35% of the general population, as well as up to 60% of the elderly institutionalized population and 18-22% of all patients in long-term care facilities

ODTs also have a faster onset of effects than tablets or capsules, and have the convenience of a tablet that can be taken without water. During the last decade, ODTs have become available in a variety of therapeutic markets, both OTC and by prescription.

Oxycodone/aspirin

Oxycodone/aspirin (trade name Percodan) is a combination drug marketed by Endo Pharmaceuticals. It is a tablet containing a mixture of 325 mg (5 grains) of aspirin and 4.8355 mg of oxycodone HCl (equivalent to 4.3346 mg of oxycodone as the free base); it is an opioid/non-opioid combination used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. The safety of the combination during pregnancy has not been established, although aspirin is generally contraindicated during pregnancy, and the drug has been placed in pregnancy category D. Inactive ingredients include D&C Yellow 10, FD&C Yellow 6, microcrystalline cellulose, and corn starch. Percodan was first marketed by DuPont Pharmaceuticals and prescribed in the United States in 1950. Once a widely prescribed painkiller, it has largely been replaced by alternative oxycodone compounds containing paracetamol (acetaminophen) instead of aspirin, such as Percocet.

Perampanel

Perampanel (sold under the trade name Fycompa) is an antiepileptic drug developed by Eisai Co. that is used in addition to other drugs to treat partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures for people older than 12 years. It was first approved in 2012 and as of 2016 its optimal role in the treatment of epilepsy relative to other drugs was not clear. It was the first antiepileptic drug in the class of selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors.The drug label has a black box warning that the drug cause may cause serious psychiatric and behavioral changes; it may cause homicidal or suicidal thoughts. Other side effects have included dizziness, somnolence, vertigo, aggression, anger, loss of coordination, blurred vision, irritability, and slurred speech. Perampanel reduced the effectiveness of levonorgestrel oral contraceptives by about 40%. Women who may get pregnant should not take it as studies in animals show it may harm a fetus. Perampanel is liable to be abused; very high doses produced euphoria responses similar to ketamine. It is designated as a Schedule III controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration.As of August 2016 perampanel had been studied and development discontinued in migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, and Parkinson's disease.

Trichoderma reesei

Trichoderma reesei is a mesophilic and filamentous fungus. It is an anamorph of the fungus Hypocrea jecorina.

T. reesei can secrete large amounts of cellulolytic enzymes (cellulases and hemicellulases). Microbial cellulases have industrial application in the conversion of cellulose, a major component of plant biomass, into glucose.T. reesei isolate QM6a was originally isolated from the Solomon Islands during World War II because of its degradation of canvas and garments of the US army. All strains currently used in biotechnology and basic research were derived from this isolate.Recent advances in the biochemistry of cellulase enzymology, the mechanism of cellulose hydrolysis (cellulolysis), strain improvement, molecular cloning and process engineering are bringing T. reesei cellulases closer to being a commercially viable route to cellulose hydrolysis. Several industrially useful strains have been developed and characterised, e.g. Rut-C30, RL-P37 and MCG-80. The genome was released in 2008. T. reesei has a mating type-dependent characterised sexual cycle.

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