Michelin

Michelin (/ˈmɪʃəlɪn, -læ̃/; French: [miʃlɛ̃]; full name: SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes région of France. It is the second largest tyre manufacturer in the world after Bridgestone and larger than both Goodyear and Continental.[2] In addition to the Michelin brand, it also owns the BFGoodrich, Kleber, Tigar, Riken, Kormoran and Uniroyal (in North America) tyre brands. Michelin is also notable for its Red and Green travel guides, its roadmaps, the Michelin stars that the Red Guide awards to restaurants for their cooking, and for its company mascot Bibendum, colloquially known as the Michelin Man.

Michelin's numerous inventions include the removable tyre, the pneurail (a tyre for Rubber-tyred metros) and the radial tyre.

Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin SCA
Société en commandite par actions
Traded asEuronextML
CAC 40 Component
IndustryAuto and truck parts
Founded28 May 1889
FoundersÉdouard Michelin
André Michelin
Headquarters,
France
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Jean-Dominique Senard
(General partner and CEO)

Michel Rollier
(chairman of the supervisory board)
ProductsTyres, travel assistance services
RevenueIncrease €22,03 billion (2018)
Increase €2,78 billion (2018)
Decrease €1,68 billion (2018)
Number of employees
112,800 (2017)[1]
Websitemichelin.com

Tyres and wheels

Michelin manufactures tyres for space shuttles,[3] aircraft, automobiles, heavy equipment, motorcycles, and bicycles. In 2012, the Group produced 166 million tyres at 69 facilities located in 18 countries.[4]

History

Michelin Poster 1898
An 1898 poster by "O'Galop" of Bibendum, the Michelin Man
Michelin, advertising, 1922
Michelin, advertising, Australia, 1922
Demonstration of the Michelin so called car-train with rubber tyres in the Netherlands in 1932
Agincourt Square
c. 1965–1970, view of old fashioned Michelin omnibus and two michelin men with bystanders behind Charles Rolls statue, Monmouth, Wales.
Michelin Lithion 2
Michelin Lithion 2, road bicycle tyre

In 1889 two brothers, Édouard Michelin and André Michelin, ran a rubber factory in Clermont-Ferrand, France. One day, a cyclist whose pneumatic tyre needed repair turned up at the factory. The tyre was glued to the rim, and it took over three hours to remove and repair the tyre, which then needed to be left overnight to dry. The next day, Édouard Michelin took the repaired bicycle into the factory yard to test. After only a few hundred metres, the tyre failed. Despite the setback, Édouard was enthusiastic about the pneumatic tyre, and he and his brother worked on creating their own version, one that did not need to be glued to the rim. Michelin was incorporated on 28 May 1889. In 1891 Michelin took out its first patent for a removable pneumatic tyre which was used by Charles Terront to win the world's first long distance cycle race, the 1891 Paris–Brest–Paris.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Michelin operated large rubber plantations in Vietnam. Conditions at these plantations led to the famous labour movement Phu Rieng Do.[5]

Indochine française (1913)
Michelin's domination of the supply of rubber in French Indochina led to the Phu Rieng Do strike in 1930. This resulted in France investigating Michelin's treatment of workers on its rubber plantations.[6]

In 1934, Michelin introduced a tyre which, if punctured, would run on a special foam lining, a design now known as a run-flat tyre (self-supporting type).

Michelin developed and patented a key innovation in tyre history, the 1946 radial tyre, and successfully exploited this technological innovation to become one of the worlds leading tyre manufacturers.[7] The radial was initially marketed as the "X" tyre.[8] It was developed with the front-wheel-drive Citroën Traction Avant and Citroën 2CV in mind. Michelin had bought the then-bankrupt Citroën in the 1930s. Because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this tyre quickly spread throughout Europe and Asia.[7] In the U.S., the outdated bias-ply tyre persisted, with market share of 87% in 1967.[7]

In 1966, Michelin partnered with Sears to produce radial tyres under the Allstate brand and was selling 1 million units annually by 1970.[9]

In 1968, Michelin opened its first North American sales office, and was able to grow that market for its products rapidly; by 1989 the company had 10% market share for OEM tyres purchased by American automobile makers.[10]

Also in 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of the radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelin's competitor technology.[9] In the U.S., the radial tyre now has a market share of 100%.[7]

In addition to the private label and replacement tyre market, Michelin scored an early OEM tyre win in North America, when it received the contract for the 1970 Continental Mark III, the first American car with radial tyres fitted as standard.[11]

In 1989, Michelin acquired the recently merged tyre and rubber manufacturing divisions of the American firms B.F. Goodrich Company (founded in 1870) and Uniroyal, Inc. (founded in 1892 as the United States Rubber Company) from Clayton, Dubilier & Rice.[10][12] Uniroyal Australia had already been bought by Bridgestone in 1980. This purchase included the Norwood, North Carolina manufacturing plant which supplied tyres to the U.S. Space Shuttle Program.[13][14]

In December 2018, Michelin acquired Camso, a manufacturer of off-the-road tyres, tracks, and accessories for power sports, agriculture, material handling and construction markets.[15]

Michelin also controls 90% of Taurus Tyre in Hungary, as well as Kormoran,[16] a Polish brand.

As of 1 September 2008, Michelin is again the world's largest tyre manufacturer after spending two years as number two behind Bridgestone.[17] Michelin produces tyres in France, Poland, Spain, Germany, the USA, the UK, Canada, Brazil, Thailand, Japan, India, Italy and several other countries. On 15 January 2010, Michelin[18] announced the closing of its Ota, Japan plant, which employs 380 workers and makes the Michelin X-Ice tyre. Production of the X-Ice will be moved to Europe, North America, and elsewhere in Asia.[19]

Michelin Entrance Waterville NS
Michelin tyre plant in Waterville, Nova Scotia

Motorsport

Michelin Porsche 997 GT3 Cup (Porsche Rennsport Reunion IV)
Michelin is the official tyre supplier of the Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars used in the Porsche Carrera Cup and the Porsche Supercup.

MotoGP

Michelin participated in MotoGP from 1972 to 2008. They introduced radial construction to MotoGP in 1984, and multi-compound tyres in 1994. They achieved 360 victories in 36 years, and from 1993 to 2006, the world championship had gone to a rider on Michelins.

In 2007, Casey Stoner on Bridgestone tyres won the world championship in dominating fashion, and Valentino Rossi and other top riders complained that Michelins were inferior. Rossi wanted Bridgestones for the 2008 season, but Bridgestone was reluctant to provide them; Dorna threatened to impose a control tyre on the series, after which Bridgestone relented.

In 2008, Michelin committed errors of judgment in allocating adequate tyres for some of the race weekends. Dani Pedrosa's team switched to Bridgestones in the midst of the season, a highly unusual move that caused friction between Honda Racing Corporation and their sponsor Repsol YPF. Other riders also expressed concerns and it seemed that Michelin might not have any factory riders for the 2009 season, leading to rumours that Michelin would withdraw from the series altogether. Dorna and the FIM announced that a control tyre would be imposed on MotoGP for the 2009 season and Michelin did not enter a bid, effectively ending its participation in the series at the end of 2008.[20][21][22][23] Michelin returned to MotoGP in 2016 as official tyre supplier after Bridgestone's withdrawal from the series at the end of 2015.

Formula One

Michelin first competed in the 1977 Formula One season, when Renault started development of their turbocharged F1 car. Michelin introduced radial tyre technology to Formula One and won the Formula One Drivers' Championship with Brabham and McLaren, before withdrawing at the end of 1984.

The company returned to Formula One in 2001, supplying the Williams, Jaguar, Benetton (renamed Renault in 2002), Prost and Minardi teams. Toyota joined F1 in 2002 with Michelin tyres, and McLaren also signed up with the company. Michelin tyres were initially uncompetitive but by the 2005 season were totally dominant. This was partly because the new regulations stated that tyres must last the whole race distance (and qualifying), and partly because only one top team (Ferrari) was running Bridgestones, and so had to do much of the development work. Michelin in contrast had much more testing and race data provided by the larger number of teams running their tyres.

Following the debacle of the 2005 United States Grand Prix where, because of safety concerns, Michelin would not allow the teams it supplies to race, Michelin's share price fell by 2.5% (though it recovered later the same day). On 28 June, Michelin announced that it would offer compensation to all race fans who had bought tickets for the Grand Prix. The company committed to refunding the price of all tickets for the race. Additionally, it announced that it would provide 20,000 complimentary tickets for the 2006 race to spectators who had attended the 2005 event.

Michelin has had a difficult relationship with the sport's governing body (the FIA) since around 2003, and this escalated to apparent disdain between the two parties during the 2005 season. The most high-profile disagreement was at the United States Grand Prix and the acrimony afterwards. Michelin criticised the FIA's intention to move to a single source (i.e. one brand) tyre from 2008, and threatened to withdraw from the sport. In a public rebuke FIA President Max Mosley wrote "There are simple arguments for a single tyre, and if [Michelin boss Édouard Michelin] is not aware of this, he shows an almost comical lack of knowledge of modern Formula One". Another bone of contention has been the reintroduction of tyre changes during pit-stops from 2006. Michelin criticised the move claiming "this event illustrates F1's problems of incoherent decision-making and lack of transparency".

In December 2005, and as a result of the difficult relationship with the sport's governing body, Michelin announced that it would not extend its involvement in Formula One beyond the 2006 season.[24] Bridgestone was then the sole supplier of tyres to Formula One until the end of the 2010 season, with Pirelli providing tyres for 2011.

The last race won on Michelin tyres in Formula One was the 2006 Japanese Grand Prix, Fernando Alonso benefitting after the Ferrari engine of Michael Schumacher failed during the race. This gave Michelin a second consecutive Constructors' Championship win, with the 2005 and 2006, after Bridgestone's seven-year winning streak, and brought to a total of four the number of titles for Michelin since this championship's inception back in the 1958 Formula One season; Michelin's other titles were in the 1979, and 1984 seasons.

Endurance racing

Michelin is involved in endurance races such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans and the American Le Mans Series. Involvement in Le Mans began with supplying tyres for the winner of the inaugural 1923 24 Hours of Le Mans as well as nine others of the 33 entrants.[25][26] In 2009 Michelin supplied tyres for 41 of the 55 cars entered in Le Mans.[27] In 2016 they provide the Audi, Porsche and Toyota LMP1 teams, as well as the AF Corse, BMW, Corvette, Ford Ganassi, Porsche and Risi teams in GTE-Pro / GTLM. Beginning in 2019, Michelin will replace Continental as the official tyre of the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship.[28] Along with supplying tyres for IMSA's top three series, the partnership includes naming rights for the Sports Car Challenge series and the North American Endurance Cup.

Michelin has also supplied tyres in the European Le Mans Series. The company is exclusive supplier of LMP3 since 2015.

Rallying

In the World Rally Championship, Michelin has been supplier of the Audi, Citroën, Ford, Lancia, Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Toyota and Volkswagen factory teams. Michelin Group brand BFGoodrich represented the brand in 2006 and 2007. The company was absent from 2008 to 2010, when Pirelli was signed as exclusive supplier, after which they returned to the series.

Recent developments

  • Pax System
  • Tweel
  • X One
  • Agri
  • BAZ Technology™. Michelin employs specific tread construction, that uses spiral-wrapped nylon strips. The strips are applied in tread area above steel belts in order to oppose centripetal force, in order to avoid tyre distortion at high speeds.
  • EverGrip™ Technology. This is a patented safety technology that allows combining tread grove design. This way, it does not just wear down, but evolves due to high traction tread compound, that makes drive safer on snowy and wet roads.
  • Zero Pressure Technology™ means reinforced sidewall that is designed to continue supporting the vehicle’s weight even when air pressure is lost. The technology allows to continue driving at speeds between 50-55 mph for some time[29].

Active Wheel

Active Wheel from Michelin includes in-wheel electric motors and a motorised suspension to free up space in the front or rear of the vehicle. This model also eliminates the need for other notorious space hogs like transmissions and exhaust systems. The wheels already have a vehicle ready to receive them, the Heuliez Will from Opel, and are also expected to come standard on the Venturi Volage sometime in 2012.[30]

Other products

Michelin map nr 4 of 1940
Michellin map nr 4 (South Belgium) of 1940

Tyre retailer

Tyre retail in Europe with Euromaster and in the US with its wholly owned subsidiary TCI Tyre Centers.[31]

Tour guides

Michelin has long published two guidebook series, the Red Guides to hotels and restaurants, and the Green Guides for tourism. It now publishes several additional guides, as well as digital map and guide products. The city maps in both the Red and the Green guides are of high quality, and are linked to the smaller-scale road maps.

Maps

Michelin publishes a variety of road maps, mostly of France but also of other European countries, countries in Africa, Thailand and the United States. They have recently embarked in e-commerce selling Michelin maps and guides directly to the public through, for example, their UK website.[32] The Michelin roadmaps were reproduced in England for the Allied invasion during World War II. The Germans also reproduced in 1940 the 1938 edition Michelin maps for the invasion.[33]

Online mapping

ViaMichelin is a wholly owned subsidiary of Michelin Group, and was started in 2001, to represent Michelin's digital mapping services. As of August 2008, ViaMichelin generates 400 million maps and routes per month on its main website.[34]

ViaMichelin provides mapping and travel solutions for internet, mobile and satellite navigation products with street level coverage of Europe, USA, Australia, and parts of Asia and South America.

Michelin Challenge Bibendum

The Michelin Challenge Bibendum is an annual major sustainable mobility event.

Michelin Truck and Bus

Citroen Mille Pattes 1972
The Michelin PLR, a 1972 mobile tyre evaluation machine, based on the Citroen DS Break

In 1952, 6 years after Michelin patented its Radial Casing, Michelin adapted the radial technology to truck tyres.[35]

Management

Michelin NA building
Michelin North America headquarters in Greenville, South Carolina, United States.

From 1999, the company was headed by CEO Édouard Michelin. On 26 May 2006, Édouard drowned while fishing near the island of Sein, off the coast of Brittany.[36] His death brought Michel Rollier, a 2nd cousin of Édouard Michelin, to the head of the company. Rollier was replaced in May 2012 by Jean-Dominique Senard.[37] In 2018, Jean-Dominique Senard announced he would not seek re-election at the shareholders' meeting in 2019. As a result, the shareholders elected Florent Menegaux to succeed Senard starting in 2019.

Executive committee

  • Terry Gettys, R&D
  • Jean-Michel Guillon, personnel and safety
  • Marc Henry, CFO
  • Serge Lafon, trucks
  • Laurent Noual, corporate development

See also

References

Michelin Maps Italy List Details of Michelin Maps Italy

  1. ^ "Annuel results 2016" (PDF). Michelin.com.
  2. ^ Cronin Fisk, Margaret; O'Reilly, Cary (10 September 2009). "Michelin Loses $12 Million Verdict in Suit Over Crash". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
  3. ^ "Tyres - Car Servicing - Repairs - Chapel Corner Tyres". www.chapelcornertyres.com.au.
  4. ^ Staff (6 May 2013). "Global 2000". Forbes (Paper). p. 17.
  5. ^ Solheim, B: The Vietnam War Era: A Personal Journey, page 11, Praeger Publishers, 2006. (See Google Books.)
  6. ^ Julian Jackson, BBC Radio Three, The Other Empire, episode 4/5 first broadcast 15 September 2011
  7. ^ a b c d "History". www.jags.org.
  8. ^ "Travaux de la commission des finances - Sénat". www.senat.fr.
  9. ^ a b Welch, Ted (4 May 2006). "A Tale of Two Tires". Bloomberg.
  10. ^ a b JONATHAN P. HICKS (23 September 1989). "Michelin to Acquire Uniroyal Goodrich". New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  11. ^ Aaron Severson (12 September 2009). "Mark of Success: The Lincoln Continental Mark Series". Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  12. ^ INSIDE, New York Times, Published: 23 September 1989
  13. ^ Karen Barber, "Goodrich Expects to Sell Norwood Plant to Michelin", The Charlotte Observer, 12 October 1988.
  14. ^ "Michelin North America has been the sole tire supplier for the space shuttle program from the first launch in 1981". Greenville News. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  15. ^ "Michelin to acquire Quebec off-road tire maker Camso for US$1.45-billion". Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Kormoran". kormoran-tyres.com. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Michelin Becomes World's Largest Tire Maker Again: Overtakes Bridgestone by slim margin", Autoindustriya.com (10 September 2008).
  18. ^ "Michelin". Vanzarianvelope.net. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  19. ^ "Vous êtes perdu(e) ? - Michelin". www.michelin.com.
  20. ^ "A Fond Farewell". Michelin.com. 26 October 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  21. ^ Noyes, Dennis (3 October 2007). "Why Dorna is Threatening to Impose a Spec Tire". Speed (TV channel). Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  22. ^ Noyes, Dennis (26 August 2008). "Michelin's Last Stand (Part I)". Speed (TV channel). Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  23. ^ Noyes, Dennis (27 August 2008). "Michelin's Last Stand (Part II)". Speed. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  24. ^ NewsOnF1.com. "F1 News - Michelin will not extend its Formula One involvement beyond the 2006 season - Michelin - 14 December 2005". newsonf1.net.
  25. ^ "Le Mans 24 Hours 1923 - Race Results - Racing Sports Cars". www.racingsportscars.com. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  26. ^ Spurring, Quentin. Le Mans, 1923-29: the official history of the world's greatest motor race. Sherborne, Dorset, UK. pp. 42, 86. ISBN 9781910505083. OCLC 951812820.
  27. ^ Considine, Tim (March 2010). "Lessons Learned!". Road & Track. 61 (7): 86.
  28. ^ Klein, Jennifer (20 September 2017). "IMSA Names Michelin Official Tire Beginning In 2019". IMSA.
  29. ^ "Michelin Data Book, p.90" (PDF). Michelin. July 2017.
  30. ^ Loftus, Jack. "Michelin Develops Revolutionary Active Wheel for Electric Cars".
  31. ^ "TCI® Tire Centers :: Contact Us". tirecenters.com. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
  32. ^ "Michelin.co.uk".
  33. ^ "The Michelin maps of the Second World War". cartesmich.free.fr.
  34. ^ "ViaMichelin: Michelin route planner and maps, restaurants, traffic news and hotel booking". www.viamichelin.com.
  35. ^ Michelin Truck and Bus Information Archived 14 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Associated Press, "Édouard Michelin, 42, Tire Executive, Is Dead", The New York Times (27 May 2006).
  37. ^ Galloni, Alessandra; Carreyrou, John (27 May 2006). "Michelin Scion Dies; Firm's Reins Leave Family". The Wall Street Journal.

External links

2005 United States Grand Prix

The 2005 United States Grand Prix was one of the most controversial Formula One motor races in modern history. It was held on June 19, 2005 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and was the ninth race of the 2005 FIA Formula One World Championship. Out of the 20 cars that entered the race, only the six cars from the teams using Bridgestone tyres (Ferrari, Jordan and Minardi) competed. The remaining fourteen entrants, all using Michelin tyres, completed the parade lap, but retired to the pits before the race started.

Following several tyre failures before the race, which caused major accidents for Ralf Schumacher's Toyota during Friday practice and Ricardo Zonta in the other Toyota, Michelin advised its seven customer teams that without a reduction in speed in Turn 13, the tyres provided for the race would only be safe for 10 laps. Michelin had been providing working tyres for the race since 2001. The situation was worsened by the 2005 Formula One rules, which forbade tyre changes during the race.

The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), the sport's governing body, refused a compromise proposal from Michelin to allow a chicane to be installed, maintaining that such rule changes would be grossly unfair to the Bridgestone-shod teams, who had come prepared with properly working tyres, and that a last-minute change to the track layout would be dangerous in case of crashes. The Michelin teams, unable to come to a compromise with the FIA, decided not to participate. It was later stated that the Michelin-shod teams could have potentially exposed themselves to criminal liability under Indiana state law had they competed. It was also thought, since Bridgestone also provided tyres to the Indy Racing League via its Firestone brand, it understood better the loads the tyres would be under. Thus Bridgestone was able to provide a proper tyre.

Of the six competitors, Ferrari's Michael Schumacher was the eventual winner, with his teammate Rubens Barrichello finishing second. The result significantly boosted Schumacher's championship standing, placing him third overall—no driver above him in driver championship points took part in the race. The race also marked the Toyota team's first Formula One pole position, which did not lead to a win due to the team's withdrawal from the race start. The final race result was the lowest number of finishing entries ever seen in a major open-wheel motorsports event at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway since the institution of the 500-Mile Race (surpassing the previous record low of seven finishers in 1966, a race marred by a major first lap accident that eliminated a full third of the starting field). The situation created enormous negative publicity for the sport of Formula One, especially in the United States, a market in which Formula One had struggled to establish itself over the preceding twenty years; some even called the race "Indygate".

Gordon Ramsay

Gordon James Ramsay Jr. (born 8 November 1966) is a British chef, restaurateur, writer, television personality and food critic. Born in Johnstone, Scotland, and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, England, Ramsay's restaurants have been awarded 16 Michelin stars in total and currently hold a total of seven. His signature restaurant, Restaurant Gordon Ramsay in Chelsea, London, has held three Michelin stars since 2001. Appearing on the British television miniseries Boiling Point in 1998, by 2004 Ramsay had become one of the best-known and most influential chefs in the UK.As a reality television personality, Ramsay is known for his fiery temper, strict demeanour, and frequent use of expletives. He often makes blunt and controversial comments, including insults and wisecracks about contestants' cooking and restaurant facilities. He combines activities in the television, film, hospitality, and food industries and has promoted and hired various chefs who have apprenticed under his wing. Ramsay is known for presenting TV programmes about competitive cookery and food, such as the British series Hell's Kitchen, The F Word, and Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares, the American series MasterChef, MasterChef Junior, and Hotel Hell, and the American versions of Hell's Kitchen and Kitchen Nightmares. In 2018, Forbes listed his earnings at $62 million for the previous 12 months, and ranked him the 33rd-highest-earning celebrity in the world.

Heston Blumenthal

Heston Marc Blumenthal OBE (; born 27 May 1966) is a British celebrity chef. He is the proprietor of The Fat Duck in Bray, Berkshire, one of five restaurants in Great Britain to have three Michelin stars; it was voted No. 1 in The World's 50 Best Restaurants in 2005.

Blumenthal owns the restaurant Dinner in London, which has two Michelin stars, and two pubs in Bray, The Crown at Bray and The Hinds Head, which has one Michelin star. He invented recipes for triple-cooked chips and soft-centred Scotch eggs.

He advocates scientific understanding in cooking, for which he has been awarded honorary degrees from Reading, Bristol and London universities and made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is a pioneer of multi-sensory cooking, food pairing and flavour encapsulation. He has described his ideas in books, newspaper columns and a TV series.

Joël Robuchon

Joël Robuchon (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔɛl ʁɔbyʃɔ̃], 7 April 1945 – 6 August 2018) was a French chef and restaurateur. He was named "Chef of the Century" by the guide Gault Millau in 1989, and awarded the Meilleur Ouvrier de France (France's best worker) in cuisine in 1976. He published several cookbooks, two of which have been translated into English, chaired the committee for the Larousse Gastronomique, and hosted culinary television shows in France. He operated more than a dozen restaurants in Bangkok, Bordeaux, Hong Kong, Las Vegas, London, Macau, Monaco, Montreal, Paris, Shanghai, Singapore, Taipei, Tokyo, and New York City, with the highest record of a total of 32 Michelin Guide stars among them (31 at the time of his death), the most of any chef in the world.

List of Michelin 3-star restaurants

Michelin stars are a rating system used by the red Michelin Guide to grade restaurants on their quality. The guide was originally developed in 1900 to show French drivers where local amenities such as restaurants and mechanics were. The rating system was first introduced in 1926 as a single star, with the second and third stars introduced in 1933. According to the Guide, one star signifies "a very good restaurant", two stars are "excellent cooking that is worth a detour", and three stars mean "exceptional cuisine that is worth a special journey". The listing of starred restaurants is updated once a year.

List of Michelin starred restaurants in Ireland

This is a list of Michelin starred restaurant in Ireland. Restaurants on the island Ireland that have or had a least one Michelin star are mentioned here.

List of Michelin starred restaurants in the Netherlands

This is the complete list of restaurants in the Netherlands that ever have received a Michelin star.

List of restaurants owned or operated by Gordon Ramsay

Gordon Ramsay is an English Chef, restaurateur, writer, television personality and food critic. He has owned and operated a series of restaurants since he first became head chef of Aubergine in 1993. He owned 25% of that restaurant, where he earned his first two Michelin stars. Following the sacking of protege Marcus Wareing from sister restaurant L'Oranger, Ramsay organised a staff walkout from both restaurants and subsequently took them to open up Restaurant Gordon Ramsay, at Royal Hospital Road, London. His self-titled restaurant went on to become his first and only three Michelin star restaurant. Ramsay has become one of the chefs with the most Michelin stars in the world. In 2008, following the awarding of two stars for Gordon Ramsay at The London in New York, he drew with Alain Ducasse as the holder of the most Michelin stars with twelve. However, he has since been overtaken by both Ducasse and Joël Robuchon and currently has eight stars as of the 2014 New York City Michelin Guide.Ramsay's restaurant empire expanded greatly after he began to collaborate with Blackstone Group to open restaurants within hotels. He first worked with them when he opened Gordon Ramsay at Claridge's, within Claridge's hotel in London. He then opened a restaurant at The Connaught hotel, and then began to open restaurants at Blackstone's London hotels in New York City and West Hollywood. His first overseas restaurant was Verre, which was based in the Hilton Dubai Creek in the United Arab Emirates. He has since opened restaurants in France, Japan, Qatar, Australia, Italy and South Africa.Ramsay has installed a number of proteges in restaurants. Both Angela Hartnett and Jason Atherton worked at Verre before moving back to London to The Connaught and Maze respectively. Atherton left to open his own restaurant, Pollen Street Social and Hartnett purchased Murano from Ramsay in 2010. Wareing was made head chef of Ramsay's second one is in New Zealand 24 Chislehurst st Auckland Henderson and London based restaurant, Pétrus. It went on to win two Michelin stars, but in 2008 the two chefs fell out when Wareing kept the restaurant premises and the stars, while Ramsay received rights to the name. The restaurant was renamed Marcus Wareing at the Berkeley while a new Petrus was opened in 2010.Ramsay has also sought to create both restaurant chains and casual dining restaurants. Maze won a Michelin star in 2006 at the original London location, and was subsequently expanded around the globe with several of restaurants opened. The Boxwood Cafe was intended to be a more family friendly restaurant when it originally opened, and a second restaurant was later opened in West Hollywood. Although Ramsay intended to turn Foxtrot Oscar into a chain when he purchased the restaurant, no further expansions have taken place using that name. Ramsay has also acquired several pubs within the UK, turning them into gastropubs. The first of these was The Narrow in London. He has also signalled his intention to expand Gordon Ramsay Plane Food into a chain, with the intention to open restaurants in airports within the United States.

Marco Pierre White

Marco Pierre White (born 11 December 1961) is a British chef, restaurateur, and television personality from Leeds. White has been dubbed the first celebrity chef, and the enfant terrible of the UK restaurant scene. He was called the godfather of modern cooking by Australian MasterChef (Season 4, Episode 53). White was the youngest chef ever to have been awarded three Michelin stars. He has trained notable chefs such as Mario Batali, Gordon Ramsay, Curtis Stone and Shannon Bennett.

Michelin (apple)

Michelin is a variety of cider apple commonly grown in commercial orchards in the United Kingdom, although originating in France.

Michelin Guide

Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin [ɡid miʃ.lɛ̃]) are a series of guide books published by the French tire company Michelin for more than a century. The term normally refers to the annually published Michelin Red Guide, the oldest European hotel and restaurant reference guide, which awards up to three Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin also publishes a series of general guides to cities, regions, and countries, the Green Guides.

Michelin Pilot Challenge

The Michelin Pilot Challenge is a grand touring and touring car racing series run by the International Motor Sports Association. Originating from the Canadian Motorola Cup, the series was taken over by Grand-Am in 2001 to become the Grand-Am Cup following the demise of rival IMSA's Firehawk series of similar rules in the US. KONI became series sponsor for the start of the 2007 season when the series became known as the KONI Challenge Series, before renaming once more prior to the start of the 2009 season as the KONI Sports Car Challenge. The series name was once again changed for the 2010 season to Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge. In 2019, the series rebranded again after Michelin was selected to become the new official tire supplier of the series.The Continental Challenge was the support series for Grand-Am's premier offering, the Rolex Sports Car Series. In 2014, the series became the support series for the United SportsCar Championship upon the merger of the Rolex Series and the American Le Mans Series. The series was renamed the IMSA Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge.

Peugeot (cycling team)

Peugeot team was a French professional cycling team that promoted and rode Peugeot racing bikes.

It is listed as the most successful cycling team of all time, on cyclingranking.com, with a large margin on the second placed team, Alcyon.

Porsche Supercup

The Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup (known as Porsche Michelin Supercup prior to 2007) is the international stock car production racing series supporting the FIA Formula One World Championship organized by Porsche AG.

Porsche Supercup drivers compete in identical Porsche 911 GT3 Cup cars. On average, 24 race cars take part in each race. Most circuits visited by the series are European, although circuits in Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, the United States and Mexico have been included in the calendar as well.

Restaurant Gordon Ramsay

Restaurant Gordon Ramsay, also known as Gordon Ramsay at Royal Hospital Road, is a three Michelin star restaurant owned and operated by Gordon Ramsay, located at Royal Hospital Road, London. It opened in 1998 and was Ramsay's first solo restaurant. In 2001, it made Gordon Ramsay the first Scottish chef to have won three Michelin stars. In March 2013, the restaurant reopened following an art deco redesign.

Road Atlanta

Michelin Raceway Road Atlanta is a 2.54-mile (4.088 km) road course located just north of Braselton, Georgia, United States. The facility is utilized for a wide variety of events, including professional and amateur sports car and motorcycle races, racing and driving schools, corporate programs and testing for motorsports teams. The track has 12 turns, including the famous "esses" between turns three and five; and Turn 12, a downhill, diving turn. The track is owned by IMSA Holdings, LLC through its subsidiary Road Atlanta, LLC, and is the home to the Petit Le Mans, as well as AMA motorcycle racing, and smaller events throughout the year. Michelin acquired naming rights to the facility in 2018.

The Fat Duck

The Fat Duck is a restaurant in Bray, Berkshire, England. It is run by celebrity chef proprietor Heston Blumenthal. Housed in a 16th-century building that had previously been the site of The Bell pub, The Fat Duck opened on 16 August 1995. Although it originally served food similar to that of a French bistro, it soon acquired a reputation for precision and invention, and has been at the forefront of many modern culinary developments, such as food pairing, flavour encapsulation and multi-sensory cooking.The number of staff in the kitchen has increased from four when it first opened to 42, resulting in a ratio of one kitchen staff member per customer. The restaurant gained its first Michelin star in 1999, its second in 2002 and its third in 2004, making it the fastest in the United Kingdom to earn three Michelin stars. It lost its status as a three-starred restaurant in the 2016 guide due to renovation preventing it from being open for assessment. The restaurant regained three stars in the following year's Michelin guide.The restaurant is known for its fourteen-course tasting menu featuring dishes such as nitro-scrambled egg and bacon ice cream, an Alice in Wonderland-inspired mock turtle soup involving a bouillon packet made up to look like a fob watch dissolved in tea, and a dish called Sound of the Sea which includes an audio element. The restaurant has an associated laboratory where Blumenthal and his team develop new dish concepts.In 2009 the restaurant suffered from the largest norovirus outbreak ever documented at a restaurant with over 400 diners falling ill.

Thervoy Kandigai

Thervoy Kandigai is a village in Tiruvallur District in Tamil Nadu state of India. It has about 5000 inhabitants, mainly being part of Scheduled caste or

Dalit. It is considered as the second largest village in thiruvallur district and it is also considered that the village has more graduates than any other villages in Thiruvallur district.

The village is about 50 km North of Chennai.

Michelin has built a tyre factory in Thervoy Kandigai.

Many of the inhabitants of this village work in Michelin and in other companies which is built in Thervoy Kandigai industrial park.

The first building has been opened officially in May 2011.A Thervoy Kandigai Industrial Park exists.Michelin has invested 40 billions there.The factory endangers the rainforests being the livelihood of the population.

Thomas Keller

Thomas Keller (born October 14, 1955) is an American chef, restaurateur, and cookbook writer. He and his landmark Napa Valley restaurant, The French Laundry in Yountville, California, have won multiple awards from the James Beard Foundation, notably the Best California Chef in 1996, and the Best Chef in America in 1997. The restaurant is a perennial winner in the annual Restaurant Magazine list of the Top 50 Restaurants of the World.In 2005, he was awarded the three star rating in the inaugural Michelin Guide for New York City for his restaurant Per Se, and in 2006, he was awarded three stars in the inaugural Michelin Guide to the San Francisco Bay Area for The French Laundry. He is the only American chef to have been awarded simultaneous three star Michelin ratings for two different restaurants. He currently holds seven Michelin stars total: three at Per Se, three at The French Laundry, and one at Bouchon.

CAC 40 companies of France (as of 4 October 2017)
French bicycle manufacturers
Current
Defunct
Components
Active manufacturers
Defunct manufacturers
Components
Insurance and finance
Related topics

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.