Michael Reyniersz Pauw

Knight Michiel Reiniersz Pauw (29 March 1590 in Amsterdam[1] – 20 March 1640 in Ghent) was a burgemeester of Amsterdam and a director of the Dutch West India Company (WIC).[2]

A contemporary image of the same row of houses

He was born in Amsterdam in a rich merchant family - his father, Reinier Pauw (1564–1636) wasn't only a merchant, but also a Mayor of Amsterdam - and studied law in Leiden. His brother Adriaan Pauw [3] (1581 - February 21, 1653 [1]) was Grand Pensionary of Holland from 1631 to 1636 and from 1651 to 1653, and signatory of the Peace of Münster (1648) for which he was instrumental as ambassador for Holland.

The WIC was founded in 1621 to exploit trade in the Western Hemisphere,[4] and by 1625 had established a colony at Fort Amsterdam (Lower Manhattan) and Fort Orange. In the hope of encouraging settlement the company, in 1629, started to offer vast land grants and the feudal title of patroon.[5] under the auspices of the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions. In 1630, Pauw purchased two tracts from the Lenape at Hopoghan Hackingh (Hoboken) and at Ashasimus (Harsimus), covering the entire peninsula between the Hudson River and Hackensack River now known as Hudson County, New Jersey, as well as a third purchase of Staten Eylandt (Staten Island), now part of New York City.[6] The patroonship was given the Latinized form of his surname (which means "peacock"), Pavonia. It is said it was sold to him by the Manhattans after they had retreated there after the sale of their home island to Peter Minuit some years before. Initially, a small hut and ferry landing were built at Arresick, called Powles Hoek (Paulus Hook), but Pauw failed to fulfill the other conditions set forth by the company (which included populating the area with at least fifty adults),[5] and was later required to sell his interests back to it.[7] In 1634 he collaborated with Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Wouter van Twiller in sending cattle (horses and cows) in the next six years.[8]

The name Pavonia remains as an avenue and library branch in contemporary Jersey City. There is also a Pavonia Court in Bayonne and Pavonia Avenue in Kearny. Erie Railroad's Hudson waterfront terminus was called Pavonia Terminal located nearby PATH rapid transit system's station once called Pavonia. Saint Peter's College, located on land that was part of the patroonship, has as its mascot a peacock.

Pavonia was not the only American territory that would bear his name. First described by Amerigo Vespucci, who traveled with a Portuguese expedition of Gonçalo Coelho to Brazil in the year 1503, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago was invaded by the English, and from 1556 until 1612, was held by the French. In 1628, it was occupied by the Dutch, who were displaced two years later by a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition led by Rui Calaza Borges. The Dutch occupied the island once again in 1635, making it a hospital for their troops who occupied Northeastern Brazil (the Brazilian coast between Rio São Francisco and Maranhão). The island became known as Pavonia, in honor of Pauw. It would remain under Dutch control for nearly twenty years, when it was reconquered by Portugal.

Pauw was apparently very successful, and was able to commission one of the most popular architects of the period to build a grachtenpand, or canal house, in Amsterdam. It may be seen in the two lead images for this article. Clad in white sandstone imported from Germany it, was the first in the city to have a neck gable. [9]

Michiel Pauw (1590- )
Michiel Pauw, 1618
Jan van der Heyden - Canal in Amsterdam
The greyish mansion in the middle, belonging to Pauw, was painted by Jan van der Heyden


  1. ^ Baptized 8 April 1590 in the Nieuwe Kerk, Mijchgiel, son of Reijier Pau and Cornelisgen Mijchgiels "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-07-15.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "New Netherland Colony". www.publicbookshelf.com. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  3. ^ http://www.herenvanholland.nl/eigenaar.cfm?eigenaarnummer=472
  4. ^ "The Avalon Project : Charter of the Dutch West India Company : 1621". Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  5. ^ a b Johan van Hartskamp, De Westindische Compangnie en haar Belangen in Niuew-Nederland, een overzicht (1621-1664)http://stuyvesant.library.uu.nl Archived 2008-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ https://archive.org/details/historyofcountyo01winfWinfiled, CHarles (1874) History of the county of Hudson, New Jersey : from its earliest settlement to the present time pp.13-25
  7. ^ "The Dutch and English on the Hudson: Chapter 3". www.kellscraft.com. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  8. ^ NA 373, f. 129-130, Not. W. Cluijt, 13 April 1634
  9. ^ http://www.theaterinstituut.nl/en/theatermuseum/theatermuseum/de_panden

1590 (MDXC)

was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1590th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 590th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 16th century, and the 1st year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1590, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.


1640 (MDCXL)

was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1640th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 640th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1640, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Abraham Isaacsen Verplanck

Abraham Isaacsen Verplanck (1606–1690), also known as Abraham Isaacse Ver Planck, was an early and prominent settler in New Netherlands. A land developer and speculator, he was the progenitor of an extensive Verplanck family in the United States. Immigrating circa 1633, he received a land grant at Paulus Hook (in today's Jersey City) in 1638.

He was one of the driving forces behind the bloody Keift's War against the Native American population, set off by their retaliation to the Dutch's 1643 Pavonia massacre. His losses were so great at Pavonia he was forced to mortgage his Paulus Hook plantations.

A property owner on a smaller scale on Manhattan for the remainder of his life, he died with outstanding debt, settled by his family in 1699 by sale of one of his holdings.


Harsimus (also known as Harsimus Cove) is a neighborhood within Downtown Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. The neighborhood stretches from the Harsimus Stem Embankment (the Sixth Street Embankment) on the north to Christopher Columbus Drive on the south between Coles Street and Grove Street or more broadly, to Marin Boulevard. It borders the neighborhoods of Hamilton Park to the north, Van Vorst Park to the south, the Village to the west, and the Powerhouse Arts District to the east. Newark Avenue has traditionally been its main street. The name is from the Lenape, used by the Hackensack Indians who inhabited the region and could be translated as Crow’s Marsh. From many years, the neighborhood was part of the "Horseshoe", a political delineation created by its position between the converging rail lines and political gerrymandering.

Hoboken, New Jersey

Hoboken ( HOH-boh-kən; Unami: Hupokàn) is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,005, having grown by 11,428 (+29.6%) from 38,577 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,180 (+15.5%) from the 33,397 in the 1990 Census. Hoboken is part of the New York metropolitan area and is the site of Hoboken Terminal, a major transportation hub for the tri-state region.

Hoboken was first settled as part of the Pavonia, New Netherland colony in the 17th century. During the early 19th century the city was developed by Colonel John Stevens, first as a resort and later as a residential neighborhood. Originally part of Bergen Township and later North Bergen Township, it became a separate township in 1849 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Hoboken is the location of the first recorded game of baseball and of the Stevens Institute of Technology, one of the oldest technological universities in the United States.

Located on the Hudson Waterfront, the city was an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey and home to major industries for most of the 20th century. It is also well known for being the birthplace and hometown of American singer Frank Sinatra, one of the most popular and most influential musical artists of the 20th century, and there are parks and streets located in the city that are named for him. The character of the city has changed from a blue collar town to one of upscale shops and condominiums.On October 29, 2012, Hoboken was devastated by the storm surge and high winds associated with Hurricane Sandy, leaving 1,700 homes flooded and causing $100 million in damage after the storm "filled up Hoboken like a bathtub". In June 2014, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development allocated $230 million to Hoboken as part of its Rebuild by Design initiative, adding levees, parks, green roofs, retention basins and other infrastructure to help the low-lying riverfront city protect itself from ordinary flooding and build a network of features to help Hoboken survive storms that arrive once every 500 years.

Jersey City, New Jersey

Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city. As of 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 270,753, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597. ranking the city the 75th-most-populous in the nation.Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. A port of entry, with 30.7 miles (49.4 km) of waterfront and extensive rail infrastructure and connectivity, the city is an important transportation terminus and distribution and manufacturing center for the Port of New York and New Jersey. Jersey City shares significant mass transit connections with Manhattan. Redevelopment of the Jersey City waterfront has made the city one of the largest centers of banking and finance in the United States and has led to the district being nicknamed Wall Street West.After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a half-century-long decline to a nadir of 223,532 in the 1980 Census. Since then, the city's population has rebounded, with the 2010 population reflecting an increase of 7,542 (+3.1%) from the 240,055 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 11,518 (+5.0%) from the 228,537 counted in the 1990 Census.

Kiliaen van Rensselaer (merchant)

Kiliaen van Rensselaer (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈkɪlijaːn vɑn ˈrɛnsəlaːr] (listen); 1586 – buried 7 October 1643) was a Dutch diamond and pearl merchant from Amsterdam who was one of the founders and directors of the Dutch West India Company, being instrumental in the establishment of New Netherland.

He was one of the first patroons, but the only one to become successful. He founded the Manor of Rensselaerswyck in what is now mainly New York's Capital District. His estate remained throughout the Dutch and British colonial era and the American Revolution as a legal entity until the 1840s. Eventually, that came to an end during the Anti-Rent War.

Van Rensselaer was the son of Hendrick Kiliaensz van Rensselaer, a soldier from Nijkerk in the States army of the duke of Upper Saxony, and Maria Pafraet, descendant of a well-known printers' dynasty. To keep from risking his life in the army like his father, he apprenticed under his uncle, a successful Amsterdam jeweler. He too became a successful jeweler and was one of the first subscribers to the Dutch West India Company upon its conception.

The concept of patroonships may have been Kiliaen van Rensselaer's; he

was likely the leading proponent of the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, the document that established the patroon system.

His patroonship became the most successful to exist, making full use of his business tactics and advantages, such as his connection to the Director of New Netherland, his confidantes at the West India Company, and his extended family members who were eager to emigrate to a better place to farm. Van Rensselaer married twice and had at least eleven children. When he died sometime after 1642, two succeeded him as patroons of Rensselaerswyck.

Van Rensselaer had a marked effect on the history of the United States. The American Van Rensselaers all descend from Kiliaen's son Jeremias and the subsequent Van Rensselaer family is noted for being a very powerful and wealthy influence in the history of New York and the Northeastern United States, producing multiple State Legislators, Congressmen, and two Lieutenant Governors in New York.

List of Bergen, New Netherland placename etymologies

Bergen was a part of the 17th-century Dutch colony of New Netherland, in what is now northeastern New Jersey. Placenames in most cases had their roots in Algonquian Lenape and Dutch.At the time of European settlement, the area was largely the territory of the Acquackanonk Raritan, Tappan, and Hackensack Native American tribes. The Munsee lived in the colony's northwestern reaches, the Highlands, while the Wappinger lived to the northeast in the Hudson Valley. The definition of these groups as they are known today is often from the perception of the colonizing Dutch, who tended to call the existing people by the name of a location within their territory, thus creating an exonym. Both the Lenape and Dutch often named a place based on the geography or geology of the natural environment and described a shape, location, feature, quality, or phenomenon.

The Lenape were without a written language. The Swannikens, or Salt Water People (as the Europeans were called), used the Latin alphabet to write down the words they heard from the Wilden (as the Lenape were called). These approximations were no doubt greatly influenced by Dutch, which was the lingua franca of the multilingual province. Some names still exist in their altered form, their current spelling (and presumably pronunciation) having evolved over the last four centuries into American English.

In some cases it cannot be confirmed, or there is contention, as to whether the roots are in the Dutch or the Lenape language, as sources do not always concur. In others, the meaning of the Lenape can have several interpretations. Locative suffixes vary depending on the dialect (usually Munsee or Unami) of the Lenape that prevailed. Jersey Dutch was spoken in the region until the 20th century.

List of Hudson County, New Jersey placename etymologies

This is a list of locales in Hudson County, New Jersey categorized by origin of their name.

List of New Netherland placename etymologies

Nieuw-Nederland, or New Netherland, was the seventeenth-century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on northeastern coast of North America. The claimed territory were the lands from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Cape Cod. Settled areas are now part of the Mid-Atlantic states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and southwestern Connecticut. There were small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Its capital, New Amsterdam, was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan on the Upper New York Bay. The most developed part of the province roughly corresponds to today's Greater New York Metro Area.

Maryn Adriansen

Maryn Adriansen (1600 - c1654) (also spelled Maryn Adriaensen, Marinus Adriaensz, Marijn Adriaensz, Marin Adriaensz, Marinus Ariaens) was an early settler to New Netherland. Originally emigrating under an Indenture agreement he later become a prominent member of society. His conflict with the governor at the time led to accusations and, eventually, acquittal. He owned property in New Amsterdam and a large plantation at Awiehaken.


In the United States, a patroon (English: ; from Dutch patroon) was a landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland on the east coast of North America. Through the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions of 1629, the Dutch West India Company first started to grant this title and land to some of its invested members. These inducements to foster colonization and settlement (also known as the "Rights and Exemptions") are the basis for the patroon system. In 1775, at the outbreak of the American Revolution, primogeniture and feudal tenure were abolished and thus patroons and manors evolved into simply large estates subject to division and leases.

The deeded tracts were called patroonships and could span 16 miles in length on one side of a major river, or 8 miles if spanning both sides. In 1640, the charter was revised to cut new plot sizes in half, and to allow any Dutch American in good standing to purchase an estate. The title of patroon came with powerful rights and privileges. A patroon could create civil and criminal courts, appoint local officials and hold land in perpetuity. In return, he was required by the Dutch West India Company to – sources vary – establish a settlement of at least 50 families within four years on the land, or "ship fifty colonists to it within four year". As tenants working for the patroon, these first settlers were relieved of the duty of public taxes for ten years, but were required to pay rent to the patroon. A patroonship sometimes had its own village and other infrastructure, including churches.

After the English takeover of New Netherland in 1664, the system continued with the granting of large tracts known as manors, and sometimes referred to as patroonships.

New Netherland series
The Patroon System
People of New Netherland
Flushing Remonstrance
New Netherlands Seal Vector

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