Michael Chertoff

Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is an American attorney who was the second United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving under President George W. Bush. He was the co-author of the USA PATRIOT Act. He previously served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, as a federal prosecutor, and as Assistant U.S. Attorney General. He succeeded Tom Ridge as U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security on February 15, 2005.

Since leaving government service, Chertoff has worked as senior of counsel at the Washington, D.C. law firm of Covington & Burling.[1] He also co-founded the Chertoff Group, a risk-management and security consulting company, which employs several former senior political appointees. Chertoff was also elected as Chairman of BAE Systems for a three-year term, beginning May 1, 2012.

Chertoff co-chairs the Bipartisan Policy Center's Immigration Task Force.

Michael Chertoff
Michael Chertoff, official DHS photo portrait, 2007
2nd United States Secretary of Homeland Security
In office
February 15, 2005 – January 21, 2009
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Barack Obama
Preceded byTom Ridge
Succeeded byJanet Napolitano
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
In office
June 10, 2003 – February 15, 2005
Appointed byGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byMorton Ira Greenberg
Succeeded byMichael Chagares
United States Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division
In office
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byJames Robinson
Succeeded byChristopher Wray
United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey
In office
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
Bill Clinton
Preceded bySamuel Alito
Succeeded byFaith S. Hochberg
Personal details
BornNovember 28, 1953 (age 65)
Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Meryl Justin (1988–present)
EducationHarvard University (BA, JD)

Early life

Michael Chertoff was born on November 28, 1953 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. His father was Rabbi Gershon Baruch Chertoff (1915–96), a Talmud scholar and the former leader of the Congregation B'nai Israel in Elizabeth. His mother is Livia Chertoff (née Eisen), an Israeli citizen and the first flight attendant for El Al.[2] His paternal grandparents are Rabbi Paul Chertoff[3] and Esther Barish Chertoff.[4]

Chertoff attended the Jewish Educational Center in Elizabeth as well as the Pingry School. He graduated from Harvard College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1975. During his sophomore year, he studied abroad at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He then attended Harvard Law School, where he worked as a research assistant for John Hart Ely on his book Democracy and Distrust. After receiving a Juris Doctor magna cum laude in 1978, Chertoff served as a law clerk to Judge Murray Gurfein of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. He then clerked for United States Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. from 1979 to 1980.

He worked in private practice with Latham & Watkins from 1980 to 1983 before being hired as a prosecutor by Rudolph Giuliani, then the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York. Chertoff worked on Mafia and political corruption–related cases. In the mid-1990s, Chertoff returned to Latham & Watkins for a brief period, founding the firm's office in Newark, New Jersey.

Chertoff has been a resident of Westfield, New Jersey.[5]

Public service

In September 1986, together with United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York Rudolph Giuliani, Chertoff was instrumental in the crackdown on organized crime in the Mafia Commission Trial.

In 1990, Chertoff was appointed by President George H. W. Bush as United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey.[6] Among his most important cases, in 1992 Chertoff achieved conviction of second-term Jersey City mayor Gerald McCann on charges of defrauding money from a savings and loan scam. McCann served two years in federal prison.[7]

In 1993, he was a prosecutor in the fraud case against Eddie Antar, founder of the Crazy Eddie's electronics store chain.

Chertoff was asked to stay in his position when the Clinton administration took office in 1993, at the request of Democratic Senator Bill Bradley.[7] He was the only United States Attorney who was not replaced due to the change in administrations. He continued to work with the U.S. Attorney's office until 1994, when he entered private practice, returning to Latham & Watkins as a partner.[7]

Despite his friendly relationship with some Democrats, Chertoff was appointed as the special counsel for the Senate Whitewater Committee studying allegations against President Clinton and his wife in what was known as the Whitewater investigation. No charges were brought against the Clintons.

In 2000, Chertoff worked as special counsel to the New Jersey Senate Judiciary Committee, investigating racial profiling in New Jersey. He also did some fundraising for George W. Bush[8] and other Republicans during the 2000 election cycle. He advised Bush's presidential campaign on criminal justice issues. Chertoff was appointed by Bush to head the criminal division of the Department of Justice, serving from 2001 to 2003. He led the federal prosecution's case against suspected terrorist Zacarias Moussaoui.

Chertoff also led the prosecution's case against accounting firm Arthur Andersen for destroying documents relating to the Enron collapse. The prosecution of Arthur Andersen was controversial, as the firm was effectively dissolved, resulting in the loss of 26,000 jobs. The United States Supreme Court overturned the conviction, and the case has not been retried. Chertoff has been criticized for his role at DOJ in detaining hundreds of Middle Eastern immigrants.

On March 5, 2003, Chertoff was nominated by President Bush to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit vacated by Morton I. Greenberg. He was confirmed by the Senate 88–1 on June 9, 2003, with Senator Hillary Clinton of New York casting the lone dissenting vote; he received his commission the following day. Senator Clinton said that she had dissented to register her protest for the way Chertoff's staff mistreated junior White House staffers during the Whitewater investigation.[9]

Secretary of Homeland Security and subsequent career

Bush delivers statement at Mexican border
President Bush discussing border security with Chertoff near El Paso, Texas, November 2005

In late 2004, Bernard Kerik was forced to decline President Bush's offer to replace Tom Ridge, the outgoing Secretary of Homeland Security. After a lengthy search to find a suitable replacement, Bush nominated Chertoff to the post in January 2005, citing his experience with post-9/11 terror legislation. He was unanimously approved for the position by the United States Senate on February 15, 2005.[10]

Hurricane Katrina occurred while Chertoff was Secretary of Homeland Security. The Department was criticized for its lack of preparation in advance of the well-forecast hurricane; most criticism was directed toward the Federal Emergency Management Agency.[11] DHS in general, and Chertoff in particular, were criticized for responding poorly to the disaster, ignoring crucial information about the catastrophic nature of the storm and devoting little attention to the federal response to what became the most costly disaster in American history.[12]

Chertoff was the Bush administration's point man for pushing the comprehensive immigration reform bill, a measure that stalled in the Senate in June 2007.[13]

Chertoff was asked by the Obama administration to stay in his post until 9 a.m. on January 21, 2009, (one day after President Obama's inauguration) "to ensure a smooth transition".[14]

He formed The Chertoff Group (TCG) on February 2, 2009 to work on crisis and risk management. The firm is also led by Chad Sweet; he served as the Chief of Staff of Homeland Security while Chertoff was Secretary and also had a two-year stint at the Directorate of Operations for the CIA. They also employ Charles E. Allen, Larry Castro, Jay M. Cohen, General Michael V. Hayden and other former high-ranking government employees and appointees.


Construction of border fence

In April 2008, Chertoff was criticized in The New York Times editorial for waiving the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Water Act, and other environmental protection legislation to construct a 700-mile (1,100 km) fence along the Mexico–United States border. The Times wrote: "To the long list of things the Bush administration is willing to trash in its rush to appease immigration hard-liners, you can now add dozens of important environmental laws and hundreds of thousands of acres of fragile habitat on the southern border."[15]

According to The New York Times columnist Adam Liptak, Chertoff had excluded the Department of Homeland Security from having to follow laws "protecting the environment, endangered species, migratory birds, the bald eagle, antiquities, farms, deserts, forests, Native American graves and religious freedom."[16]

A report issued by the Congressional Research Service, the non-partisan research division of the Library of Congress, said that the unchecked delegation of powers to Chertoff was unprecedented:

After a review of federal law, primarily through electronic database searches and consultations with various CRS experts, we were unable to locate a waiver provision identical to that of §102 of H.R. 418—i.e., a provision that contains 'notwithstanding' language, provides a secretary of an executive agency the authority to waive all laws such secretary determines necessary, and directs the secretary to waive such laws.[17]

Actions regarding illegal immigration

In September 2007, Chertoff told a House committee that the DHS would not tolerate interference by sanctuary cities that would block the "Basic Pilot Program," which requires some types of employers to validate the legal status of their workers.[18] He said that the DHS was exploring its legal options and intended to take action to prevent any interference with the law.[19]

In 2008 it was reported that the residential housekeeping company Chertoff had hired to clean his house employed illegal immigrants.[20][21][22]


At the Global Creative Leadership Summit in 2009, Chertoff described globalization as a double-edged sword. Although globalization may help raise the standard of living for people around the world, Chertoff claims that it can also enable terrorists and transnational criminals.[23]

Body scanners

Chertoff has been an advocate of enhanced technologies, such as full body scanners.[24] His lobbying firm Chertoff Group (founded 2009) represents manufacturers of the scanners.[25][26]

Climate change

Chertoff co-signed the preface to the report "National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change" published in 2014 where he stated that "projected climate change is a complex multi-decade challenge. Without action to build resilience, it will increase security risks over much of the planet. It will not only increase threats to developing nations in resource-challenged parts of the world, but it will also test the security of nations with robust capability, including significant elements of our National Power here at home."[27]

Political endorsements

For the 2016 presidential election, Chertoff endorsed Hillary Clinton.[28]


  1. ^ Covington & Burling (2009). Michael Chertoff. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  2. ^ Kitaeff, Jack Jews in Blue: The Jewish American Experience in Law Enforcement
  3. ^ Marek, Angie C."A New Sheriff in Town" Archived 2013-05-10 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. News & World Report, July 10, 2005. Accessed May 16, 2008. "A rabbi's son, he was born in blue-collar Elizabeth, N.J. Worshipers from Elizabeth's former Congregation Bnai Israel remember Chertoff's father, Gershon Chertoff, as a man with a vast collection of books and a keen interest in current events. Michael's grandfather Paul Chertoff, also a rabbi, was a professor of the Talmud, the collected writings that constitute Jewish civil and religious law."
  4. ^ "Pittsburgh PostGazette Jan 12, 1966". News.google.com. 1966-01-12. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
  5. ^ Corbin, Horace. "A Night With Michael Chertoff", The Westfield Leader, March 31, 2010. Accessed October 26, 2015. "Born in Elizabeth, N.J. and a former Westfield resident, Michael Chertoff returned to his Jersey roots last Wednesday night for dinner at Echo Lake Country Club, sponsored by Asm. Jon Bramnick."
  6. ^ U.S. Attorney's Office District of New Jersey, A Rich History of Service Archived December 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b c "Chertoff called 'consummate professional'". MSNBC. 2005-01-11. Retrieved 2008-10-15 – via Associated Press.
  8. ^ Eskow, Richard (May 5, 2011). "Green Alert: Banks Use Bush Terror Team, Threat Tactics to Push Debit Card Fees". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
  9. ^ Ratner, Lizzy (2005-01-16). "Hillary's Nemesis, Mean Mike Chertoff, Is Up for Homeland". The New York Observer. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  10. ^ "Bush names new US security chief". BBC. 2005-01-11. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  11. ^ Executive Summary, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina Archived 2012-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, 2006-2-15, Retrieved 2007-6-11
  12. ^ Christopher Cooper and Robert Block. 2006. Disaster : Hurricane Katrina and the Failure of Homeland Security. New York: Times Books, 2006.
  13. ^ "Chertoff, Bush Look for Next Move on Immigration", NPR, 8 June 2007
  14. ^ "Bush Homeland Security Officials to Stay on Till Weds.", Washington Post, 2009-01-19 (accessed 2009-01-21).
  15. ^ Editorial (April 3, 2008). "Michael Chertoff's Insult". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  16. ^ Liptak, Adam (2008-04-08). "Power to Build Border Fence Is Above U.S. Law". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
  17. ^ "Plaintiffs' Exhibit 2" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  18. ^ DHS - EVerify Archived 2011-03-09 at the Wayback Machine "DHS website" December 1, 2007
  19. ^ Chertoff Warns Sanctuary Cities on Illegals "NewsMax" September 6, 2007
  20. ^ "Chertoff Used Cleaning Company That Hired Illegal Immigrants". Fox News. December 11, 2008.
  21. ^ "UPI.com". UPI.com. 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
  22. ^ Hsu, Spencer S. (December 11, 2008). "Cleaning Service Used by Chertoff Calls Immigration Laws Unfair". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  23. ^ Global Futures, Global Risks Archived 2016-01-10 at the Wayback Machine 2009 Global Creative Leadership Summit.
  24. ^ DHS.gov Archived October 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ 12/30/09 9:33pm 12/30/09 9:33pm. "Why Is Michael Chertoff So Excited About Full-Body Scanners?". Gawker.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-27. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
  26. ^ RonPaul.com on November 17, 2010 (2010-11-17). "Ron Paul to TSA: Stop Irradiating Our Bodies!". Ron Paul .com. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
  27. ^ CNA Military Advisory Board, May 2014. "National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change" http://templatelab.com/CNA-MAB-2014-REPORT/
  28. ^ "Once A Clinton Nemesis During Whitewater, Now A Clinton Supporter". NPR. October 6, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2016.

External links

Legal offices
Preceded by
Samuel Alito
United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey
Succeeded by
Faith S. Hochberg
Preceded by
Morton Ira Greenberg
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
Succeeded by
Michael Chagares
Political offices
Preceded by
Tom Ridge
United States Secretary of Homeland Security
Succeeded by
Janet Napolitano
Debunking 9/11 Myths

Debunking 9/11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can't Stand Up to the Facts is a non-fiction book published by Hearst Communications, Inc. on August 15, 2006. The book is based on the article "9/11: Debunking the Myths" in the March 2005 issue of Popular Mechanics and is written by David Dunbar and Brad Reagan, responding to various 9/11 conspiracy theories. The authors interviewed over 300 sources for the book, relying on expert and witness accounts.

Dublin Tech Summit

The Dublin Tech Summit (DTS) is an international technology conference held in Dublin, Ireland. The first summit took place on 15 and 16 February 2017, at the Convention Centre Dublin in the city's Silicon Docks area.

The summit aims to run annually, and to attract more than 10,000 attendees. It is reputedly focused on attracting speakers, startups, exhibitors, sponsors and investors, covering a number of themes, including: Emerging Technologies, Machine Learning, Space Exploration, Tech for Good, Diversity in Tech, Big Data and Analytics.

In its inaugural event, two thirds of the 10,000 attendees came from outside Ireland, 49% were trans-women, with DTS reportedly giving €400,000 worth of tickets to under-represented groups in the tech industry, including trans-women and students.DTS19 took the conference to a new venue in Dublin's RDS to accommodate for the growth of the event. It was held from April 10th to April 11th.Notable Speakers:

DTS17: Gary Vaynerchuck and Cindy Gallop.

DTS18: Casey Neistat, Michael Chertoff, Johanna Maska, Jordan P. Evans, Tom Cochran.

DTS19: Werner Vogels, Chris Hadfield, Chris Slowe, Alyssa Carson, Martha Lane Fox.

Faith S. Hochberg

Faith S. Hochberg (born 1950) is a former United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey.

Gitanjali S. Gutierrez

Gitanjali S. Gutierrez is an American lawyer. She is the lawyer for the defendant Mohammed al-Qahtani, who is held at Camp Delta in Guantanamo Bay by the United States Military.

Gitanjali Gutierrez is an attorney with the Center for Constitutional Rights, a New York-based nonprofit organization.

The Toronto Star quoted Gutierrez, in a February 4, 2007, article,

states that Gutierrez was the first lawyer to visit a Guantanamo captive.

The article quotes Gutierrez about the emotional state of her clients, since her first visits to the camp:

"They were just shell-shocked. They were getting news for the first time from outside."

"It has been a downhill battle since ... and they now just struggle to maintain hope."

"This place isn't just illegal, it's immoral, and I don't think the U.S. can afford to keep it open."Gutierrez is one of the plaintiffs in CCR v. Bush, filed on July 9, 2007.

Four other individuals filed this suit.

In addition to President Bush,

the other defendants were, Keith B. Alexander Director of the National Security Agency;

Michael D. Maples, Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency;

Porter J. Goss, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency;

Michael Chertoff, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security;

Robert S. Mueller III, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation;

and John D. Negroponte, Director of National Intelligence.

Gutierrez and her colleagues were suing the US government to object to its interception of their mail, email and phone calls.

On October 15, 2007, Gutierrez wrote about her upcoming first meeting with Majid Khan.

Khan, a Pakistani who was a legal resident of the USA, who completed his high school and University education in Maryland, is the first of the "high value detainees" to meet with a lawyer.

Majid Khan, and thirteen other captives, including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Abu Zubaydah, were transferred from CIA custody, to military custody in Guantanamo, on September 6, 2006.

The high value detainees had been clandestinely held in the CIA's black sites.

She has been awarded the Fourth IRDS Awards for Law for fighting for the rights of these prisoners, awarded by the Lucknow-based Institute for Research and Documentation in Social Sciences (IRDS).Gitanjali Gutierrez was a featured speaker at TEDxBermuda 2011, presenting: "Finding Humanity in the Tortured Darkness of Guantanamo"

Global Trade Exchange

The Global Trade Exchange (GTX) is, or was, a controversial Homeland Security intelligence project, related to maritime-ports data-mining, being one of three pillars of the Safe Ports Act-related Secure Freight Initiatives. The Global Trade Exchange has a mysterious history dating from conception in 2004, a 2007-2008 year of hype, and sudden placement on "hold" status. Described as a ready-to-buy, commercially available database, the GTX was rush-funded by Congress as part of and championed relentlessly by then-United States Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff in evident disregard of objections of confused and frustrated U.S. private sector trade groups. After a year-long spate of official support, media hype, and after award of Congressional funding of $13 million, the GTX was put "on hold for further study by the [U.S.] Navy" in April 2008, for reasons still yet to-be explained. Touted by senior U.S. officials and Congress in 2007 as an anti-terrorism database for tracking long-haul shipping containers, the Global Trade Exchange's principal focus appears to have a different focus, notably advance trade-finance information for market-making purposes.

The Global Trade Exchange (GTX) was mentioned in a 2007 Wikileaks cable as an intelligence agency trade data project, run by the Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Patrol, intended to involve many other intelligence agencies worldwide.

Julie Myers

Julie Lyn Myers Wood (born 1969) was the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security for Immigration and Customs Enforcement. She assumed the job following a recess appointment by President George W. Bush on January 4, 2006. Previously, Myers worked for the Office of Independent Counsel under Kenneth Starr and was a lead prosecutor in the Independent Counsel's failed case against Susan McDougal. She currently is CEO for Guidepost Solutions, LLC, a leading investigative and compliance consulting firm.After leaving the Office of Independent Counsel, Myers was appointed Assistant Secretary for Export Enforcement at the Department of Commerce. In that capacity, she oversaw 170 employees and a $25 million budget for one year. She is the niece of former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Richard Myers and is the wife of John F. Wood, the former US Attorney for the Western District of Missouri and the former chief of staff for the Secretary of Homeland Security. Michael Chertoff, the Secretary of Homeland Security at the time, was her boss.

Larry L. Hereth

Rear Admiral Larry L. Hereth was the Commander of the Fifth Coast Guard District of the United States Coast Guard. He has also acted as director of port security and Assistant Commandant for Marine Safety, Security and Environmental Protection. He retired in 2007, after 34 years of service.Rear Admiral Hereth is a 1973 graduate of the United States Coast Guard Academy. He also earned an MBA in 1992 from Florida Institute of Technology. In his 32 years of service, he has seen a broad-based career with an emphasis on field operations. His wide-ranging assignments have taken him throughout the United States with multiple tours at east, gulf and west coast ports. The Fifth Coast Guard District was his fourth command assignment. In 2005 he served as the Principal Federal Official for Hurricane Rita Recovery operations reporting directly to DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff.He has received numerous personal awards throughout his career, including the Department of Transportation Secretary's Gold Medal Award, the Legion of Merit, the 9-11 Medal and the Meritorious Service Medal with the Operational Distinguishing Device.

After retiring from the Coast Guard, Hereth settled in Lawrenceburg, Indiana where he became a certified financial planner. He was elected to the board of directors of the Military Officers Association of America in 2012, serving on the board's print and digital media committee.

Madam's Organ Blues Bar

Madam's Organ Blues Bar is a restaurant and nightclub located at 2461 18th Street NW in Washington, D.C.'s Adams Morgan neighborhood. A local landmark, the bar is popular for its nightly live music, especially blues and bluegrass. Regular performers include Bobby Parker, Ben Andrews, Catfish Hodge, and Bob Perilla & Big Hillbilly Bluegrass. The bar offers billiards, has a rooftop deck and serves soul food. Notable regular patrons have included Euan Blair, son of Tony Blair, and the late Soviet dissident artist Alexandr Zhdanov. Hungarian Ambassador András Simonyi was not only a regular patron but also performed with his band "Coalition of the Willing" for his Washington Diplomatic farewell party attended by a Washington A-list including European diplomats, United States Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff, and Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány. Additionally, Vince Vaughn and Owen Wilson were regulars during the filming of Wedding Crashers, and Politically Incorrect host Bill Maher always stops by when in Washington. Barbara and Jenna Bush have also been spotted there. Madam's Organ was described as a favored hangout by Playboy and Stuff, and was featured on the Wild On! travel series on E!.

Michael Chagares

Michael A. Chagares (born May 1, 1962) is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.

Morton Ira Greenberg

Morton Ira Greenberg (born March 20, 1933) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on February 11, 1987 and was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 20, 1987.

Optional Practical Training

Optional Practical Training (OPT) is a period during which undergraduate and graduate students with F-1 status who have completed or have been pursuing their degrees for one academic year are permitted by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to work for one year on a student visa towards getting practical training to complement their education.

On April 2, 2008, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Michael Chertoff announced a 17-month extension to the OPT for students in qualifying STEM fields. To be eligible for the 12-month permit, any degree in any field of studies is valid. For the 17-month OPT extension, a student must have received a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics degree as listed on the USCIS website.

On May 31, 2008, the Immigration Reform Law Institute filed a lawsuit in federal court on behalf of various organizations and individuals challenging the validity of the 17 month OPT extension. A similar lawsuit in November 2014 challenging the STEM extension was successful, with the Court giving the US government up to February 12, 2016 to formulate new rules. The deadline was subsequently extended by three months.

On March 11, 2016, the Department of Homeland Security published a final rule allowing certain F-1 students who receive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees, and who meet other specified requirements, to apply for a 24-month extension of their post-completion OPT, giving STEM graduates a total of 36 months of OPT. The 24-month extension will replace the 17-month STEM OPT extension previously available to STEM students (see 73 FR 18944). Eligible students may begin applying for a 24-month STEM OPT extension on May 10, 2016.There also exists a post-completion Optional Practical Training option for students on M-1 visas, but it is significantly more restrictive than that for F-1 students. Unless otherwise specified, Optional Practical Training is understood to refer to Optional Practical Training for F-1 students.

Pandemic (South Park)

"Pandemic" is the tenth episode in the twelfth season of the American animated television series South Park. The 177th episode of the series overall, it originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on October 22, 2008.

It is the first of a two-part episode. In the episode, the boys try to capitalize on a sudden rise in Peruvian flute bands, unwittingly becoming players in a demonic being's plan to employ giant guinea pigs to attack the public. The storyline of this episode concludes in the next episode, "Pandemic 2: The Startling".

The episode was written and directed by series co-creator Trey Parker.

Rob Capriccioso

Rob Capriccioso is the Washington D.C. Bureau Chief for Indian Country Today Media Network. An enrolled citizen of the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, he covers the White House, the Executive Branch, the United States Congress, the Supreme Court of the United States, and presidential campaigns; 2004; 2008; and 2012. He is the first Native American journalist to Q&A a sitting president, in an Oct. 4, 2012 news story titled, "President Obama Answers Questions From Indian Country Today Media Network in Unprecedented Exchange." He interviews such notables as former White House Chief of Staff Pete Rouse, Bolivian President Evo Morales, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, former Homeland Security Chief Michael Chertoff, members of Congress and tribal leaders. His reporting on indigenous issues was cited in testimony to Congress.One of a small number of Native American journalists to contribute to mainstream media, he conducts political writing and editing, served as a contributing editor to Campaigns and Elections Politics Magazine, helped launch Politico as its founding website editor, and appears on National Public Radio to discuss Native and political topics of the day. In 2009–10, he was a contributor to True/Slant, the Forbes-backed online network. His articles have appeared in American Indian Report, News from Indian Country, The New York Sun, High Country News, The American, Cultural Survival Quarterly, the New York Post's PageSix.com, Radar Magazine, TMZ.com, The New York Times and The Guardian, He reported education and youth issues for Connect for Kids, and Inside Higher Ed, in Washington D.C. He is a political science and psychology alum of the University of Michigan. He resides in metro Washington DC.

Texas Border Coalition

The Texas Border Coalition (TBC) is a group of elected officials and business leaders located along the border of Texas and Mexico who make policy recommendations to help the Texas-Mexico Border Region grow and prosper economically. TBC is non-partisan, and seeks to help Texas border communities speak with one voice on areas of agreement, focusing on immigration and ports of entry, transportation, health care and education and workforce development.

TBC first rose to national prominence on May 16, 2008, when they filed a class action lawsuit against Michael Chertoff (Department of Homeland Security) and Robert Janson (US Customs and Border Protection) alleging government abuses in construction of the border fence.Since, TBC has been an active participant in state and federal policy debates that affect border communities. Recent initiatives have included attempts to dispel the myth of violence spilling over to the Texas side of the Texas-Mexico Border and pushing for more personnel and improved infrastructure at land ports of entry.

Transatlantic Commission on Election Integrity

The Transatlantic Commission on Election Integrity is a bi-partisan initiative by leading figures in politics, tech, media and business from Europe and the US with the aim of addressing the question of foreign interference in elections.

Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Intelligence and Analysis

The Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Intelligence and Analysis is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Homeland Security. The Under Secretary, as head of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis at DHS, is the principal staff assistant and adviser to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security for fusing law enforcement and intelligence information relating to terrorist threats.

The Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The current Under Secretary is David Glawe, since he assumed office on August 8, 2017.

United States Department of Homeland Security

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the U.S. federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries. Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management. It was created in response to the September 11 attacks and is the youngest U.S. cabinet department.

In fiscal year 2017, it was allocated a net discretionary budget of $40.6 billion. With more than 240,000 employees, DHS is the third largest Cabinet department, after the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Departments of Health and Human Services, Justice, and Energy.

Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen resigned on April 7, 2019, effective April 10. By law (6 U.S.C. §113(g)), Undersecretary for Management Claire Grady was to become the acting Secretary of Homeland Security. On April 7, President Donald J. Trump designated the current U.S. Customs and Border Protection Commissioner Kevin McAleenan as acting Secretary; that became legal after Trump forced Grady to resign on April 9. McAleenan then named David Pekoske, who currently also serves as the TSA Administrator, as the acting Deputy Secretary.

United States Senate Whitewater Committee

The Senate Whitewater Committee, officially the Special Committee to Investigate Whitewater Development Corporation and Related Matters, was a special committee convened by the United States Senate during the Clinton administration to investigate the Whitewater scandal.

The committee was created by S.Res. 120 on May 17, 1995, and approved by the Senate, 96-3. Hearings ran for 300 hours over 60 sessions across 13 months, taking over 10,000 pages of testimony and 35,000 pages of depositions from almost 250 people, and culminating in an 800-page final majority report on June 18, 1996.The hearings did not receive much public interest: they were televised on C-SPAN, not the major networks; they were reported on in daily newspapers, but rarely made evening newscasts; media critics rated the hearings a "snooze" - and there were few dramatic moments of testimony, as D'Amato and Chertoff were unable to find any "smoking guns" for their case.Some key figures of the Senate Whitewater Committee were:

Al D'Amato (Republican - New York), chair

Paul Sarbanes (Democratic - Maryland), ranking member

Michael Chertoff - majority (Republican) counsel

Richard Ben-Veniste - minority (Democratic) counsel

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