Miami Herald

The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami.[3] Founded in 1903, it is the second largest newspaper in South Florida, serving Miami-Dade, Broward, and Monroe Counties. It also circulates throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.[4]

Miami Herald
The Miami Herald front page
Cover of the Miami Herald (June 13, 2016), with the headline story reporting on the nightclub shooting in Orlando, Florida
TypeDaily newspaper
Owner(s)The McClatchy Company[1]
PublisherAlexandra Villoch
EditorAminda Marqués Gonzalez
FoundedSeptember 15, 1903 (as The Miami Evening Record)
Headquarters3511 NW 91 Ave.
Doral, Florida, U.S. 33172
Circulation147,130 daily
190,751 Sunday (as of 2011)[2]
OCLC number2733685


The newspaper employs over 800 people in Miami and across several bureaus, including Bogotá, Managua, Tallahassee, Vero Beach, Key West, another shared space in McClatchy's Washington bureau. Its newsroom staff of about 450 includes 144 reporters, 69 editors, 69 copy editors, 29 photographers, five graphic artists (not including page designers), 11 columnists, sixteen critics, 48 editorial specialists, and 18 news assistants.

The newspaper has been awarded 22 Pulitzer Prizes since beginning publication in 1903.[5] Well-known columnists include Pulitzer-winning political commentator Leonard Pitts, Jr., Pulitzer-winning reporter Mirta Ojito, humorist Dave Barry and novelist Carl Hiaasen. Other columnists include Fred Grimm and sportswriters Edwin Pope, Dan Le Batard and Greg Cote. Alexandra Villoch is the publisher, and Aminda Marqués Gonzalez[6] is the executive editor.

The newspaper averages 88 pages daily and 212 pages on Sundays.

The Miami Herald's coverage of Latin American and Hispanic affairs is widely considered among the best of U.S. newspapers.

The Miami Herald also participates in "Politifact Florida",[7] a website that focuses on the truth about Florida issues, along with the Tampa Bay Times, which created the Politifact concept. The Herald and the Times share resources on news stories related to Florida.


Miami Herald 07 August 1945
A Miami Herald headline dated August 7, 1945 featuring the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan

Early history

The first edition was published September 15, 1903, as The Miami Evening Record. After the recession of 1907, the newspaper had severe financial difficulties. Its largest creditor was Henry Flagler. Through a loan from Henry Flagler, Frank B. Shutts, who was also the founder of the law firm Shutts & Bowen, acquired the paper and renamed it the Miami Herald on December 1, 1910. Although it is the longest continuously published newspaper in Miami, the earliest newspaper in the region was The Tropical Sun, established in 1891. The Miami Metropolis, which later became The Miami News, was founded in 1896, and was the Herald's oldest competitor until 1988, when it went out of business.

During the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the Miami Herald was the largest newspaper in the world, as measured by lines of advertising.[8] During The Great Depression in the 1930s, the Herald came close to receivership, but recovered.

On October 25, 1939, John S. Knight, son of a noted Ohio newspaperman, bought the Herald from Frank B. Shutts. Knight became editor and publisher, and made his brother, James L. Knight, the business manager. The Herald had 383 employees. Lee Hills arrived as city editor in September 1942. He later became the Herald's publisher and eventually the chairman of Knight-Ridder Inc., a position he held until 1981.

Post-war history

The Miami Herald International Edition, printed by partner newspapers throughout the Caribbean and Latin America, began in 1946. It is commonly available at resorts in the Caribbean countries such as the Dominican Republic, and, though printed by the largest local newspaper Listín Diario, it is not available outside such tourist areas. It was extended to Mexico in 2002.[9]

The Herald won its first Pulitzer Prize in 1950, for its reporting on Miami's organized crime. Its circulation was 176,000 daily and 204,000 on Sundays.

On August 19, 1960, construction began on the Herald building on Biscayne Bay. Also on that day, Alvah H. Chapman, started work as James Knight's assistant. Chapman was later promoted to Knight-Ridder chairman and chief executive officer. The Herald moved into its new building at One Herald Plaza without missing an edition on March 23–24, 1963.

The paper won a landmark press freedom decision in Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo (1974).[10] In the case, a political candidate, Pat Tornillo Jr., had requested that the Herald print his rebuttal to an editorial criticizing him, citing Florida's "right-to-reply" law, which mandated that newspapers print such responses. Represented by longtime counsel Dan Paul, the Herald challenged the law, and the case was appealed to the Supreme Court.[11] The Court unanimously overturned the Florida statute under the Press Freedom Clause of the First Amendment, ruling that "Governmental compulsion on a newspaper to publish that which 'reason' tells it should not be published is unconstitutional."[12] The decision showed the limitations of a 1969 decision, Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. Federal Communications Commission, in which a similar "Fairness Doctrine" had been upheld for radio and television, and establishing that broadcast and print media had different Constitutional protections.[11]

Publication of a Spanish-language supplemental insert named El Herald began in 1976. It was renamed El Nuevo Herald in 1987, and in 1998 became an independent publication.

Recent history and Arthur Teele suicide

In 2003, the Miami Herald and El Universal of Mexico City created an international joint venture, and in 2004 they together launched The Herald Mexico, a short-lived English-language newspaper for readers in Mexico. Its final issue was published in May 2007.

On July 27, 2005, former Miami city commissioner Arthur Teele walked into the main lobby of the Herald's headquarters and phoned Herald columnist Jim DeFede (one of several telephone conversations that the two had had during the day) to say that he had a package for DeFede. He then asked a security officer to tell his (Teele's) wife Stephanie that he loved her, before pulling out a gun and committing suicide.[13] This happened the day the Miami New Times, a weekly newspaper, published salacious details of Teele's alleged affairs, including allegations that he had had sex and used cocaine with a transsexual prostitute.

The day before committing suicide, Teele had had another telephone conversation with DeFede, who recorded this call without Teele's knowledge, which was illegal under Florida law. DeFede admitted to the Herald's management that he had taped the call. Although the paper used quotes from the tape in its coverage, DeFede was fired the next day for violating the paper's code of ethics, and he was likely guilty of a felony.

Many journalists and readers of the Herald disagreed with the decision to fire rather than suspend DeFede, arguing that it had been made in haste and that the punishment was disproportionate to the offense. 528 journalists, including about 200 current and former Herald staffers, called on the Herald to reinstate DeFede, but the paper's management refused to back down. The state attorney's office later declined to file charges against the columnist, holding that the potential violation was "without a (living) victim or a complainant".[14]

On September 8, 2006, the Miami Herald's president Jesús Díaz, Jr. fired three journalists because they had allegedly been paid by the United States government to work for anti-Cuba propaganda TV and radio channels. The three were Pablo Alfonso, Wilfredo Cancio Isla and Olga Connor.[15] Less than a month later, responding to pressure from the Cuban community in Miami, Díaz resigned after reinstating the fired journalists. Nevertheless, he continues to claim that such payments, especially if made from organs of the state, violate the principles of journalistic independence.[16] At least seven other journalists who do not work at the Herald, namely Miguel Cossio, Carlos Alberto Montaner, Juan Manuel Cao, Ariel Remos, Omar Claro, Helen Aguirre Ferre, Paul Crespo, and Ninoska Perez-Castellón, were also paid for programs on Radio Martí or TV Martí,[15][17] both financed by the government of the United States through the Broadcasting Board of Governors, receiving a total of between $15,000 and $175,000 USD since 2001.

Miami Herald building
The Miami Herald's former headquarters on Biscayne Bay in the Arts & Entertainment District of Downtown Miami; the paper moved from its waterfront headquarters in 2013 to a location in suburban Doral. The Herald building was demolished in 2014.

In May 2011, the paper announced it had sold 14 acres (5.7 ha) of Biscayne Bayfront land surrounding its headquarters in the Arts & Entertainment District of Downtown Miami for $236 million, to a Malaysian resort developer, Genting Malaysia Berhad. McClatchy announced that the Herald and El Nuevo Herald would be moving to another location by 2013.[18] In May 2013, the paper moved to a new building in suburban Doral.[19] The old building was demolished in 2014.

In November 2018, the Herald broke the story that "in 2007, despite substantial evidence that corroborated (female teenager's) stories of (sexual) abuse by Epstein, the U.S. attorney in Miami, Alexander Acosta, signed off on a secret deal for the multimillionaire, one that ensured he would never spend a day in prison." Thus, the full extent of Epstein's crimes and his collaborators remained hidden and the victims unaware of this arrangement.[20]


The Miami Herald - Former Site in Downtown Miami 02

Radio Tower platform and pilons in front of the former building site

The Miami Herald - Former Site in Downtown Miami 01

Open field where newspaper building once stood

The Miami Herald - Former Site in Downtown Miami 03

Ship moors and remaining walkway

Community involvement

The Miami Herald sponsors several community involvement projects, such as those detailed below.

The Wish Book program lets community members who are suffering from hardships ask for help from the paper's readers. Wishes have included asking for donations to buy medical equipment for a sick child, help with renovations to make a home wheelchair-accessible, monetary donations to an impoverished family dealing with cancer treatments, and help to an elderly resident wanting to learn how to use a computer. Readers may donate to specific causes or to the program at large.

The Herald also co-sponsors spelling bees and athletic awards in South Florida.

The "Tropic" section and its columnist Dave Barry run the Herald Hunt, a unique annual puzzlehunt in the Miami area.

Miami Herald's Silver Knight Awards

The Miami Herald Silver Knight Awards is a highly regarded student awards programs. The purpose of this Awards program is to recognize outstanding individuals & leaders who have maintained good grades and have applied their knowledge and talents to contribute service to their schools and communities. The Silver Knight Awards program was instituted at The Miami Herald in 1959 by John S. Knight, past publisher of The Miami Herald, founder and editor emeritus of Knight-Ridder Newspapers and 1968 Pulitzer Prize winner.

Schools nominate representatives for each category.[21] A Miami Herald appointed judge paneled interview process in each category, only one Silver Knight Award is granted in each county Broward & Dade every year. These awards have been given in Miami-Dade County, Florida since 1959 and in Broward County, Florida since 1984. The televised award ceremonies are given in each county.

This nomination program is only open to seniors with a minimum 3.2 GPA (unweighted) in public, private, and parochial schools in 15 categories: Art, Athletics, Business, Digital & Interactive, Drama, English & Literature, General Scholarship, Journalism, Mathematics, Music & Dance, Science, Social Science, Speech, Vocational-Technical, and World Languages. Each school may only nominate one student per category.[22]

Silver Knights receive $2,000, a Silver Knight statue and a medallion presented by American Airlines. The three Honorable Mentions are presented $500 and an engraved plaque. The cash awards are made possible in part by the support of the Blank Family Foundation.

Miami Herald's Silver Knight award winners


Miami Herald Media Company, which owns the Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald, is headquartered in Doral, Florida.[3][23] It is located in a two‑story, 160,000-square-foot (15,000 m2) building that had been the U.S. Southern Command center. The newspaper uses 110,000 square feet (10,000 m2) of space for office purposes. In 2013 there were 650 people working there. The newspaper had purchased land adjacent to the headquarters to build the 119,000-square-foot (11,100 m2) printing plant.[23]

The previous headquarters, One Herald Plaza, were located on a 14-acre (5.7 ha) plot in Biscayne Bay, Miami. This facility opened in March 1963. In 2011 the Genting Group, a Malaysian company, offered to pay the Miami Herald Media Company $236 million for the current headquarters property. The company began scouting for a new headquarters location after finalizing the sale.[24] The then president and publisher of the media company, David Landsberg, stated that it was not necessary at that point to be located in the city center, and remaining there would be too expensive.[23] The newspaper moved to its current Doral headquarters in May 2013. On April 28, 2014, demolition began on the building on Biscayne Bay between the MacArthur and Venetian causeways.[25]


Pulitzer Prizes

Missouri Lifestyle Journalism Awards

In the 1960s under the leadership of Women's Page editor Marie Anderson and assistant women's page editor Marjorie Paxson the Herald won four Missouri Lifestyle Journalism Awards (then called the Penney-Missouri Awards) for General Excellence.[28] The section won the award in 1960, the year of the awards' inauguration.[28] In 1961, it won again, and the program director asked Anderson to sit the 1962 awards out.[28] In 1963 the paper took second place, and in 1964 another first, and the paper was barred from competing for the next five years. In 1969 it won another first. Kimberly Wilmot Voss and Lance Speere, writing in the scholarly journal Florida Historical Quarterly, said Anderson "personified" the Penney-Missouri competition's goals.[29]

See also


  1. ^ "Our Markets". Sacramento, California: McClatchy Company. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  2. ^ "Miami Herald 2011" (PDF). Miami Herald Media Company. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Contact Us." Miami Herald. Retrieved January 24, 2014. "The Miami Herald 3511 NW 91 Ave. Miami, FL 33172"
  4. ^ Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 196-201
  5. ^ "Our Markets: Miami Herald". The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016.
  6. ^ "About Us". Miami Herald. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  7. ^ "PolitiFact Florida | Sorting out the truth in politics". Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  8. ^ Smiley, Nixon (1974). Knights of the Fourth Estate: The Story of the Miami Herald. Miami: E. A. Seeman. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-912458-42-7.
  9. ^ "The Miami Herald | American newspaper". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  10. ^ Dennis Hevesi (February 2, 2010). "Dan Paul, 85, leading lawyer for press freedom". Boston Globe.  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
  11. ^ a b Richard Campbell; Christopher R. Martin; Bettina Fabos (February 20, 2012). Media and Culture with 2013 Update: An Introduction to Mass Communication. Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 498. ISBN 978-1-4576-0491-1. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
  12. ^ "MIAMI HERALD PUBLISHING CO. v. TORNILLO, 418 U.S. 241 (1974)". via FindLaw. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
  13. ^ Carlson, Coralie (July 28, 2005). "Former Miami commissioner Teele is dead, police say". St. Augustine Record. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  14. ^ "Miami Code Violations on the Rise". Code Violation Center. January 27, 2016. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  15. ^ a b "US 'paid anti-Cuba journalists'". BBC News. September 9, 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
  16. ^ Bauzá, Vanessa; Baró Diaz, Madeline. "Herald Publisher Resigns". Sun‑Sentinel. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015.
  17. ^ "10 Miami journalists take U.S. pay". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007.
  18. ^ Hanks, Douglas (May 27, 2011). "Miami Herald parent sells land for $236 million; newspaper operations unaffected". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011.
  19. ^ "Miami Herald completes move from downtown Miami". Miami Herald. May 17, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  20. ^ Julie K. Brown, Aaron Albright (November 28, 2018). "Perversion of Justice". Miami Herald. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  21. ^ "Silver Knight: Qualifications & Nomination Process". Miami Herald. October 29, 2008. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016.
  22. ^ "What is a Silver Knight?". miamiherald. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  23. ^ a b c Beasley, Adam. "Our new home: Miami Herald's Doral headquarters reflects a modern reality." Miami Herald. Tuesday June 4, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  24. ^ "The Miami Herald Moving Project". The Movers US Group. October 27, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  25. ^ "Demolition begins on former Miami Herald bayfront building". Miami Herald. April 28, 2014. Archived from the original on July 12, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  26. ^ "The 2017 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Editorial Cartooning". Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  27. ^ "The 2017 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Explanatory Reporting". Retrieved July 30, 2017.
  28. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference SHSMO was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ Voss, Kimberly Wilmot; Speere, Lance (2007). "A Women's Page Pioneer: Marie Anderson and Her Influence at the Miami Herald and Beyond". Florida Historical Quarterly. 85 (4): 398–421. JSTOR 30150079.

External links

Coordinates: 25°48′25″N 80°20′38″W / 25.8070°N 80.3440°W

Alberto Ibargüen

Alberto Ibargüen (born February 29, 1944) is President and CEO of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation in Miami, Florida. He is the former publisher of The Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald in Miami, Florida. Under his leadership, The Miami Herald won three Pulitzer Prizes; El Nuevo Herald won Spain's Ortega y Gasset Prize for excellence in journalism.

Bridget Carey

Bridget Marie Carey (born June 1984) is an American technology journalist and host of the CNET Update. She authored the nation's first social media etiquette column, Poked and previously hosted a popular online gadget review show, Bridget Carey's Tech Review. Her award-winning writing commentary on netiquette started at The Miami Herald and was syndicated nationwide until August 2011. She has since departed to tech media website CNET.

Carl Hiaasen

Carl Hiaasen (; born March 12, 1953) is an American writer. A long-time columnist for the Miami Herald and Tribune Content Agency, Hiaasen has also written more than 20 novels which can generally be classified as humorous crime fiction and often feature themes of environmentalism and political corruption in his native Florida.

Carol Rosenberg

Carol Rosenberg is a senior journalist, currently with the McClatchy News Service. A military-affairs reporter at the Miami Herald, since January 2002 she has reported on the operation of the United States' Guantanamo Bay detention camps, at its naval base in Cuba.

Her coverage of detention of captives at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp has been praised by her colleagues and legal scholars, and she has been invited to speak about it at the National Press Club.

She had previously covered events in the Middle East. In 2011, she received the Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award for her nearly decade of work on the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.

Clark Hoyt

Clark Hoyt is an American journalist who was the public editor of The New York Times, serving as the "readers' representative." He was the newspaper's third public editor, or ombudsman, after Daniel Okrent and Byron Calame. His initial two-year term began on May 14, 2007, and was later extended for another year, expiring in June 2010.

Dan Le Batard

Dan Le Batard (born December 16, 1968) is an American newspaper sportswriter, radio host, and television reporter based in Miami, Florida. He is best known for his work with ESPN, and for his hometown paper, the Miami Herald, for which he wrote from 1990 to 2016.

Le Batard hosts a daily radio show with Jon "Stugotz" Weiner that originates from WAXY in Miami and is carried nationally on ESPN Radio. He also hosts Highly Questionable, which airs daily on ESPN and was originally titled Dan Le Batard is Highly Questionable; Le Batard co-hosts the program with his father Gonzalo and revolving co-host. Additionally, he is a frequent contributor to several ESPN programs, serving as a regular replacement host for Pardon the Interruption.

Dave Barry

David McAlister Barry (born July 3, 1947) is an American author and columnist who wrote a nationally syndicated humor column for the Miami Herald from 1983 to 2005. He has also written numerous books of humor and parody, as well as comic novels. Barry's honors include the Pulitzer Prize for Commentary (1988) and the Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Journalism (2005).

Barry has defined a sense of humor as "a measurement of the extent to which we realize that we are trapped in a world almost totally devoid of reason. Laughter is how we express the anxiety we feel at this knowledge."

Edwin Pope

John Edwin Pope (April 11, 1928 – January 19, 2017) was an American journalist known for his sportswriting at the Miami Herald, where his work appeared from 1956 until his death in 2017. He covered Super Bowl I through Super Bowl XLVII. Some referred to him as "the best writer of sports in America."

El Nuevo Herald

El Nuevo Herald is a newspaper published daily in Spanish in Southeast Florida, United States. Its headquarters is in Doral. El Nuevo Herald's sister paper is the Miami Herald, also produced by the McClatchy Company.

Gene Miller

Gene Miller (1928–2005) was a longtime investigative reporter at The Miami Herald who won two Pulitzer Prizes for reporting that helped save innocent men on Florida's Death Row from execution. He was also a legendary editor, mentoring generations of young reporters in how to write crisp, direct, and entertaining stories. When he died of cancer in 2005, the Herald called him "the soul and the conscience of our newsroom."

Inter Miami CF

Club Internacional de Fútbol Miami, referred to as Inter Miami CF or Inter Miami, is a professional soccer expansion team to be based in Miami, Florida. The team is due to begin play in Major League Soccer (MLS) in 2020, with its permanent home stadium opening a season or two later pending final decisions about financing and location.The ownership group, formed in 2013 as Miami Beckham United, now works through Miami Freedom Park LLC. The group is led by David Beckham, his business partner Simon Fuller, and Miami-based Bolivian businessman Marcelo Claure, while Masayoshi Son and brothers Jorge and Jose Mas were added to the ownership group in 2017. The effort originated in a contract Beckham signed with MLS in 2007; he joined LA Galaxy and negotiated an option to own an expansion team at a discounted franchise fee.MLS officially awarded the group an expansion team on January 29, 2018. The award represented part of a larger MLS expansion that would increase its number of teams to 24 by 2020 and 28 after that. Since Beckham's original announcement of his intention to place a team in Miami in 2014, Orlando City, Los Angeles FC, Minnesota United, Atlanta United, and FC Cincinnati have all begun MLS play.

A November 2018 referendum saw roughly 60% of city voters approving a measure to convert a city-owned golf course near the international airport into Inter Miami CF's new stadium, Miami Freedom Park.

Israel Gutierrez

Israel Gutierrez (born June 26, 1977) is a sports reporter for ESPN. Before joining the staff at ESPN, he worked for the Miami Herald as well as The Palm Beach Post.

He has covered the Miami Heat for both newspapers. A South Florida native and University of Florida graduate, he also has covered the Florida Marlins. Gutierrez is of Dominican descent.

José Fernández (pitcher)

José Delfín Fernández Gómez (July 31, 1992 – September 25, 2016) was a Cuban-born American professional baseball pitcher. He stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighed 243 pounds (110 kg) during his playing career. He was affectionately known as "Niño" by his teammates and fans due to the youthful exuberance with which he played the game. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Miami Marlins from 2013 until his accidental death in 2016.

Fernández was born in Santa Clara, Cuba. He made three unsuccessful attempts at defecting to the United States before he finally succeeded in 2008. He enrolled at Braulio Alonso High School in Tampa, Florida, and was selected by the Marlins in the first round of the 2011 MLB draft. Fernández made his MLB debut with the Marlins on April 7, 2013. He was named to the 2013 MLB All-Star Team, and won the National League (NL) Rookie of the Month Award in July and August. After the season, he won the NL Rookie of the Year Award and finished third in Cy Young Award balloting. He underwent Tommy John surgery during the 2014 season and made the MLB All-Star Team again in 2016.

Fernández was 24 when he and two others were killed in a pre-dawn boating crash off the coast of Miami Beach, Florida, on September 25, 2016.

List of sister cities in Florida

This is a list of sister states, regions, and cities in the U.S. state of Florida. Sister cities, known in Europe as town twins, are cities which partner with each other to promote human contact and cultural links, although this partnering is not limited to cities and often includes counties, regions, states and other sub-national entities.

Florida jurisdictions often partner with foreign cities through Sister Cities International, an organization whose goal is to "promote peace through mutual respect, understanding, and cooperation." Sister cities interact with each other across a broad range of activities, from health care and education to business and the arts.

Lowell Correctional Institution

Lowell Correctional Institution is a women's prison in unincorporated Marion County, Florida, north of Ocala, in the unincorporated area of Lowell. A part of the Florida Department of Corrections, it serves as the primary prison for women in the state. Almost 3,000 women are incarcerated in the complex, which includes the Lowell Annex. As of 2015 2,696 women are in the main Lowell CI, making it the largest prison for women in the United States; its prison population became larger than that of the Central California Women's Facility that year.It opened in April 1956 as the Florida Correctional Institution and was the first Florida prison for women. It houses community, minimum, medium, and close custody inmates. At the time it was opened, Lowell was the only prison that housed solely female offenders in the state.

In 1999, the name was changed to Lowell Correctional Institution/Women's Unit, and in 2000 it was given the latest title of Lowell Correctional Institution. It has a maximum population of 1,456 female inmates ranging anywhere from youth (14–18) to adults (18+). The Annex has a maximum general population of 1,500 and another 150 special housing beds for close management, death row, medical isolation, and confinement. It has consistently been associated with inmate abuse, inhumane conditions, and little to no intervention from the State of Florida (Miami Herald, 2015, 2017)

Mall of the Americas

Mall of the Americas is an enclosed shopping mall located at 7795 West Flagler Street next to the Palmetto Expressway in Miami, Florida. Major stores at the mall include Foot Locker, Old Navy, Ross Dress for Less, Marshalls, The Home Depot, and a Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles office.

Marjory Stoneman Douglas

Marjory Stoneman Douglas (April 7, 1890 – May 14, 1998) was an American journalist, author, women's suffrage advocate, and conservationist known for her staunch defense of the Everglades against efforts to drain it and reclaim land for development. Moving to Miami as a young woman to work for The Miami Herald, she became a freelance writer, producing over a hundred short stories that were published in popular magazines. Her most influential work was the book The Everglades: River of Grass (1947), which redefined the popular conception of the Everglades as a treasured river instead of a worthless swamp. Its impact has been compared to that of Rachel Carson's influential book Silent Spring (1962). Her books, stories, and journalism career brought her influence in Miami, enabling her to advance her causes.

As a young woman, Douglas was outspoken and politically conscious of the women's suffrage and civil rights movements. She was called upon to take a central role in the protection of the Everglades when she was 79 years old. For the remaining 29 years of her life she was "a relentless reporter and fearless crusader" for the natural preservation and restoration of South Florida. Her tireless efforts earned her several variations of the nickname "Grande Dame of the Everglades" as well as the hostility of agricultural and business interests looking to benefit from land development in Florida. She received numerous awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and was inducted into several halls of fame.

Douglas lived to 108, working until nearly the end of her life for Everglades restoration. Upon her death, an obituary in The Independent in London stated, "In the history of the American environmental movement, there have been few more remarkable figures than Marjory Stoneman Douglas."

Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo

Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, 418 U.S. 241 (1974), was a United States Supreme Court case that overturned a Florida state law requiring newspapers to allow equal space in their newspapers to political candidates in the case of a political editorial or endorsement content. The court held that while the statute does not "prevent [newspapers] from saying anything [they] wish" it "exacts a penalty on the basis of the content." Because newspapers are economically finite enterprises, "editors may conclude that the safe course is to avoid controversy," thereby chilling speech. Furthermore, the Court held the exercise of editorial judgment is a protected First Amendment activity. In effect, this ruling reaffirmed the constitutional principle of freedom of the press (detailed in the First Amendment) and prevented state governments from controlling the content of the press. This case illustrates the medium with the most Constitutional protection—newspapers—while Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC (1969) represents the medium with the least protection—broadcast, television, and radio.Miami attorney Dan Paul, long-time attorney for the Miami Herald, was its chief lawyer in the case.

Skip Bayless

Skip Bayless (born John Edward Bayless II December 4, 1951) is an American sports columnist, author, and television personality. He is well known for his work as a commentator on the ESPN2 show, First Take, with Stephen A. Smith, a show which he left in June 2016. Bayless debuted his new show Skip and Shannon: Undisputed with Shannon Sharpe on Fox Sports 1 September 6, 2016.


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