Miami

Miami, officially the City of Miami, is the cultural, economic and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida. The city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles (147 km2), between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east; with a 2017 estimated population of 463,347, Miami is the sixth most densely populated major city in the United States. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation.[8] Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U.S.[9][10] Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet.

Miami is a major center, and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international trade.[11][12] The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017.[13] In 2012, Miami was classified as an "Alpha−" level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory.[14] In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement.[15][16] In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, and citywide recycling programs.[17] According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, and the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power.[18] Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America"[1] and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.[19]

Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, and is home to many large national and international companies.[20][21] The Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, and biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world. It accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, and is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.[22][23] Metropolitan Miami is also a major tourism hub in the southeastern U.S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City.[24]

Miami, Florida
City of Miami
From top, left to right: Downtown, Freedom Tower, Villa Vizcaya, Miami Tower, Virginia Key Beach, Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, American Airlines Arena, PortMiami, the Moon over Miami
Flag of Miami, Florida
Flag
Official seal of Miami, Florida
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Magic City, The Gateway to the Americas, Capital of Latin America[1]
Miami city limits in and around Miami-Dade County and Florida
Miami city limits in and around Miami-Dade County and Florida
Miami is located in Florida
Miami
Miami
Location within Florida
Miami is located in the United States
Miami
Miami
Location within the United States
Miami is located in North America
Miami
Miami
Location within North America
Coordinates: 25°46′31″N 80°12′32″W / 25.77528°N 80.20889°WCoordinates: 25°46′31″N 80°12′32″W / 25.77528°N 80.20889°W
Country United States
State Florida
County Miami-Dade
Settled1825
IncorporatedJuly 28, 1896
Named forMayaimi
Government
 • TypeMayor–commission
 • MayorFrancis X. Suarez (R)
 • City ManagerEmilio T. Gonzalez, PhD
Area
 • Metropolitan City56.06 sq mi (145.20 km2)
 • Land35.99 sq mi (93.20 km2)
 • Water20.08 sq mi (52.00 km2)
 • Urban
1,116.1 sq mi (2,891 km2)
 • Metro
6,137 sq mi (15,890 km2)
Elevation
6 ft (2 m)
Highest elevation
42 ft (13 m)
Lowest elevation
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 • Metropolitan City399,457
 • Estimate 
(2017)[7]
463,347
 • Rank2nd in Florida
43rd in United States
 • Density12,604.32/sq mi (4,866.49/km2)
 • Urban
5,502,379 (US: 4th)
 • Metro
6,158,824 (US: 7th)
 • CSA
6,828,241 (US: 10th)
DemonymsMiamian
Miamense
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code(s)
33010–33299
Area code(s)305 and 786
FIPS code12-45000
GNIS feature IDs277593, 2411786
Primary AirportMiami International Airport
Secondary AirportsFort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport
Palm Beach International Airport
InterstatesI-75.svg I-95.svg I-195.svg I-395.svg
Rapid TransitMetrorail
Commuter RailTri-Rail Brightline
Websitemiamigov.com

History

MiamiAvenue1896
Approximately 400 men voted for Miami's incorporation in 1896 in the building to the left.

The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes. The Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B.C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River.[25]

In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida, (France did rule Pensacola and West Florida). Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole. The Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War.

Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle",[26] a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native. The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness.[27] The area was also characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida."[28] The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami."[29][30] Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300.[31] It was named for the nearby Miami River, derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee.[32]

Mouth of Miami River 20100211
The mouth of the Miami River at Brickell Key

Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population.[33]:25 Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space. When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J (what would later become NW Fifth Avenue), a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed.[33]:33

During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, and Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure. The legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."[33]:53

The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, and the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, Miami, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines. The war brought an increase in Miami's population; by 1940, 172,172 people lived in the city.

After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population. The city developed businesses and cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s, South Florida weathered social problems related to drug wars, immigration from Haiti and Latin America, and the widespread destruction of Hurricane Andrew.[34] Racial and cultural tensions were sometimes sparked, but the city developed in the latter half of the 20th century as a major international, financial, and cultural center. It is the second-largest US city (after El Paso, Texas) with a Spanish-speaking majority, and the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.[19]

Miami and its metropolitan area grew from just over 1,000 residents to nearly 5.5 million residents in just 110 years (1896–2006). The city's nickname, The Magic City, comes from its rapid growth. This rapid growth was noticed by winter visitors when they remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic.[34]

Geography

Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay to the east, which also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 40 ft (12 m)[35] and averages at around 6 ft (1.8 m)[36] above mean sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. The highest undulations are found along the coastal Miami Rock Ridge, whose substrate underlies most of the eastern Miami metropolitan region. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains Miami Beach and South Beach. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24 km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

Geology

Miamihighpoint
View from one of the higher points in Miami, west of downtown. The highest natural point in the city of Miami is in Coconut Grove, near the bay, along the Miami Rock Ridge at 24 feet (7.3 m) above sea level.[37]

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 50 feet (15 m) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (8 m) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet (90 to 110 m) below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer,[38] a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the Miami metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20 ft (5 to 6 m) beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction, though some underground parking garages exist. For this reason, the mass transit systems in and around Miami are elevated or at-grade.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. Alligators have ventured into Miami communities and on major highways.

In terms of land area, Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 56.06 sq mi (145.2 km2). Of that area, 35.99 sq mi (93.2 km2) is land and 20.08 sq mi (52.0 km2) is water. That means Miami comprises over 400,000 people in 36 square miles (93 km2), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the United States, along with New York City, San Francisco, Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

Cityscape

Downtown Miami seen from the Rusty Pelican restaurant on Virginia Key
Downtown Miami seen from the Rusty Pelican restaurant on Virginia Key
Northern Downtown Miami overlooking Interstate 95
Northern Downtown Miami overlooking Interstate 95
Downtown as seen from the Port of Miami
Downtown as seen from the Port of Miami

Neighborhoods

Old U.S. Post Office and Courthouse (Miami, Florida)
The Downtown Miami Historic District is the city's largest historic district, with buildings ranging from 1896 to 1939 in the heart of Downtown.
Miami neighborhoodsmap
Map of Miami neighborhoods
Biscayne Boulevard night 20101202
The Downtown area has the fastest-growing neighborhoods in the city.

Miami is split into many different sections, roughly into North, South, West and Downtown. The heart of the city is Downtown Miami and is technically on the eastern side of the city. This area includes Brickell, Virginia Key, Watson Island, and PortMiami. Downtown is South Florida's central business district, and Florida's largest and most influential central business district. Downtown has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. along Brickell Avenue. Downtown is home to many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. East of Downtown, across Biscayne Bay is South Beach. Just northwest of Downtown, is the Civic Center, which is Miami's center for hospitals, research institutes and biotechnology with hospitals such as Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami VA Hospital, and the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine.

The southern side of Miami includes Coral Way, The Roads and Coconut Grove. Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 connecting Downtown with Coral Gables, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streets. Coconut Grove was established in 1825 and is the location of Miami's City Hall in Dinner Key, the Coconut Grove Playhouse, CocoWalk, many nightclubs, bars, restaurants and bohemian shops, and as such, is very popular with local college students. It is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads, and a heavy tree canopy.[39] Coconut Grove has many parks and gardens such as Villa Vizcaya, The Kampong, The Barnacle Historic State Park, and is the home of the Coconut Grove Convention Center and numerous historic homes and estates.

The western side of Miami includes Little Havana, West Flagler, and Flagami, and is home to many of the city's traditionally immigrant neighborhoods. Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhood, today western Miami is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and Cuba, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities.

The northern side of Miami includes Midtown, a district with a great mix of diversity with many West Indians, Hispanics, European Americans, bohemians, and artists. Edgewater, and Wynwood, are neighborhoods of Midtown and are made up mostly of high-rise residential towers and are home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts. The wealthier residents usually live in the northeastern part, in Midtown, the Design District, and the Upper East Side, with many sought after 1920s homes and home of the MiMo Historic District, a style of architecture originated in Miami in the 1950s. The northern side of Miami also has notable African-American and Caribbean immigrant communities such as Little Haiti, Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater), and Liberty City.

Climate

Miamisummershower
Typical summer afternoon thunderstorm rolling in from the Everglades

Miami has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am)[40][41] with a marked drier season in the winter. Its sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer, and proximity to the Gulf Stream shape its climate. With January averaging 68.2 °F (20.1 °C), winter features highs generally ranging between 73–80 °F (23–27 °C). Cool air usually settles after the passage of a cold front, which produces much of the little amount of rainfall during the season. Lows fall below 50 °F (10 °C), an average of 10–15 nights during the winter season following the passage of cold fronts.

The wet season begins some time in June, ending in mid-October. During this period, temperatures are in the mid 80s to low 90s (29–35 °C), accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved by afternoon thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean, which then allow lower temperatures, but conditions still remain very muggy. Much of the year's 55.9 inches (1,420 mm) of rainfall occurs during this period. Dew points in the warm months range from 71.9 °F (22.2 °C) in June to 73.7 °F (23.2 °C) in August.[42]

Extremes range from 27 °F (−2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917 to 100 °F (38 °C) on July 21, 1940.[43] While Miami has never officially recorded snowfall at any official weather station since records have been kept, snow flurries fell in some parts of Miami on January 19, 1977.[44][45][46][47]

Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season, which is mid-August through the end of September.[48] Although tornadoes are uncommon in the area, one struck in 1925 and again in 1997. Around 40% of homes in Miami are built upon floodplains and are considered as flood-risk zones.[49]

Miami falls under the USDA 10b/11a Plant Hardiness zone.[50]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
19001,681
19105,471225.5%
192029,571440.5%
1930110,637274.1%
1940172,17255.6%
1950249,27644.8%
1960291,68817.0%
1970334,85914.8%
1980346,6813.5%
1990358,5483.4%
2000362,4701.1%
2010399,45710.2%
Est. 2017463,347[54]16.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[55]

The city proper is home to less than one-thirteenth of the population of South Florida. Miami is the 42nd-most populous city in the United States. The Miami metropolitan area, however, which includes Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, had a combined population of more than 5.5 million people, ranked seventh largest in the United States,[56] and is the largest metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. As of 2008, the United Nations estimates that the Miami Urban Agglomeration is the 44th-largest in the world.[57]

Race and ethnicity 2010- Miami (5560452404)
Map of racial distribution in Miami, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Hispanic, Black, Asian

In 1960, non-Hispanic whites represented 80% of Miami-Dade county's population.[58] In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Miami's population as 45.3% Hispanic, 32.9% non-Hispanic White, and 22.7% Black.[59] Miami's explosive population growth has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country, primarily up until the 1980s, as well as by immigration, primarily from the 1960s to the 1990s. Today, immigration to Miami has continued and Miami's growth today is attributed greatly to its fast urbanization and high-rise construction, which has increased its inner city neighborhood population densities, such as in Downtown, Brickell, and Edgewater, where one area in Downtown alone saw a 2,069% increase in population in the 2010 Census. Miami is regarded as more of a multicultural mosaic, than it is a melting pot, with residents still maintaining much of, or some of their cultural traits. The overall culture of Miami is heavily influenced by its large population of Hispanics from the Caribbean and South America and blacks mainly from the Caribbean islands.

Race, ethnicity, religion, and languages

Miami has a minority-majority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 11.9%, down from 41.7% in 1970. Hispanic or Latino (of any race) make up 70% of Miami's population. As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup of the population of Miami included: whites (Including White Hispanic) (72.6%), African Americans (19.2%), Asians (1%), and others.

The 2010 US Census reported that the Latino population in Miami accounted for 70% of its total population,[60] with 34.4% being of Cuban origin, 15.8% had a Central American background (7.2% Nicaraguan, 5.8% Honduran, 1.2% Salvadoran, and 1.0% Guatemalan), 8.7% were of South American descent (3.2% Colombian, 1.4% Venezuelan, 1.2% Peruvian, 1.2% Argentinean, and 0.7% Ecuadorian), 4.0% had other Hispanic or Latino origins (0.5% Spaniard), 3.2% descended from Puerto Ricans, 2.4% were Dominican, and 1.5% had Mexican ancestry.

As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 19.2% of Miami's population. Out of the 19.2%, 5.6% were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American origin (4.4% Haitian, 0.4% Jamaican, 0.4% Bahamian, 0.1% British West Indian, and 0.1% Trinidadian and Tobagonian, 0.1% Other or Unspecified West Indian),[61] 3.0% were Black Hispanics,[60] and 0.4% were Subsaharan African origin.[62][63]

As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 11.9% of Miami's population. Out of the 11.9%, 1.7% were German, 1.6% Italian, 1.4% Irish, 1.0% English, 0.8% French, 0.6% Russian, and 0.5% were Polish.[62][63]

As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 1.0% of Miami's population. Out of the 1.0%, 0.3% were Indian people/Indo-Caribbean American (1,206 people), 0.3% Chinese (1,804 people), 0.2% Filipino (647 people), 0.1% were other Asian (433 people), 0.1% Japanese (245 people), 0.1% Korean (213 people), and 0.0% were Vietnamese (125 people).[62]

In 2010, 1.9% of the population considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity.)[62][63] And 0.5% were of Arab ancestry, as of 2010.[62]

Source: US Census

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Miami (68%), with 39% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 27% professing Roman Catholic beliefs.[66][67] followed by Judaism (8%); Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and a variety of other religions have smaller followings; atheism or no self-identifying organized religious affiliation was practiced by 24%.

There has been a Norwegian Seamen's church in Miami since the early 1980s. In November 2011, Crown Princess Mette-Marit opened a new building for the church. The church was built as a center for the 10,000 Scandinavians that live in Florida. Around 4,000 of them are Norwegian. The church is also an important place for the 150 Norwegians that work at Disney World.[68]

As of 2016, a total of 73% of Miami's population age five and over spoke a language other than English at home. Of this 73%, 64.5% of the population only spoke Spanish at home while 21.1% of the population spoke English at home. About 7% spoke other Indo-European languages at home, while about 0.9% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. The remaining 0.7% of the population spoke other languages at home.[69]

As of 2010, 70.2% of Miami's population age five and over spoke only Spanish at home while 22.7% of the population spoke English at home. About 6.3% spoke other Indo-European languages at home. About 0.4% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. The remaining 0.3% of the population spoke other languages at home. In total, 77.3% spoke another language other than English.[62]

Education, households, and income

As of 2010, 80% of people over age 25 were a High School graduate or higher. 27.3% of people in Miami had a bachelor's degree or higher.[70]

As of 2010, there were 158,317 households of which 14.0% were vacant. 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 18.1% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older (4.0% male and 7.3% female.) The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.15.[62][71]

In 2010, the city population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males.[62][71]

In 2010, 58.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 41.1% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 95.4% were born in Latin America, 2.4% were born in Europe, 1.4% born in Asia, 0.5% born in Africa, 0.2% in North America, and 0.1% were born in Oceania.[63]

In 2004, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) reported that Miami had the highest proportion of foreign-born residents of any major city worldwide (59%), followed by Toronto (50%).

Miami demographics
2010 Census Miami[72] Miami-Dade County Florida
Total population 399,457 2,496,435 18,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010 +10.2% +10.8% +17.6%
Population density 11,135.9/sq mi 1,315.5/sq mi 350.6/sq mi
White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic) 72.6% 73.8% 75.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 70.0% 65.0% 22.5%
Black or African-American 19.2% 18.9% 16.0%
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian) 11.9% 15.4% 57.9%
Asian 1.0% 1.5% 2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan 0.3% 0.2% 0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial) 2.7% 2.4% 2.5%
Some Other Race 4.2% 3.2% 3.6%

Civic engagement

Organizations such as the Miami-Dade Salvation Army and its iconic Red Kettle Christmas Campaign, Hands On Miami, City Year Miami, Human Services Coalition of South Florida, and Citizens for a Better South Florida, among many other organizations have been working to engage Miamians in volunteerism.

Economy

Brickell1
Downtown is South Florida's main hub for finance, commerce and international business. Brickell Avenue has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S.
Miamimanhattanizationdowntown
As seen in 2006, the high-rise construction in Miami has inspired popular opinion of "Miami manhattanization"
Brickell Avenue 20100203
Brickell Avenue in Downtown Miami's Brickell Financial District

Miami is a major center of commerce, finance, and boasts a strong international business community. According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) in 2010 and based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Miami is considered a "Alpha minus world city".[73] Miami has a Gross Metropolitan Product of $257 billion and is ranked 20th worldwide in GMP, and 11th in the United States.[74][75]

Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including but not limited to: Akerman Senterfitt, Alienware, Arquitectonica, Arrow Air, Bacardi, Benihana, Brightstar Corporation, Burger King, Celebrity Cruises, Carnival Corporation, Carnival Cruise Lines, Crispin Porter + Bogusky, Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, Espírito Santo Financial Group, Fizber.com, Greenberg Traurig, Holland & Knight, Inktel Direct, Interval International, Lennar, Navarro Discount Pharmacies, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Oceania Cruises, Perry Ellis International, RCTV International, Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, Ryder Systems, Seabourn Cruise Line, Sedano's, Telefónica USA, UniMÁS, Telemundo, Univision, U.S. Century Bank, Vector Group, and World Fuel Services. Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for more than 1400 multinational corporations, including AIG, American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Kraft Foods, LEO Pharma Americas, Microsoft, Yahoo, Oracle, SBC Communications, Sony, Symantec, Visa International, and Wal-Mart.[76]

Miami is a major television production center, and the most important city in the U.S. for Spanish language media. Univisión, Telemundo and UniMÁS have their headquarters in Miami, along with their production studios. The Telemundo Television Studios produces much of the original programming for Telemundo, such as their telenovelas and talk shows. In 2011, 85% of Telemundo's original programming was filmed in Miami.[77] Miami is also a major music recording center, with the Sony Music Latin and Universal Music Latin Entertainment headquarters in the city, along with many other smaller record labels. The city also attracts many artists for music video and film shootings.

During the mid-2000s, the city witnessed its largest real estate boom since the Florida land boom of the 1920s. During this period, the city had well over a hundred approved high-rise construction projects in which 50 were actually built.[78] Rapid high-rise construction led to fast population growth in the city's inner neighborhoods, primarily in Downtown, Brickell and Edgewater, with these neighborhoods becoming the fastest-growing areas in the city. Miami's skyline is ranked third-most impressive in the U.S., behind New York City and Chicago, and 19th in the world according to the Almanac of Architecture and Design.[79] The city currently has the eight tallest (as well as thirteen of the fourteen tallest) skyscrapers in the state of Florida, with the tallest being the 789-foot (240 m) Four Seasons Hotel & Tower.[80]

A housing market crash in 2007 caused a foreclosure crisis in the area.[81] In 2012, Forbes magazine named Miami the most miserable city in the United States because of a crippling housing crisis that has cost multitudes of residents their homes and jobs. The metro area has one of the highest violent crime rates in the country and workers face lengthy daily commutes.[82] Like other metro areas in the United States, crime in Miami is localized to specific neighborhoods.[83] In a 2016 study by the website 24/7 Wall Street, Miami was rated as the worst U.S. city in which to live, based on crime, poverty, income inequality and housing costs that far exceed the national median.[84]

Miami International Airport and PortMiami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. The Port of Miami is the world's busiest cruise port, and MIA is the busiest airport in Florida, and the largest gateway between the United States and Latin America.[85] Additionally, the city has among the largest concentration of international banks in the country, primarily along Brickell Avenue in Brickell, Miami's financial district. Due to its strength in international business, finance and trade, many international banks have offices in Downtown such as Espírito Santo Financial Group, which has its U.S. headquarters in Miami. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations.

Miami is the home to the National Hurricane Center and the headquarters of the United States Southern Command, responsible for military operations in Central and South America. In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. These industries are centered largely on the western fringes of the city near Doral and Hialeah.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2004, Miami had the third highest incidence of family incomes below the federal poverty line in the United States, making it the third poorest city in the US, behind only Detroit, Michigan (ranked #1) and El Paso, Texas (ranked #2). Miami is also one of the very few cities where its local government went bankrupt, in 2001.[86] On the other hand, Miami has won accolades for its environmental policies: in 2008, it was ranked as "America's Cleanest City" according to Forbes for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and citywide recycling programs.[17]

PortMiami

Port of Miami 20071208
PortMiami is the world's largest cruise ship port, and is the headquarters of many of the world's largest cruise companies

Miami is home to one of the largest ports in the United States, the PortMiami. It is the largest cruise ship port in the world. The port is often called the "Cruise Capital of the World" and the "Cargo Gateway of the Americas".[87] It has retained its status as the number one cruise/passenger port in the world for well over a decade accommodating the largest cruise ships and the major cruise lines. In 2017, the port served 5,340,559 cruise passengers.[88] Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing 9,162,340 tons of cargo in 2017.[88] Among North American ports, it ranks second to the Port of South Louisiana in New Orleans in terms of cargo tonnage imported/exported from Latin America. The port is on 518 acres (2 km2) and has 7 passenger terminals. China is the port's number one import country and number one export country. Miami has the world's largest amount of cruise line headquarters, home to: Carnival Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Royal Caribbean International. In 2014, the Port of Miami Tunnel was completed and is serving PortMiami.[89]

Tourism and conventions

Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than 144,800 jobs in Miami-Dade County.[90] Tourism is one of the city's largest industries. The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the second-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States, and is one of the top-20 destination cities worldwide by international visitor spending. More than 15.9 million visitors arrived in Miami in 2017, adding US$26.1 billion to the economy.[91] With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the newly renovated Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences.

Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Miami include the beaches, South Beach, Lincoln Road, Bayside Marketplace and Downtown Miami. The Art Deco District in South Beach, is reputed as one of the most glamorous in the world for its nightclubs, beaches, historical buildings, and shopping. Annual events such as the Sony Ericsson Open, Art Basel, Winter Music Conference, South Beach Wine & Food Festival, and Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami attract millions to the metropolis every year.

The Vizcaya Museum and Gardens is a National Historic Landmark set on 28 acres in Coral Gables. It is early 20th century estate that includes extensive Italian Renaissance gardens, native woodland landscape, and a historic village outbuildings compound. The landscape and architecture were influenced by Veneto and Tuscan Italian Renaissance models and designed in the Mediterranean Revival architecture style, with Baroque elements.

Culture and contemporary life

Moon over Miami
View of the "Moon over Miami", a famous phrase that has inspired many pop culture items, including a movie, TV series, and song

Miami enjoys a vibrant culture that is influenced by a diverse population from all around the world. Miami is known as the "Magic City" for seemingly popping up overnight due to its young age and massive growth. It is also nicknamed the “Capital of Latin America” because of its high population of Spanish-speakers.

Miami is featured in numerous films and television shows, and video games. The video game Scarface: The World Is Yours takes place in Miami. The game is based on and is a quasi-sequel to the 1983 motion picture Scarface starring Al Pacino reprising his role as Tony Montana, with André Sogliuzzo providing Montana's voice. The game begins in the film's final scene, with Tony Montana's mansion being raided by Alejandro Sosa's (Robert Davi) assassins.[92] Burn Notice, a television series airing from 2007 to 2013 took place in Miami.[93] A fictionalized version of Miami—Vice City—is the setting for the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City.[94]

Entertainment and performing arts

Knightconcerthall
Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the second-largest performing arts center in the United States

In addition to such annual festivals like Calle Ocho Festival and Carnaval Miami, Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers. The newest addition to the Miami arts scene is the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the second-largest performing arts center in the United States after the Lincoln Center in New York City, and is the home of the Florida Grand Opera.[95] Within it are the Ziff Ballet Opera House, the center's largest venue, the Knight Concert Hall, the Carnival Studio Theater and the Peacock Rehearsal Studio. The center attracts many large-scale operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals from around the world and is Florida's grandest performing arts center. Other performing arts venues in Miami include the Gusman Center for the Performing Arts, Coconut Grove Playhouse, Colony Theatre, Lincoln Theatre, Actor's Playhouse at the Miracle Theatre Manuel Artime Theater, Playground Theatre, Wertheim Performing Arts Center, the Fair Expo Center and the Bayfront Park Amphitheater for outdoor music events.

Another very celebrated event is the Miami International Film Festival, taking place every year around the first week of March for a period of 10 days. In which, independent International and American films are screened in the multiple theaters across the city. Miami has over half dozen independent film theaters; O Cinema Miami Beach, O Cinema Wynwood, Coral Gables Art Cinema, MDC's Tower Theater, Miami Beach Cinematheque, Nite Owl Theater, Olympia Theater and the Bill Cosford Cinema.[96]

Ultra Stage
The city is a major music production city and attracts many annual music festivals, such as Ultra Music Festival

The city attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players. Miami has numerous orchestras, symphonies and performing art conservatories. Some of these include the Florida Grand Opera, FIU School of Music, Frost School of Music, Miami Wind Symphony, New World School of the Arts, as well as the music, theater and art schools of the city's many universities and schools.

Miami is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world. Miami is also host to many fashion shows and events, including the annual Miami Fashion Week and the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami held in the Wynwood Art District.[97]

Museums and visual arts

Some of the museums in Miami include the Frost Art Museum, Frost Museum of Science, Institute of Contemporary Art,[98] Miami Children's Museum, Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, as well as HistoryMiami and Pérez Art Museums, both located in the Miami-Dade Cultural Center which also houses the Miami main library.

Cuisine

Cortado (6170237822)
A cortadito is a popular espresso beverage found in cafeterias around Miami. It is particularly popular for breakfast or in the afternoon with a pastelito

The cuisine of Miami is a reflection of its diverse population, with a heavy influence especially from Caribbean cuisine and from Latin American cuisine. By combining the two with American cuisine, it has spawned a unique South Florida style of cooking known as Floribbean cuisine. Floribbean cuisine is widely available throughout Miami and South Florida, and can be found in restaurant chains such as Pollo Tropical.

Cuban immigrants in the 1960s brought the Cuban sandwich, medianoche, Cuban espresso, and croquetas, all of which have grown in popularity to all Miamians, and have become symbols of the city's varied cuisine. Today, these are part of the local culture, and can be found throughout the city in window cafés, particularly outside of supermarkets and restaurants.[99][100] Restaurants such as Versailles restaurant in Little Havana are landmark eateries of Miami. Located on the Atlantic Ocean, and with a long history as a seaport, Miami is also known for its seafood, with many seafood restaurants located along the Miami River, and in and around Biscayne Bay.[101] Miami is also the home of restaurant chains such as Burger King, Tony Roma's and Benihana.

Dialect

The Miami area has a unique dialect, (commonly called the "Miami accent") which is widely spoken. The dialect developed among second- or third-generation Hispanics, including Cuban-Americans, whose first language was English (though some non-Hispanic white, black, and other races who were born and raised in the Miami area tend to adopt it as well).[102] It is based on a fairly standard American accent but with some changes very similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic (especially the New York area dialect, Northern New Jersey English, and New York Latino English). Unlike Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern American, and Northeast American dialects and Florida Cracker dialect, "Miami accent" is rhotic; it also incorporates a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish (wherein rhythm is syllable-timed).[103] However, this is a native dialect of English, not learner English or interlanguage; it is possible to differentiate this variety from an interlanguage spoken by second-language speakers in that "Miami accent" does not generally display the following features: there is no addition of /ɛ/ before initial consonant clusters with /s/, speakers do not confuse of /dʒ/ with /j/, (e.g., Yale with jail), and /r/ and /rr/ are pronounced as alveolar approximant [ɹ] instead of alveolar tap [ɾ] or alveolar trill [r] in Spanish.[104][105][106][107]

Sports

Miami Jai Alai fronton
Miami Jai Alai fronton, known as "The Yankee Stadium of Jai Alai"

Miami's main four sports teams are the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League, the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association, the Miami Marlins of Major League Baseball, and the Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League. As well as having all four major professional teams, Miami is also home to the Inter Miami CF of the Major League Soccer led by David Beckham, Simon Fuller, and Marcelo Claure. Miami Open, an annual tennis tournament, is held in Key Biscayne, an island town off the coast of Miami. The city is home to numerous greyhound racing tracks, marinas, jai alai venues, and golf courses. The city streets has hosted professional auto races, the Miami Indy Challenge and later the Grand Prix Americas. The Homestead-Miami Speedway oval hosts NASCAR national races.

The Heat and the Marlins play within Miami's city limits. The Heat play at the American Airlines Arena in Downtown Miami. The Miami Marlins home ballpark is Marlins Park, located in Little Havana on the site of the old Orange Bowl stadium.

The Miami Dolphins play at Hard Rock Stadium in suburban Miami Gardens. The Florida Panthers play in nearby Sunrise at the BB&T Center. Miami is also home to Paso Fino horses, where competitions are held at Tropical Park Equestrian Center.

The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Hard Rock Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the Miami metro area has hosted the game a total of ten times (five Super Bowls at the current Hard Rock Stadium, including Super Bowl XLI and five at the Miami Orange Bowl), tying New Orleans for the most games.

Miami is also the home of many college sports teams. The two largest are the University of Miami Hurricanes, whose football team plays at Hard Rock Stadium, and Florida International University Panthers whose football team plays at FIU Stadium.

The following table shows the Miami area major professional teams and Division I teams with an average attendance of more than 10,000:

Major professional and D-I college teams (attendance > 10,000)
Club Sport League Venue (Capacity) Attendance League Championships
Miami Dolphins Football National Football League Hard Rock Stadium (64,767) 70,035 Super Bowl (2) — 1972, 1973
Miami Hurricanes Football NCAA D-I (ACC) Hard Rock Stadium (64,767) 53,837 National titles (5) — 1983, 1987, 1989, 1991, 2001
Miami Marlins Baseball Major League Baseball Marlins Park (36,742) 21,386 World Series (2) — 1997, 2003
Miami Heat Basketball National Basketball Association American Airlines Arena (19,600) 19,710 NBA Finals (3) — 2006, 2012, 2013
FIU Panthers Football NCAA D-I (Conference USA) FIU Stadium (23,500) 15,453 None
Florida Panthers Hockey National Hockey League BB&T Center (19,250) 10,250 None
Inter Miami CF Soccer Major League Soccer Miami MLS Stadium None None

Beaches and parks

Bayfront Park - panoramio (5)
Bayfront Park

The City of Miami has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, and the City of Miami Department of Parks and Recreation.

Miami's tropical weather allows for year-round outdoor activities. The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoor activities. Biscayne Bay has numerous coral reefs that make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city.[108] The largest and most popular parks are Bayfront Park and Museum Park (located in the heart of Downtown and the location of the American Airlines Arena and Bayside Marketplace), Tropical Park, Peacock Park, Morningside Park, Virginia Key, and Watson Island.

Other popular cultural destinations in or near Miami include Zoo Miami, Jungle Island, Miami Seaquarium, Monkey Jungle, Coral Castle, St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church, Charles Deering Estate, Fairchild Botanical Gardens, and Key Biscayne.

In its 2018 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in the City of Miami was the 50th best park system among the 100 most populous US cities,[109] down slightly from 48th place in the 2017 ranking.[110] ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.

Law and government

The government of the City of Miami (proper) uses the mayor-commissioner type of system. The city commission consists of five commissioners that are elected from single member districts. The city commission constitutes the governing body with powers to pass ordinances, adopt regulations, and exercise all powers conferred upon the city in the city charter. The mayor is elected at large and appoints a city manager. The City of Miami is governed by Mayor Tomás Regalado and 5 City commissioners that oversee the five districts in the city. The commission's regular meetings are held at Miami City Hall, which is located at 3500 Pan American Drive on Dinner Key in the neighborhood of Coconut Grove .

Miami FL Pan Am Bldg city hall02
Miami City Hall at Dinner Key in Coconut Grove. The city's primary administrative offices are held here

City Commission

Allapattah and Grapeland Heights
  • Ken Russell – Miami Commissioner, District 2 (Vice-Chairman)
Arts & Entertainment District, Brickell, Coconut Grove, Coral Way, Downtown Miami, Edgewater, Midtown Miami, Park West and the Upper Eastside
  • Joe Carollo – Miami Commissioner, District 3
Coral Way, Little Havana and The Roads
  • Manolo Reyes – Miami Commissioner, District 4
Coral Way, Flagami and West Flagler
  • Keon Hardemon – Miami Commissioner, District 5 (Chairman)
Buena Vista, Design District, Liberty City, Little Haiti, Little River, Lummus Park, Overtown, Spring Garden and Wynwood
  • Emilio T. Gonzalez, PhD – City Manager
  • Victoria Méndez – City Attorney
  • Todd B. Hannon – City Clerk

Education

Colleges and universities

FIU OE
Florida International University has the largest enrollment of any university in South Florida, and is one of the state's primary research universities
University of Miami Otto G. Richter Library
Founded in 1925, the University of Miami is the oldest college in Florida south of Winter Park

Miami has over 200,000 students enrolled in local colleges and universities, placing it seventh in the nation in per capita university enrollment. In 2010, the city's four largest colleges and universities (MDC, FIU, UM, and Barry) graduated 28,000 students.[111]

Miami is also home to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations that offer a range of professional training and other, related educational programs. Per Scholas, for example is a nonprofit organization that offers free professional certification training directed towards successfully passing CompTIA A+ and Network+ certification exams as a route to securing jobs and building careers.[112][113][114]

Colleges and universities in and around Miami:

Primary and secondary schools

Coral Gables FL Miami Senior High04
Miami Senior High School, Miami's oldest continuously used high school structure

Public schools in Miami are governed by Miami-Dade County Public Schools, which is the largest school district in Florida and the fourth-largest in the United States. As of September 2008 it has a student enrollment of 385,655 and over 392 schools and centers. The district is also the largest minority public school system in the country, with 60% of its students being of Hispanic origin, 28% Black or West Indian American, 10% White (non-Hispanic) and 2% non-white of other minorities.[115]

Miami is home to some of the nation's best high schools, such as Design and Architecture High School, ranked the nation's best magnet school, MAST Academy, Coral Reef High School, ranked 20th-best public high school in the U.S., Miami Palmetto High School, and the New World School of the Arts.[116] M-DCPS is also one of a few public school districts in the United States to offer optional bilingual education in Spanish, French, German, Haitian Creole, and Mandarin Chinese.

Miami is home to several well-known Roman Catholic, Jewish and non-denominational private schools. The Archdiocese of Miami operates the city's Catholic private schools, which include: St. Hugh Catholic School, St. Agatha Catholic School, St. Theresa School, Immaculata-Lasalle High School, Monsignor Edward Pace High School, Archbishop Curley-Notre Dame High School, St. Brendan High School, amongst numerous other Catholic elementary and high schools.

Catholic preparatory schools operated by religious orders are Christopher Columbus High School and Belen Jesuit Preparatory School for boys and Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Lourdes Academy for girls.

Non-denominational private schools in Miami are Ransom Everglades, Gulliver Preparatory School, and Miami Country Day School. Other schools in the area include Samuel Scheck Hillel Community Day School, Dade Christian School, Palmer Trinity School, Westminster Christian School, and Riviera Schools.

Media

Miami Herald building
Former headquarters of The Miami Herald

Miami has one of the largest television markets in the nation and the second largest in the state of Florida.[117] Miami has several major newspapers, the main and largest newspaper being The Miami Herald. El Nuevo Herald is the major and largest Spanish-language newspaper. The Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald are Miami's and South Florida's main, major and largest newspapers. The papers left their longtime home in downtown Miami in 2013. The newspapers are now headquartered at the former home of U.S. Southern Command in Doral.[118]

Other major newspapers include Miami Today, headquartered in Brickell, Miami New Times, headquartered in Midtown, Miami Sun Post, South Florida Business Journal, Miami Times, and Biscayne Boulevard Times. An additional Spanish-language newspapers, Diario Las Americas also serve Miami. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million readers and is headquartered in Downtown in Herald Plaza. Several other student newspapers from the local universities, such as the oldest, the University of Miami's The Miami Hurricane, Florida International University's The Beacon, Miami-Dade College's The Metropolis, Barry University's The Buccaneer, amongst others. Many neighborhoods and neighboring areas also have their own local newspapers such as the Aventura News, Coral Gables Tribune, Biscayne Bay Tribune, and the Palmetto Bay News.

A number of magazines circulate throughout the greater Miami area, including Miami Monthly, Southeast Florida's only city/regional; Ocean Drive, a hot-spot social scene glossy, and South Florida Business Leader.

Miami is also the headquarters and main production city of many of the world's largest television networks, record label companies, broadcasting companies and production facilities, such as Telemundo, TeleFutura, Galavisión, Mega TV, Univisión, Univision Communications, Inc., Universal Music Latin Entertainment, RCTV International and Sunbeam Television. In 2009, Univisión announced plans to build a new production studio in Miami, dubbed 'Univisión Studios'. Univisión Studios is currently headquartered in Miami, and will produce programming for all of Univisión Communications' television networks.[119]

Miami is the twelfth largest radio market[120] and the seventeenth largest television market[121] in the United States. Television stations serving the Miami area include: WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (My Network TV), WSFL (The CW), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (Ion), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (Fox), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Transportation

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 72.3% of working city of Miami residents commuted by driving alone, 8.7% carpooled, 9% used public transportation, and 3.7% walked. About 1.8% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 4.5% of working city of Miami residents worked at home.[122] In 2015, 19.9% of city of Miami households were without a car, which decreased to 18.6% in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Miami averaged 1.24 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household.[123]

Freeways and roads

A306, Skyline at twilight, Miami, Florida, USA, 2010
State Road 886 (Port Boulevard) connects downtown and PortMiami by bridge over Biscayne Bay.

Miami's road system is based along the numerical "Miami Grid" where Flagler Street forms the east-west baseline and Miami Avenue forms the north-south meridian. The corner of Flagler Street and Miami Avenue is in the middle of Downtown in front of the Downtown Macy's (formerly the Burdine's headquarters). The Miami grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler Street and west of Miami Avenue have "NW" in their address. Because its point of origin is in Downtown, which is close to the coast, the "NW" and "SW" quadrants are much larger than the "SE" and "NE" quadrants. Many roads, especially major ones, are also named (e.g., Tamiami Trail/SW 8th St), although, with exceptions, the number is in more common usage among locals.

With few exceptions, within this grid north/south roads are designated as Courts, Roads, Avenues or Places (often remembered by their acronym), while east/west roads are Streets, Terraces, Drives or occasionally Ways. Major roads in each direction are located at one mile intervals. There are 16 blocks to each mile on north/south avenues, and 10 blocks to each mile on east/west streets. Major north/south avenues generally end in "7" – e.g., 17th, 27th, 37th/Douglas Aves., 57th/Red Rd., 67th/Ludlam, 87th/Galloway, etc., all the way west beyond 177th/Krome Avenue. (One prominent exception is 42nd Avenue, LeJeune Road, located at the half-mile point instead.) Major east/west streets to the south of downtown are multiples of 16, though the beginning point of this system is at SW 8th St, one half mile south of Flagler ("zeroth") Street. Thus, major streets are at 8th St. + 16 = 24th St./Coral Way, + 16 = 40th St./Bird, +16 = 56th/Miller, + 16 = 72nd/ Sunset, + 16 = 88th/N. Kendall, + 16 = 104th (originally S. Kendall), + 16 = 120th/Montgomery, + 16 = 136th/Howard, + 16 = 152nd/Coral Reef, + 16 = 168th/Richmond, + 16 = 184th/Eureka, + 16 = 200th/Quail Roost, + 16 = 216th/Hainlin Mill, + 16 = 232nd/Silver Palm, + 16 = 248th/Coconut Palm, etc., well into the 300s. Within the Grid, odd-numbered addresses are generally on the north or east side, and even-numbered addresses are on the south or west side. This makes even unfamiliar addresses and distances easy – If one must travel from, say 1709 SW 8th St. to 24832 SW 157th Avenue, one knows it will be 140 blocks (157 − 17) / 20 miles to the west and 240 blocks (248 − 8) / 15 miles to the south, and that the destination will be on the south side of 248th St. Remarkably, even Miami natives are often unaware of this pattern.

All streets and avenues in Miami-Dade County follow the Miami Grid, with a few exceptions, most notably Coral Gables, Hialeah, Coconut Grove and Miami Beach. One neighborhood, The Roads, is named as such because its streets run off the Miami Grid at a 45-degree angle, and therefore are all named roads.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Interstate Highways (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including U.S. Route 1, U.S. Route 27, U.S. Route 41, and U.S. Route 441.

Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving Miami are:

Miami Causeways
Name Termini Year built
Rickenbacker Causeway Brickell and Key Biscayne 1947
Venetian Causeway Downtown and South Beach 1912–1925
MacArthur Causeway Downtown and South Beach 1920
Julia Tuttle Causeway Wynwood/Edgewater and Miami Beach 1959
79th Street Causeway Upper East Side and North Beach 1929
Broad Causeway North Miami and Bal Harbour 1951

Miami has six major causeways that span over Biscayne Bay connecting the western mainland, with the eastern barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean. The Rickenbacker Causeway is the southernmost causeway and connects Brickell to Virginia Key and Key Biscayne. The Venetian Causeway and MacArthur Causeway connect Downtown with South Beach. The Julia Tuttle Causeway connects Midtown and Miami Beach. The 79th Street Causeway connects the Upper East Side with North Beach. The northernmost causeway, the Broad Causeway, is the smallest of Miami's six causeways, and connects North Miami with Bal Harbour.

In 2007, Miami was identified as having the rudest drivers in the United States, the second year in a row to have been cited, in a poll commissioned by automobile club AutoVantage.[124] Miami is also consistently ranked as one of the most dangerous cities in the United States for pedestrians.[125]

Public transportation

Metrorail-Tri-Rail
The Metrorail is the city's rapid transit system and connects the city's central core with its outlying suburbs
Tri-Rail at Delray Beach Station
Tri-Rail is Miami's commuter rail that runs north-south from Miami's suburbs in West Palm Beach to Miami International Airport

Public transportation in Miami is operated by Miami-Dade Transit and SFRTA, and includes commuter rail (Tri-Rail), heavy-rail rapid transit (Metrorail), an elevated people mover (Metromover), and buses (Metrobus). Miami has Florida's highest transit ridership as about 17% of Miamians use transit on a daily basis.[126] The average Miami public transit commute on weekdays is 90 minutes, while 39% of public transit riders commute for more than 2 hours a day. The average wait time at a public transit stop or station is 18 minutes, while 37% of riders wait for more than 20 minutes on average every day. The average single trip distance with public transit is 7.46 mi (12 km), while 38% travel more than 8.08 mi (13 km) in each direction.[127]

Miami's heavy-rail rapid transit system, Metrorail, is an elevated system comprising two lines and 23 stations on a 24.4-mile (39.3 km)-long line. Metrorail connects the urban western suburbs of Hialeah, Medley, and inner-city Miami with suburban The Roads, Coconut Grove, Coral Gables, South Miami and urban Kendall via the central business districts of Miami International Airport, the Civic Center, and Downtown. A free, elevated people mover, Metromover, operates 21 stations on three different lines in greater Downtown Miami, with a station at roughly every two blocks of Downtown and Brickell. Several expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system operated by the South Florida Regional Transportation Authority (SFRTA), runs from Miami International Airport northward to West Palm Beach, making eighteen stops throughout Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties.

Construction is currently underway on the Miami Intermodal Center, a massive transportation hub servicing Metrorail, Amtrak, Tri-Rail, Metrobus, Greyhound Lines, taxis, rental cars, MIA Mover, private automobiles, bicycles and pedestrians adjacent to Miami International Airport. Completion of the Miami Intermodal Center is expected to be completed by winter 2011, and will serve over 150,000 commuters and travelers in the Miami area. Phase I of Miami Central Station is scheduled to begin service in the spring of 2012, and Phase II in 2013.

Two new light rail systems, Baylink and the Miami Streetcar, have been proposed and are currently in the planning stage. BayLink would connect Downtown with South Beach, and the Miami Streetcar would connect Downtown with Midtown.

Miami is the southern terminus of Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services, running two lines, the Silver Meteor and the Silver Star, both terminating in New York City. The Miami Amtrak Station is located in the suburb of Hialeah near the Tri-Rail/Metrorail Station on NW 79 St and NW 38 Ave. Current construction of the Miami Central Station will move all Amtrak operations from its current out-of-the-way location to a centralized location with Metrorail, MIA Mover, Tri-Rail, Miami International Airport, and the Miami Intermodal Center all within the same station closer to Downtown. The station was expected to be completed by 2012,[128] but experienced several delays and was later expected to be completed in late 2014,[129] again pushed back to early 2015.[130]

Airports

Miami International Airport serves as the primary international airport of the Greater Miami Area. One of the busiest international airports in the world, Miami International Airport caters to over 35 million passengers a year. The airport is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines. Miami International is the busiest airport in Florida, and is the United States' second-largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport, and is the seventh-largest such gateway in the world. The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Alternatively, nearby Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport also serves commercial traffic in the Miami area.[131] Miami-Opa Locka Executive Airport in Opa-locka and Miami Executive Airport in an unincorporated area southwest of Miami serve general aviation traffic in the Miami area.

Cycling and walking

In recent years the city government, under Mayor Manny Diaz, has taken an ambitious stance in support of bicycling in Miami for both recreation and commuting. Every month, the city hosts "Bike Miami", where major streets in Downtown and Brickell are closed to automobiles, but left open for pedestrians and bicyclists. The event began in November 2008, and has doubled in popularity from 1,500 participants to about 3,000 in the October 2009 Bike Miami. This is the longest-running such event in the US. In October 2009, the city also approved an extensive 20-year plan for bike routes and paths around the city. The city has begun construction of bike routes as of late 2009, and ordinances requiring bike parking in all future construction in the city became mandatory as of October 2009.[132]

In 2010, Miami was ranked as the 44th-most bike-friendly city in the US according to Bicycling Magazine.[133]

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Miami the eighth-most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States,[134] but a 2013 survey by Travel + Leisure ranked Miami 34th for "public transportation and pedestrian friendliness."[135]

International relations

Twin and sister cities

Cooperation agreements

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official records for Miami were kept at the Lemon City from September 1895 to November 1900, the Miami COOP from December 1900 to May 1911, the Weather Bureau Office from June 1911 to February 1937, at various locations in and around the city from March 1937 to July 1942, and at Miami Int'l since August 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx.

References

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Further reading

  • Elizabeth M. Aranda, Sallie Hughes, and Elena Sabogal, Making a Life in Multiethnic Miami: Immigration and the Rise of a Global City. Boulder, Colorado: Renner, 2014.

External links

Dexter (TV series)

Dexter is an American television crime drama mystery series that aired on Showtime from October 1, 2006, to September 22, 2013. Set in Miami, the series centers on Dexter Morgan (Michael C. Hall), a forensic technician specializing in blood spatter pattern analysis for the fictional Miami Metro Police Department, who leads a secret parallel life as a vigilante serial killer, hunting down murderers who have slipped through the cracks of the justice system. The show's first season was derived from the novel Darkly Dreaming Dexter (2004), the first of the Dexter series novels by Jeff Lindsay. It was adapted for television by screenwriter James Manos, Jr., who wrote the first episode. Subsequent seasons evolved independently of Lindsay's works.

In February 2008, reruns (edited down to a TV-14 rating) began to air on CBS in the wake of the shortage of original programming ensuing from the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike, thus the reruns on CBS ended after one run of the first season. The series enjoyed mostly positive reviews throughout its run and popularity. The first four seasons have received universal acclaim, although reception dropped drastically as the series progressed. The show has also won many awards, including two Golden Globe awards won by Michael C. Hall and John Lithgow for their roles as Dexter Morgan and Arthur Mitchell respectively. Season four aired its season finale on December 13, 2009, to a record-breaking audience of 2.6 million viewers, making it the most-watched original series episode ever on Showtime at that time.In April 2013, Showtime announced that season eight would be the final season of Dexter. The season-eight premiere was the most watched Dexter episode with more than 3 million viewers total for all airings that night. The original broadcast of the series finale—shown at 9 pm on September 22, 2013—drew 2.8 million viewers, the largest overall audience in Showtime's history.

Dwyane Wade

Dwyane Tyrone Wade Jr. ( dwayn; born January 17, 1982) is an American professional basketball player for the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association (NBA). After a successful college basketball career with the Marquette Golden Eagles, Wade was drafted fifth overall in the 2003 NBA draft by Miami. In his third season, Wade led the Heat to their first NBA Championship in franchise history and was named the 2006 NBA Finals MVP. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Wade led the United States men's basketball team, commonly known as the "Redeem Team", in scoring, and helped them capture the gold medal. In the 2008–09 season, Wade led the league in scoring and earned his first NBA scoring title. With LeBron James and Chris Bosh, Wade helped guide Miami to four consecutive NBA Finals from 2011 to 2014, winning back-to-back championships in 2012 and 2013. After 1​1⁄2 seasons away from the Heat with the Chicago Bulls and Cleveland Cavaliers, Wade was traded back to Miami in February 2018. A 13-time NBA All-Star, Wade is Miami's all-time leader in points, games, assists and steals, shots made and shots taken.

Florida

Florida ( (listen); Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive (65,755 sq mi or 170,300 km2), the 3rd-most populous (21,312,211 inhabitants), and the 8th-most densely populated (384.3/sq mi or 148.4/km2) of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, and the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was $47,684, ranking 26th in the nation. The unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the state, the 8th highest among all states. The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida.The first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida ([la floˈɾiða] "the land of flowers") upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845. It was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, and racial segregation after the American Civil War.

Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues. The state's economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, and as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U.S. state of Florida.Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of Florida culture and daily life. Florida is a reflection of influences and multiple inheritance; African, European, indigenous, and Latino heritages can be found in the architecture and cuisine. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing, and water sports. Several beaches in Florida have turquoise and emerald-colored coastal waters.About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, approximately 1,350 miles (2,170 km), not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands that are ten acres or larger in area. This is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States; only Alaska has more. It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U.S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south. The American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, and manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, and is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef. The Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, and the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world (after the Great Barrier Reef and Belize Barrier Reef).

Gloria Estefan

Gloria Estefan (Spanish: [ˈɡloɾja esˈtefan]; born Gloria María Milagrosa Fajardo on September 1, 1957) is a Cuban-American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman. She started her career as the lead singer in the group "Miami Latin Boys" which later became known as Miami Sound Machine.

Estefan experienced worldwide success with "Conga" in 1985. The song became Estefan's signature song and led to the Miami Sound Machine winning the grand prix in the 15th annual Tokyo Music Festival in 1986. In the middle of 1988, she and the band got their first number-one hit for the song "Anything for You." She is a contralto.

In March 1990, Estefan had a severe accident in her tour bus. She made her comeback in March 1991 with a new world tour and album called Into The Light. Her 1993 Spanish-language album, Mi Tierra, won the first of her three Grammy Awards for Best Tropical Latin Album. It was the first number-one album on the Billboard Top Latin Albums chart, established when it was released. It was also the first Diamond album in Spain. Many of her songs, such as "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You," "1-2-3," "Get On Your Feet," "Here We Are," "Coming Out of the Dark," "Bad Boy," "Oye!," "Party Time" and a remake of "Turn the Beat Around" became international chart-topping hits. Estefan has sold an estimated 115 million records worldwide, including 31.5 million in the United States alone.

She has won three Grammy Awards and received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and Las Vegas Walk of Fame. In 2015, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her contributions to American music and received the Kennedy Center Honors in December 2017 for her contributions to American Culture Life. Estefan also won an MTV Video Music Award, she was honored with the American Music Award for Lifetime Achievement, as well as being named BMI Songwriter of the Year. She was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and has received multiple Billboard Awards. She is also on the list of VH1 top 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, and in Billboard's Top 100 Greatest Artists Of All Time.

Hard Rock Stadium

Hard Rock Stadium is a multipurpose football stadium located in Miami Gardens, Florida, a city north of Miami. It is the home stadium of the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL). Hard Rock Stadium also plays host to the Miami Hurricanes football team during their regular season. The facility also hosts the Orange Bowl, an annual college football bowl game. It was the home to the Florida Marlins of Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1993 to 2011.

The stadium has hosted five Super Bowls (XXIII, XXIX, XXXIII, XLI and XLIV), the 2010 Pro Bowl, two World Series (1997 and 2003), four BCS National Championship Games (2001, 2005, 2009, 2013), the second round of the 2009 World Baseball Classic, and WrestleMania XXVIII. The stadium will host Super Bowl LIV in 2020 and the College Football Playoff National Championship in 2021.Starting in 2019, the stadium will host the Miami Open tennis tournament, played in March.

The facility opened in 1987 as Joe Robbie Stadium and has been known by a number of names since: Pro Player Park, Pro Player Stadium, Dolphins Stadium, Dolphin Stadium, Land Shark Stadium, and Sun Life Stadium. In August 2016 the team sold the naming rights to Hard Rock Cafe Inc. for $250 million over 18 years.

Inter Miami CF

Club Internacional de Fútbol Miami, referred to as Inter Miami CF or Inter Miami, is a professional soccer expansion team to be based in Miami, Florida. The team is due to begin play in Major League Soccer (MLS) in 2020, with its permanent home stadium opening a season or two later pending final decisions about financing and location.The ownership group, formed in 2013 as Miami Beckham United, now works through Miami Freedom Park LLC. The group is led by David Beckham, his business partner Simon Fuller, and Miami-based Bolivian businessman Marcelo Claure, while Masayoshi Son and brothers Jorge and Jose Mas were added to the ownership group in 2017. The effort originated in a contract Beckham signed with MLS in 2007: he joined LA Galaxy and negotiated an option to own an expansion team at a discounted franchise fee.MLS officially awarded the group an expansion team on January 29, 2018. The award represented part of a larger expansion of MLS that would increase its number of teams to 24 by 2020 and 28 after that. Since Beckham's original announcement of his intention to place a team in Miami in 2014, Orlando City, Los Angeles FC, Minnesota United, Atlanta United, and FC Cincinnati have all begun MLS play.

A November 2018 referendum saw roughly 60% of city voters approving a measure to convert a city-owned golf course near the international airport into Inter Miami CF's new stadium, Miami Freedom Park.

Keeping Up with the Kardashians

Keeping Up with the Kardashians (often abbreviated KUWTK) is an American reality television series that airs on the E! cable network. The show focuses on the personal and professional lives of the Kardashian–Jenner blended family. Its premise originated with Ryan Seacrest, who also serves as an executive producer. The series debuted on October 14, 2007 and has subsequently become one of the longest-running reality television series in the country. The fifteenth season premiered on August 5, 2018.The series focuses mainly on sisters Kourtney, Kim, and Khloé Kardashian and their half-sisters Kendall and Kylie Jenner. It also features their parents Kris and Caitlyn Jenner (previously known as Bruce Jenner), and brother Rob Kardashian. The significant others of the Kardashian sisters have also appeared on the show, including Kourtney's ex-boyfriend Scott Disick, Kim's ex-husband Kris Humphries, and current husband Kanye West, Khloé's ex-husband Lamar Odom, ex-boyfriend French Montana, and ex-fiancé Tristan Thompson. Caitlyn's son Brody Jenner made appearances in the early seasons, before appearing regularly between the 8th and 11th seasons, along with brother Brandon and Brandon's wife Leah. Kim's friend Jonathan Cheban and Khloé's friend Malika Haqq have also been part of the show.

Keeping Up with the Kardashians has received very poor critical reviews since its premiere. It is often criticized for the high degree of emphasis on the "famous for being famous" concept, and for appearing to fabricate some aspects of its storylines. Several critics also noted the show's lack of intelligence. However, some critics recognized the reality series as a "guilty pleasure" and acknowledged the family's success. Despite the negative reviews, Keeping Up with the Kardashians has attracted high viewership ratings, becoming one of the network's most successful shows and winning several audience awards.

The series' success has led additionally to the creation of numerous spin-off series, including: Kourtney and Kim Take Miami, Kourtney and Kim Take New York, Khloé & Lamar, Kourtney and Khloé Take The Hamptons, Dash Dolls, Rob & Chyna, and Life of Kylie. The network has also broadcast several television specials featuring special events involving members of the family and friends.

LeBron James

LeBron Raymone James Sr. (; born December 30, 1984) is an American professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He is often considered the best basketball player in the world and regarded by some as the greatest player of all time. His accomplishments include four NBA Most Valuable Player Awards, three NBA Finals MVP Awards, and two Olympic gold medals. James has appeared in fifteen NBA All-Star Games and been named NBA All-Star MVP three times. He won the 2008 NBA scoring title, is the all-time NBA playoffs scoring leader, and is fourth in all-time career points scored. He has been voted onto the All-NBA First Team twelve times and the All-Defensive First Team five times.

James played high school basketball for St. Vincent–St. Mary High School in his hometown of Akron, Ohio, where he was heavily touted in the national media as a future NBA superstar. A prep-to-pro, he joined the Cleveland Cavaliers in 2003 as the first overall draft pick. The 2003–04 NBA Rookie of the Year, he soon established himself as one of the league's premier players; he won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award in 2009 and 2010. After failing to win a championship with Cleveland, James left in 2010 to sign as a free agent with the Miami Heat. This move was announced in an ESPN special titled The Decision, and is one of the most controversial free agent decisions in American sports history.

In Miami, James won his first NBA championship in 2012, and followed that with another title a year later. He was named league MVP and NBA Finals MVP in both championship years. In 2014, after four seasons with Miami, James opted out of his contract to re-sign with the Cavaliers. In 2016, he led the Cavaliers to victory over the Golden State Warriors in the NBA Finals, delivering the team's first championship and ending Cleveland's 52-year professional sports title drought. In 2018, James opted out of his Cleveland contract to sign with the Lakers.

Off the court, James has accumulated considerable wealth and fame from numerous endorsement contracts. His public life has been the subject of much scrutiny, and he has been ranked as one of America's most influential and popular athletes. He has been featured in books, documentaries, and television commercials. He has also hosted the ESPY Awards and Saturday Night Live, and appeared in the 2015 film Trainwreck.

Miami-Dade County, Florida

Miami-Dade County is a county in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the southeasternmost county on the U.S. mainland. According to a 2017 census report, the county had a population of 2,751,796, making it the most populous county in Florida and the seventh-most populous county in the United States. It is also Florida's third largest county in terms of land area, with 1,946 square miles (5,040 km2). The county seat is Miami, the principal city in South Florida.Miami-Dade County is one of the three counties in South Florida that make up the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017.The county is home to 34 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas. The northern, central and eastern portions of the county are heavily urbanized with many high-rise buildings along the coastline, including South Florida's central business district, Downtown Miami. Southern Miami-Dade County includes the Redland and Homestead areas, which make up the agricultural economy of the region. Agricultural Redland makes up roughly one third of Miami-Dade County's inhabited land area, and is sparsely populated, a stark contrast to the densely populated, urban northern portion of the county.

The county also includes portions of two national parks. To the west it extends into the Everglades National Park and is populated only by a Miccosukee tribal village. East of the mainland, in Biscayne Bay, is Biscayne National Park and the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves.

Miami Beach, Florida

Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915. The municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles (6.5 km2) of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida. Miami Beach's estimated population is 92,307 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau. It has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century.

In 1979, Miami Beach's Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels, apartments and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943. Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North. The movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor.

Miami Dolphins

The Miami Dolphins are a professional American football team based in the Miami metropolitan area. The Dolphins compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) East division. The Dolphins play their home games at Hard Rock Stadium in the northern suburb of Miami Gardens, Florida, and are headquartered in Davie, Florida. The Dolphins are Florida's oldest professional sports team. Of the four AFC East teams, they are the only team in the division that was not a charter member of the American Football League (AFL).

The Dolphins were founded by attorney-politician Joe Robbie and actor-comedian Danny Thomas. They began play in the AFL in 1966. The region had not had a professional football team since the days of the Miami Seahawks, who played in the All-America Football Conference in 1946, before becoming the first incarnation of the Baltimore Colts. For the first few years, the Dolphins' full-time training camp and practice facilities were at Saint Andrew's School, a private boys boarding prep school in Boca Raton. In the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, the Dolphins joined the NFL.

The team made its first Super Bowl appearance in Super Bowl VI, losing to the Dallas Cowboys, 24–3. The following year, the Dolphins completed the NFL's only perfect season, culminating in a Super Bowl win, winning all 14 of their regular season games, and all three of their playoff games, including Super Bowl VII. They were the third NFL team to accomplish a perfect regular season. The next year, the Dolphins won Super Bowl VIII, becoming the first team to appear in three consecutive Super Bowls, and the second team (the first AFL/AFC team) to win back-to-back championships. Miami also appeared in Super Bowl XVII and Super Bowl XIX, losing both games.

For most of their early history, the Dolphins were coached by Don Shula, the most successful head coach in professional football history in terms of total games won. Under Shula, the Dolphins posted losing records in only two of his 26 seasons as the head coach. During the period spanning 1983 to the end of 1999, quarterback Dan Marino became one of the most prolific passers in NFL history, breaking numerous league passing records. Marino led the Dolphins to five division titles, 10 playoff appearances and Super Bowl XIX before retiring following the 1999 season.

In 2008, the Dolphins became the first team in NFL history to win their division and make a playoff appearance following a league-worst 1–15 season. That same season, the Dolphins upset the 16–0 New England Patriots on the road during Week 3, handing the Patriots' their first regular season loss since December 10, 2006, in which coincidentally, they were also beaten by the Dolphins.

Miami Heat

The Miami Heat are an American professional basketball team based in Miami. The Heat compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA), as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division. The Heat play their home games at American Airlines Arena, and have won three NBA championships.

The franchise began play in 1988 as an expansion team, where after a period of mediocrity, the Heat would gain relevance during the 1990s following the appointment of former head coach Pat Riley in the role of team president. Riley would construct the high-profile trades of Alonzo Mourning in 1995, and of Tim Hardaway in 1996, which immediately propelled the team into playoff contention. Mourning and Hardaway would eventually lead the Heat to four division titles, prior to their departures in 2001 and 2002, respectively. As a result, the team struggled, and entered into a rebuild in time for the 2002–03 season.

Led by Dwyane Wade, and following a trade for former NBA Most Valuable Player (MVP) Shaquille O'Neal, Miami made the NBA Finals in 2006, where they clinched their first championship, led by Riley as head coach. After the departure of O'Neal two years later, the team entered into another period of decline for the remainder of the 2000s. This saw the resignation of Riley as head coach, who returned to his position as team president, and was replaced by Erik Spoelstra.

In 2010, after creating significant cap space, the Heat partnered Wade with former league MVP LeBron James, and perennial NBA All-Star Chris Bosh, creating the "Big Three". During their four-year spell together, and under the guise of Spoelstra, James, Wade, and Bosh, they would lead the Heat to the NBA Finals in every season, and won two back-to-back championships in 2012 and 2013. The trio would all depart by 2016, and the team entered another period of rebuilding. Wade was eventually reacquired in 2018, albeit to retire with the franchise.The Heat hold the record for the NBA's third-longest streak, 27 straight games, set during the 2012–13 season. Four Hall of Famers have played for Miami, while James has won the NBA MVP Award while playing for the team.

Miami International Airport

Miami International Airport (IATA: MIA, ICAO: KMIA, FAA LID: MIA), also known as MIA and historically as Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the Miami area, with over 1,000 daily flights to 167 domestic and International destinations. The airport is in an unincorporated area in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Downtown Miami, in metropolitan Miami, between the cities of Miami, Hialeah, Doral, Miami Springs, the village of Virginia Gardens, and the unincorporated Fontainebleau neighborhood.

It is South Florida's main airport for long-haul international flights and a hub for the Southeastern United States, with passenger and cargo flights to cities throughout the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Western Asia, as well as cargo flights to East Asia. It is the largest gateway between the United States and south to Latin America, and is one of the largest airline hubs in the United States, owing to its proximity to tourist attractions, local economic growth, large local Latin American and European populations, and strategic location to handle connecting traffic between North America, Latin America, and Europe.

In 2018, 45,044,312 passengers traveled through the airport, making the airport the 13th busiest airport in the USA and the 40th busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic. MIA is the 3rd busiest airport in the US in terms of international passenger traffic. The airport also handled more international cargo than any other airport in the United States. MIA is the busiest airport in the State of Florida in terms of total aircraft operations and total cargo traffic and the second-busiest in terms of total passenger traffic.The airport is American Airlines' primary gateway to Latin America (Central America, Caribbean Sea / West Indies islands, South America) along with a domestic hub for its regional affiliate American Eagle in the U.S.A. It also serves as a focus city for Avianca, Frontier Airlines, and LATAM, both for passengers and cargo operations. In the past, it has been a hub for Braniff International Airways, Eastern Air Lines, Air Florida, the original National Airlines, the original Pan American World Airways ("Pan Am"), United Airlines, Iberia Airlines and Fine Air.

Miami Marlins

The Miami Marlins are an American professional baseball team based in Miami, Florida. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) East division. Their home park is Marlins Park. Though one of only two MLB franchises to have never won a division title (the other is the Colorado Rockies), the Marlins have won two World Series championships as a wild card team.

The team began play as an expansion team in the 1993 season as the Florida Marlins and played home games from their inaugural season to the 2012 season at what was originally called Joe Robbie Stadium, which they shared with the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL). Since the 2012 season, they have played at Marlins Park in downtown Miami, on the site of the former Orange Bowl. The new park, unlike their previous home (which was criticized in its baseball configuration for poor sight lines in some locations), was designed foremost as a baseball park. Per an agreement with the city and Miami-Dade County (which owns the park), the Marlins officially changed their name to the "Miami Marlins" on November 11, 2011. They also adopted a new logo, color scheme, and uniforms.The Marlins have the distinction of winning a World Series championship in both seasons they qualified for the postseason, doing so in 1997 and 2003—both times as the National League wild card team. They defeated the American League (AL) champion Cleveland Indians in the 1997 World Series, with shortstop Édgar Rentería driving in second baseman Craig Counsell for the series-clinching run in the 11th inning of the seventh and deciding game. In the 2003 season, manager Jeff Torborg was fired after 38 games. The Marlins were in last place in the NL East with a 16–22 record at the time. Torborg's successor, 72-year-old Jack McKeon, led them to the NL wild card berth in the postseason; they defeated the New York Yankees four games to two in the 2003 World Series.

Miami University

Miami University (also referred to as Miami of Ohio or simply Miami) is a public research university in Oxford, Ohio. The university was founded in 1809, although classes were not held until 1824. Miami University is the second-oldest university in Ohio and the 10th oldest public university (32nd overall) in the United States. Miami also has regional campuses in Hamilton, Middletown and West Chester, as well as the Dolibois European Center in Differdange, Luxembourg. The Carnegie Foundation classifies Miami University as a research university with a high research activity. It is affiliated with the University System of Ohio.

Miami University is well known for its liberal arts education; it offers more than 120 undergraduate degree programs and over 60 graduate degree programs within its 8 schools and colleges in architecture, business, engineering, humanities and the sciences. In its 2017 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked the university 79th among national universities and the 30th top public university in the United States. Additionally, Miami University is ranked 2nd best national university (1st among public institutions) for undergraduate teaching. Miami University is one of the original eight Public Ivy schools.Miami University has a long tradition of Greek life; five social Greek-letter organizations were founded at the university earning Miami the nickname "Mother of Fraternities". Today, Miami University hosts over 50 fraternity and sorority chapters, and approximately one-third of the undergraduate student population are members of the Greek community. Miami is renowned for its campus' beauty, having been called "The most beautiful campus that ever there was" by Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Robert Frost. Additionally, Forbes ranked the city of Oxford first on its 2016 list of the best college towns in the United States.Miami's athletic teams compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and are collectively known as the Miami RedHawks. They compete in the Mid-American Conference (MAC) in all varsity sports except ice hockey, which competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference.

Miami Vice

Miami Vice is an American television crime drama series created by Anthony Yerkovich and executive produced by Michael Mann for NBC. The series starred Don Johnson as James "Sonny" Crockett and Philip Michael Thomas as Ricardo "Rico" Tubbs, two Metro-Dade Police Department detectives working undercover in Miami. The series ran for five seasons on NBC from 1984 to 1989. The USA Network began airing reruns in 1988, and broadcast an originally unaired episode during its syndication run of the series on January 25, 1990.

Unlike standard police procedurals, the show drew heavily upon 1980s New Wave culture and music. The show became noted for its integration of music and visual effects. It has been called one of the "Top 50 TV Shows". People magazine stated that Miami Vice was the "first show to look really new and different since color TV was invented".Michael Mann directed a film adaptation of the series, which was released July 28, 2006.

Vin Diesel and Chris Morgan are working on a TV series reboot that could be part of the NBC 2018–19 TV season.

Miami metropolitan area

The Miami metropolitan area, also known as the Greater Miami Area or South Florida, is the 73rd largest metropolitan area in the world and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the United States. It is entirely in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. With 6,158,824 inhabitants as of 2017, the Miami metropolitan area is the most populous in Florida and second largest in the southeastern United States, extending some 120 miles from north to south.

The metropolitan area is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL (MSA), consisting of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, a metropolitan statistical area used for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau and other agencies. Its land area is 6,137 sq. mi (15,890 km2).

Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties are the first, second, and third most populous counties in Florida, and Miami-Dade, with 2,751,796 people in 2017, is the seventh most populous county in the United States. The three counties together have principal cities including Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Pompano Beach, West Palm Beach, and Boca Raton. Besides its association with the South Florida region, is also partially synonymous with an area known collectively as the "Gold Coast".

The Census Bureau also defines a wider region based on commuting patterns, the Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Port St. Lucie, FL Combined Statistical Area (CSA), also known as the Greater Miami Area, with an estimated population of 6,723,472 in 2016. This includes the four additional counties of Martin, St. Lucie, Indian River, and Okeechobee.Because the population of South Florida is largely confined to a strip of land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Everglades, the Miami urbanized area (that is, the area of contiguous urban development) is about 100 miles (160 km) long (north to south), but never more than 20 miles (32 km) wide, and in some areas only 5 miles (8.0 km) wide (east to west). The Miami metropolitan statistical area is longer than any other urbanized area in the United States except for the New York metropolitan area. It was the eighth most densely populated urbanized area in the United States in the 2000 census.As of the 2000 census, the urbanized area had a land area of 1,116 square miles (2,890 km2), with a population of 4,919,036, for a population density of 4,407.4 per square mile (1,701.7 per square kilometer). Miami and Hialeah (the second largest city in the metropolitan area) had population densities of more than 10,000 per square mile (more than 3,800 per square kilometer). The Miami Urbanized Area was the fourth largest urbanized area in the United States in the 2010 census.

The Miami metropolitan area also includes several urban clusters (UCs) as of the 2000 Census which are not part of the Miami Urbanized Area. These are the Belle Glade UC, population 24,218, area 20,717,433 square meters and population density of 3027.6 per square mile; Key Biscayne UC, population 10,513, area 4,924,214 square meters and population density of 5529.5 per square mile; Redland UC, population 3,936, area 10,586,212 square meters and population density of 963.0 per square mile; and West Jupiter UC, population 8,998, area 24,737,176 square meters and population density of 942.1 per square mile.

University of Miami

The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, U of M, or The U) is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, Florida, United States. As of 2018, the university enrolls 17,331 students in 12 separate colleges/schools, including the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami's Health District, a law school on the main campus, and the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science focused on the study of oceanography and atmospheric sciences on Virginia Key, with research facilities at the Richmond Facility in southern Miami-Dade County.

The university offers 138 undergraduate, 144 master's, and 68 doctoral degree programs, of which 64 are research/scholarship and four professional areas of study. Over the years, the university's students have represented all 50 states and close to 150 foreign countries. With more than 15,000 full and part-time faculty and staff, UM is a top 10 employer in Miami-Dade County. UM's main campus in Coral Gables has 239 acres and over 5.7 million square feet of buildings.

Research is a component of each academic division, with UM attracting $345.8 million in sponsored research grants in FY 2018. UM offers a large library system with over 3.9 million volumes and exceptional holdings in Cuban heritage and music. UM also offers a wide range of student activities, including fraternities and sororities, a student newspaper and a radio station. UM's intercollegiate athletic teams, collectively known as the Miami Hurricanes, compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. UM's football team has won five national championships since 1983 and its baseball team has won four national championships since 1982.

Climate data for Miami (MIA), 1981−2010 normals,[a] extremes 1895−present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 88
(31)
89
(32)
93
(34)
96
(36)
98
(37)
98
(37)
100
(38)
98
(37)
97
(36)
95
(35)
91
(33)
89
(32)
100
(38)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 84.3
(29.1)
85.5
(29.7)
87.9
(31.1)
90.2
(32.3)
92.3
(33.5)
94.0
(34.4)
94.6
(34.8)
95.0
(35.0)
93.1
(33.9)
90.7
(32.6)
86.9
(30.5)
84.8
(29.3)
96.1
(35.6)
Average high °F (°C) 76.4
(24.7)
78.1
(25.6)
80.3
(26.8)
83.2
(28.4)
87.0
(30.6)
89.5
(31.9)
90.9
(32.7)
91.0
(32.8)
89.3
(31.8)
86.2
(30.1)
81.7
(27.6)
77.9
(25.5)
84.3
(29.1)
Daily mean °F (°C) 68.2
(20.1)
70.2
(21.2)
72.6
(22.6)
75.8
(24.3)
79.9
(26.6)
82.7
(28.2)
84.1
(28.9)
84.2
(29.0)
82.9
(28.3)
79.9
(26.6)
74.9
(23.8)
70.5
(21.4)
77.2
(25.1)
Average low °F (°C) 59.9
(15.5)
62.3
(16.8)
64.9
(18.3)
68.3
(20.2)
72.9
(22.7)
76.0
(24.4)
77.3
(25.2)
77.4
(25.2)
76.5
(24.7)
73.5
(23.1)
68.1
(20.1)
63.0
(17.2)
70.0
(21.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 43.1
(6.2)
46.6
(8.1)
50.6
(10.3)
57.3
(14.1)
65.3
(18.5)
70.7
(21.5)
72.3
(22.4)
72.3
(22.4)
72.1
(22.3)
63.8
(17.7)
54.9
(12.7)
46.3
(7.9)
40.1
(4.5)
Record low °F (°C) 28
(−2)
27
(−3)
32
(0)
39
(4)
50
(10)
60
(16)
66
(19)
67
(19)
62
(17)
45
(7)
36
(2)
30
(−1)
27
(−3)
Average rainfall inches (mm) 1.62
(41)
2.25
(57)
3.00
(76)
3.14
(80)
5.34
(136)
9.67
(246)
6.50
(165)
8.88
(226)
9.86
(250)
6.33
(161)
3.27
(83)
2.04
(52)
61.90
(1,572)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.9 6.5 7.0 6.4 10.0 16.4 16.9 18.9 17.9 12.7 8.4 7.2 135.2
Average relative humidity (%) 72.7 70.9 69.5 67.3 71.6 76.2 74.8 76.2 77.8 74.9 73.8 72.5 73.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 219.8 216.9 277.2 293.8 301.3 288.7 308.7 288.3 262.2 260.2 220.8 216.1 3,154
Percent possible sunshine 66 69 75 77 72 70 73 71 71 73 68 66 71
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990),[42][51][52] The Weather Channel[53]
Demographic profile[64][65] 2010 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1910
White (Includes White Hispanics) 72.6% 66.6% 65.6% 66.6% 76.6% 77.4% 83.7% 78.5% 77.3% 68.5% 58.7%
Hispanics 70.0% 65.8% 62.5% 55.9% 44.6% 17.6%
Black or African American 19.2% 22.3% 27.4% 25.1% 22.7% 22.4% 16.2% 21.4% 22.7% 31.3% 41.3%
Non-Hispanic White 11.9% 11.8% 12.2% 19.4% 41.7%
Other 4.2% 5.6% 6.4% 7.8% 0.4% 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Asian 1.0% 0.7% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3%
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