Mexican art

Mexican art consists of various visual arts that developed over the geographical area now known as Mexico. The development of these arts roughly follows the history of Mexico, divided into the prehispanic Mesoamerican era, the colonial period, with the period after Mexican War of Independence further subdivide. Mexican art is usually filled most of the time with intricate patterns.[1]

Many people describe MexicanArt as Vibrant, Colourful and symatrinco which basically means the same as democratisation.

Mesoamerican art is that produced in an area that encompasses much of what is now central and southern Mexico, before the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire for a period of about 3,000 years from Mexican Art can be bright and colourful this is called encopended. During this time, all influences on art production were indigenous, with art heavily tied to religion and the ruling class. There was little to no real distinction among art, architecture, and writing. The Spanish conquest led to 300 years of Spanish colonial rule, and art production remained tied to religion—most art was associated with the construction and decoration of churches, but secular art expanded in the eighteenth century, particularly casta paintings, portraiture, and history painting. Almost all art produced was in the European tradition, with late colonial-era artists trained at the Academy of San Carlos, but indigenous elements remained, beginning a continuous balancing act between European and indigenous traditions.[2]

After Independence, art remained heavily European in style, but indigenous themes appeared in major works as liberal Mexico sought to distinguish itself from its Spanish colonial past. This preference for indigenous elements continued into the first half of the 20th century, with the Social Realism or Mexican muralist movement led by artists such as Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco, and Fernando Leal, who were commissioned by the post-Mexican Revolution government to create a visual narrative of Mexican history and culture.

The strength of this artistic movement was such that it affected newly invented technologies, such as still photography and cinema, and strongly promoted popular arts and crafts as part of Mexico's identity. Since the 1950s, Mexican art has broken away from the muralist style and has been more globalized, integrating elements from Asia, with Mexican artists and filmmakers having an effect on the global stage.

Maize Rivera
Detail of a mural by Diego Rivera at the National Palace.

History

Pre-Columbian art

Cavepaintings-loltun
Painting cave in Yucatán
Bonampak-7269
A Maya mural at Bonampak, 8th century AD.

It is believed that the American continent's oldest rock art, 7500 years old, is found in a cave on the peninsula of Baja California.[3]

The pre-Hispanic art of Mexico belongs to a cultural region known as Mesoamerica, which roughly corresponds to central Mexico on into Central America,[4] encompassing three thousand years from 1500 BCE to 1500 CE generally divided into three eras: Pre Classic, Classic and Post Classic.[5] The first dominant Mesoamerican culture was that of the Olmecs, which peaked around 1200 BCE. The Olmecs originated much of what is associated with Mesoamerica, such as hieroglyphic writing, calendar, first advances in astronomy, monumental sculpture (Olmec heads) and jade work.[6]

They were a forerunner of later cultures such as Teotihuacan, north of Mexico City, the Zapotecs in Oaxaca and the Mayas in southern Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. While empires rose and fell, the basic cultural underpinnings of the Mesoamerica stayed the same until the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.[6] These included cities centered on plazas, temples usually built on pyramid bases, Mesoamerican ball courts and a mostly common cosmology.[4]

While art forms such as cave paintings and rock etchings date from earlier, the known history of Mexican art begins with Mesoamerican art created by sedentary cultures that built cities, and often, dominions.[5][6] While the art of Mesoamerica is more varied and extends over more time than anywhere else in the Americas, artistic styles show a number of similarities.[1][7]

Unlike modern Western art, almost all Mesoamerican art was created to serve religious or political needs, rather than art for art's sake. It is strongly based on nature, the surrounding political reality and the gods.[8] Octavio Paz states that "Mesoamerican art is a logic of forms, lines, and volumes that is as the same time a cosmology." He goes on to state that this focus on space and time is highly distinct from European naturalism based on the representation of the human body. Even simple designs such as stepped frets on buildings fall into this representation of space and time, life and the gods.[9]

Tlatilco culture figurines
Female figurines from the Tlatilco culture, 1250 to 800 BCE.

Art was expressed on a variety of mediums such as ceramics, amate paper and architecture.[7] Most of what is known of Mesoamerican art comes from works that cover stone buildings and pottery, mostly paintings and reliefs.[1] Ceramics date from the early the Mesoamerican period. They probably began as cooking and storage vessels but then were adapted to ritual and decorative uses. Ceramics were decorated by shaping, scratching, painting and different firing methods.[8]

The earliest known purely artistic production were small ceramic figures that appeared in Tehuacán area around 1,500 BCE and spread to Veracruz, the Valley of Mexico, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chiapas and the Pacific coast of Guatemala.[5] The earliest of these are mostly female figures, probably associated with fertility rites because of their often oversized hips and thighs, as well as a number with babies in arms or nursing. When male figures appear they are most often soldiers.[10] The production of these ceramic figures, which would later include animals and other forms, remained an important art form for 2000 years. In the early Olmec period most were small but large-scale ceramic sculptures were produced as large as 55 cm.[11][12]

After the middle pre-Classic, ceramic sculpture declined in the center of Mexico except in the Chupícuaro region. In the Mayan areas, the art disappears in the late pre-Classic, to reappear in the Classic, mostly in the form of whistles and other musical instruments. In a few areas, such as parts of Veracruz, the creation of ceramic figures continued uninterrupted until the Spanish conquest, but as a handcraft, not a formal art.[13]

Messico, maya, piatto da calakmul, 600-800 ca.
Painted ceramic plate from Calakmul, 600 to 800 AD.

Mesoamerican painting is found in various expressions—from murals, to the creation of codices and the painting of ceramic objects. Evidence of painting goes back at least to 1800 BCE and continues uninterrupted in one form or another until the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century.[14] Although it may have occurred earlier, the earliest known cases of artistic painting of monumental buildings occur in the early Classic period with the Mayas at Uaxactun and Tikal, and in Teotihuacan with walls painted in various colors.[5]

Paints were made from animal, vegetable and mineral pigments and bases.[15] Most paintings focus one or more human figures, which may be realistic or stylized, masculine, feminine or asexual. They may be naked or richly attired, but the social status of each figure is indicated in some way. Scenes often depict war, sacrifice, the roles of the gods or the acts of nobles. However, some common scenes with common people have been found as well.[16] Other subjects included gods, symbols and animals.[15] Mesoamerican painting was bi-dimensional with no efforts to create the illusion of depth. However, movement is often represented.[17]

Non-ceramic sculpture in Mesoamerica began with the modification of animal bones, with the oldest known piece being an animal skull from Tequixquiac that dates between 10,000 and 8,000 BCE.[10] Most Mesoamerican sculpture is of stone; while relief work on buildings is the most dominant, freestanding sculpture was done as well. Freestanding three-dimensional stone sculpture began with the Olmecs, with the most famous example being the giant Olmec stone heads. This disappeared for the rest of the Mesoamerican period in favor of relief work until the late post-Classic with the Aztecs.[18]

CoyolxauhquiDisk cropped
A disk depicting the goddess Coyolxauhqui, 14th to 16th century, at the Templo Mayor museum.

The majority of stonework during the Mesoamerican period is associated with monumental architecture that, along with mural painting, was considered an integral part of architecture rather than separate.[19] Monumental architecture began with the Olmecs in southern Veracruz and the coastal area of Tabasco in places such as San Lorenzo; large temples on pyramid bases can still be seen in sites such as Montenegro, Chiapa de Corzo and La Venta. This practice spread to the Oaxaca area and the Valley of Mexico, appearing in cities such as Monte Albán, Cuicuilco and Teotihuacan.[5][20]

These cities had a nucleus of one or more plazas, with temples, palaces and Mesoamerican ball courts. Alignment of these structures was based on the cardinal directions and astronomy for ceremonial purposes, such as focusing the sun's rays during the spring equinox on a sculpted or painted image. This was generally tied to calendar systems.[21] Relief sculpture and/or painting were created as the structures were built. By the latter pre-Classic, almost all monumental structures in Mesoamerica had extensive relief work. Some of the best examples of this are Monte Albán, Teotihuacan and Tula.[22]

Pre-Hispanic reliefs are general lineal in design and low, medium and high reliefs can be found. While this technique is often favored for narrative scenes elsewhere in the world, Mesoamerican reliefs tend to focus on a single figure. The only time reliefs are used in the narrative sense is when several relief steles are placed together. The best relief work is from the Mayas, especially from Yaxchilan.[23]

Writing and art were not distinct as they have been for European cultures. Writing was considered art and art was often covering in writing.[9] The reason for this is that both sought to record history and the culture's interpretation of reality.(salvatvolp14) Manuscripts were written on paper or other book-like materials then bundled into codices.[24] The art of reading and writing was strictly designated to the highest priest classes, as this ability was a source of their power over society.[14][17]

The pictograms or glyphs of this writing system were more formal and rigid than images found on murals and other art forms as they were considered mostly symbolic, representing formulas related to astronomical events, genealogy and historic events.[17] Most surviving pre-Hispanic codices come from the late Mesoamerican period and early colonial period, as more of these escaped destruction over history. For this reason, more is known about the Aztec Empire than the Mayan cultures.[15][24] Important Aztec codices include the Borgia Group of mainly religious works, some of which probably pre-date the conquest, the Codex Borbonicus, Codex Mendoza, and the late Florentine Codex, which is in a European style but executed by Mexican artists, probably drawing on earlier material that is now lost.

Olmec Head No. 1

Olmec Head No.1, 1200–900 BCE

WLA metmuseum Olmec Jadeite Mask 3

Olmec jadeite mask, 1000 to 600 BCE

Señor de las limas 2

Las Limas Monument 1, 1000 to 600 BCE

Chupicuaro statuette Louvre 70-1998-3-1

Chupicuaro statuette at the Louvre, 600 to 200 BCE

Jar p1070229

Jars from Casas Grandes, 12th to 15th century

Teotihuacán - Tripod Vase - Walters 482769 - Profile

Tripod vessel from Teotihuacán, 250 to 600 AD

Tepantitla Mountain Stream mural Teotihuacan (Luis Tello)

Detail of a mural in Tepantitla, Teotihuacán, 100 BCE to 700 AD

Pinturas prehispánicas

Mural in Portic A of Cacaxtla.

Labna 01

Sculpture of Chaac, part of the facade of a building in Labna, 600 to 900 AD

K'inich Janaab Pakal I

Stucco head of K'inich Janaab Pakal I (603-683 AD), ruler of Palenque.

Mascara Dios Murcielago

Zapotec mask of the bat God

Escudo De Yanhuitlán

Shield of Yanhuitlan

Codex Zouche-Nuttall, page 20

Detail from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14th to 15th century

Monolito de la Piedra del Sol

The Aztec Sun Stone, early 16th century, on display at the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City

Colonial era, 1521–1821

The early colonial era and indigenous artists and influences

AtriumCrossAcolman1
An atrium cross in Acolman. During the early period of evangelization, an enclosed open chapels for large congregations of neophytes saw the creation and placement of decorated, anthropomorphized stone crosses with Jesus at their center.

Since the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Mexican art has been an ongoing and complex interaction between the traditions of Europe and native perspectives.[1]

Church construction After the conquest, Spaniards' first efforts were directed at evangelization and the related task of building churches, which needed indigenous labor for basic construction, but they Nahuas elaborated stonework exteriors and decorated church interiors. Indigenous craftsmen were taught European motifs, designs and techniques, but very early work, called tequitqui (Nahuatl for “vassal”), includes elements such as flattened faces and high-stiff relief.[25][26] The Spanish friars directing construction were not trained architects or engineers. They relied on indigenous stonemasons and sculptors to build churches and other Christian structures, often in the same places as temples and shrines of the traditional religion. "Although some Indians complained about the burden such labor represented, most communities considered a large and impressive church to be a reflection of their town's importance and took justifiable pride in creating a sacred place for divine worship."[27] The fact that so many colonial-era churches have survived centuries it testament to their general good construction.

The first monasteries built in and around Mexico City, such as the monasteries on the slopes of Popocatepetl, had Renaissance, Plateresque, Gothic or Moorish elements, or some combination. They were relatively undecorated, with building efforts going more towards high walls and fortress features to ward off attacks.[28] The construction of more elaborate churches with large quantities of religious artwork would define much of the artistic output of the colonial period. Most of the production was related to the teaching and reinforcement of Church doctrine, just as in Europe. Religious art set the rationale for Spanish domination over the indigenous. Today, colonial-era structures and other works exist all over the country, with a concentration in the central highlands around Mexico City.[29]

Huanitzin
The Mass of St. Gregory, feathers on wood panel, the oldest dated feather work with a Christian subject. Made by or for Diego Huanutzin, nephew and son-in-law of Moctezuma II to present to Pope Paul III, dated 1539
The Florentine Codex- Aztec Feather Painters VI.tiff
Feather work artists as depicted in the Florentine Codex (ca. 1576).

Feather work was a highly valued skill of prehispanic central Mexico that continued into the early colonial era. Spaniards were fascinated by this form of art, and indigenous feather workers (amanteca) produced religious images in this medium, mainly small "paintings", as well as religious vestments.[30][31]

Indigenous writings Indians continued production of written manuscripts in the early colonial era, especially codices in the Nahua area of central Mexico. An important early manuscript that was commissioned for the Spanish crown was Codex Mendoza, named after the first viceroy of Mexico, Don Antonio de Mendoza, which shows the tribute delivered to the Aztec ruler from individual towns as well as descriptions of proper comportment for the common people. A far more elaborate project utilizing indigenous scribes illustration is the project resulting in the Florentine Codex directed by Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún. Other indigenous manuscripts in the colonial era include the Huexotzinco Codex and Codex Osuna.

An important type of manuscript from the early period were pictorial and textual histories of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs from the indigenous viewpoint. The early Lienzo de Tlaxcala illustrated the contributions the Spaniards' Tlaxcalan allies made to the defeat of the Aztec Empire, as well the Hernán Cortés and his cultural translator Doña Marina (Malinche).

Painting Most Nahua artists producing this visual art are anonymous. An exception is the work of Juan Gerson, who ca. 1560 decorated the vault of the Franciscan church in the Nahua town of Tecamachalco,(Puebla state), with individual scenes from the Old Testament.[32]

While colonial art remained almost completely European in style, with muted colors and no indication of movement—the addition of native elements, which began with the tequitqui, continued. They were never the center of the works, but decorative motifs and filler, such as native foliage, pineapples, corn, and cacao.[33] Much of this can be seen on portals as well as large frescoes that often decorated the interior of churches and the walls of monastery areas closed to the public.[34]

The earliest of Mexico's colonial artists were Spanish-born who came to Mexico in the middle of their careers. This included mendicant friars, such as Fray Alonso López de Herrera. Later, most artists were born in Mexico, but trained in European techniques, often from imported engravings. This dependence on imported copies meant that Mexican works preserved styles after they had gone out of fashion in Europe.[1] In the colonial period, artists worked in guilds, not independently. Each guild had its own rules, precepts, and mandates in technique—which did not encourage innovation.[35]

Gallery

Codex Mendoza folio 2r

Founding of Tenochtitlan in Codex Mendoza ca. 1541.

Codex Mendoza folio 47r

Towns owing tribute to the Aztec Empire shown in Codex Mendoza ca. 1541

Cortez & La Malinche

Image of Cortés and Malinche in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, chronicling the conquest of central Mexico from the Tlaxcalans' viewpoint.

The Florentine Codex- Moctezuma's Death and Cremation

Florentine Codex Book XII, showing death and cremation of Moctezuma

Duran Codex Eagle

Native illustration of Diego Durán's history of ancient Mexico, showing the founding of Tenochtitlan

Codex azcatitlan222

Codex Azcatitlan, page depicting Spanish conquerors, with Hernán Cortés and Malinche

Tzompantli Tovar.jpeg

Codex Ramirez, A depiction of a tzompantli, or skull rack, associated with the depiction of a temple dedicated to Huitzilopochtli from Juan de Tovar's manuscript.

Nezahualpiltzintli

Nezahualpilli, tlatoani of Texcoco. Codex Ixtlilxochitl ca. 1582.

Badianus

A page of the Badinus Herbal, 16th c.

Huex codex 1a loc

Huexotzinco Codex; the panel contains an image of the Virgin and Child and symbolic representations of tribute paid to the administrators

NunoBeltranGuzman-1

Conquistador Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán as depicted in Codex Telleriano Remensis, a 16th c. pictorial annal/history

TecamachalcoPue

Juan Gerson's religious paintings in the Franciscan church of Tecamachalco, Puebla, 1562.

Ex Convento de san Francisco

Former Convent of San Francisco, in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

Mujer del Apocalipsis - Cristóbal de Villalpando

Cristóbal de Villalpando, Woman of the Apocalypse (Mujer del Apocalipsis), 1686

La Virgen del Apocalipsis - Cristóbal de Villalpando (Museo Bello y González, Ciudad de Puebla)

Cristóbal de Villpando, The Virgin of the Apocalypse (La Virgen de la Apocalipsis). Late 17th century

Santa rosa tentada por el demonio - Cristobal de Villalpando

Cristóbal de Villalpando, Saint Rose tempted by the devil (Santa rosa tentada por el demonio), ca. 1695/1697

La aparición de San Miguel - Cristóbal de Villalpando

Cristóbal de Villalpando, Apparition of Saint Michael (Aparición de San Miguel), ca. 1686–1688

Vista de la Plaza Mayor de la Ciudad de México - Cristobal de Villalpando

Cristóbal de Villalpando, View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico city (Vista de la Plaza Mayor de la Ciudad de México), 1695

San Pablo - Cristóbal de Villalpando

Cristóbal de Villalpando, Saint Paul (San Pablo), 1670–1680

La Virgen de la escalera - Cristóbal de Villalpando, (Templo de San Felipe Neri)

Cristóbal de Villalpando, Madonna of the Stairs (La Virgen de la Escalera), 1680–1690

Los Cuatro Elementos - Juan Correa

Juan Correa, The liberal arts and the four elements (Las artes liberales y los cuatro elementos). 1670

Mexican Baroque

Eternal father painting guadalupe
18th-century painting of God the Father fashioning the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe

Baroque painting became firmly established in Mexico by the middle of the 17th century with the work of Spaniard Sebastián López de Arteaga. His painting is exemplified by the canvas called Doubting Thomas from 1643. In this work, the Apostle Thomas is shown inserting his finger in the wound in Christ's side to emphasize Christ's suffering. The caption below reads "the Word made flesh" and is an example of Baroque's didactic purpose.[34]

One difference between painters in Mexico and their European counterparts is that they preferred realistic directness and clarity over fantastic colors, elongated proportions and extreme spatial relationships. The goal was to create a realistic scene in which the viewer could imagine himself a part of. This was a style created by Caravaggio in Italy, which became popular with artists in Seville, from which many migrants came to New Spain came.[34] Similarly, Baroque free standing sculptures feature life-size scales, realistic skin tones and the simulation of gold-threaded garments through a technique called estofado, the application of paint over gold leaf.[34]

The most important later influence to Mexican and other painters in Latin America was the work of Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, known through copies made from engravings and mezzotint techniques. His paintings were copied and reworked and became the standard for both religious and secular art.[34] Later Baroque paintings moved from the confines of altarpieces to colossal freestanding canvases on church interiors. One of the best known Mexican painters of this kind of work was Cristóbal de Villalpando. His work can be seen in the sacristy of the Mexico City Cathedral, which was done between 1684 and 1686. These canvases were glued directly onto the walls with arched frames to stabilize them, and placed just under the vaults of the ceiling. Even the fresco work of the 16th century was not usually this large.[34] Another one of Villalpando's works is the cupola of the Puebla Cathedral in 1688. He used Rubens’ brush techniques and the shape of the structure to create a composition of clouds with angels and saints, from which a dove descends to represent the Holy Spirit. The light from the cupola's windows is meant to symbolize God's grace.[34] Juan Rodríguez Juárez (1675–1728) and mulatto artist Juan Correa (1646–1716) were also prominent painters of the baroque era. Correa's most famous student, José de Ibarra (1685–1756) was also mixed-race. One of Mexico's finest painters, Miguel Cabrera (1695–1768), was possibly mixed race.[36]

The church produced the most important works of the seventeenth century. Among the important painters were Baltasar de Echave Ibia and his son Baltasar Echave Rioja, also Luis Juárez and his son José Juárez, Juan Correa, Cristóbal de Villalpando, Rodrigo de la Piedra, Antonio de Santander, Polo Bernardino, Juan de Villalobos, Juan Salguero and Juan de Herrera. Juan Correa, worked from 1671 to 1716 and reached great prestige and reputation for the quality of its design and scale of some of his works. Among the best known: 'Apocalypse in the Cathedral of Mexico', 'Conversion of St. Mary Magdalene', now in the 'Pinacoteca Virreinal' and 'Santa Catarina and Adam and Eve casting out of paradise', the latter located in the National Museum of Viceroyalty of Tepotzotlán.[37]

Colonial religious art was sponsored by Church authorities and private patrons. Sponsoring the rich ornamentation of churches was a way for the wealthy to gain prestige.[29] In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Mexico City was one of the wealthiest in the world, mostly due to mining and agriculture, and was able to support a large art scene.[38]

Gallery

Retrato de Hernán Cortés

Portrait of Hernando Cortés, conqueror of Mexico. Unknown artist. 16th century.

AntonioMendoza

Official Portrait of Don Antonio de Mendoza, first viceroy of New Spain. Unknown artist. 1535.

PedroMoyaContreras

Official Portrait of Don Pedro Moya de Contreras, first secular cleric to be archbishop of Mexico and first cleric to serve as viceroy. Unknown artist.

Lactación de Santo Domingo

The Lactación de Santo Domingo, by Cristóbal de Villalpando painted near the end of the 17th century.

Villalpando San Ignacio en Tierra Santa 1710

St Ignatius in the Holy Land, Cristóbal de Villalpando (1710)

Correa La Pascua de Maria

Juan Correa La Pascua de María, 1698.

Ayala La familia del Valle a los pies de la Virgen de Loreto

Josep Antonio de Ayala, The del Valle family at the feet the Virgin of Loreto, 1769. In the collections of the Museo Soumaya

Ibarra-virgen del apocalipsis

Inmaculada del Apocalipsis, Pinacoteca de La Profesa, México, by José de Ibarra

Virgin of Guadalupe - Google Art Project

Virgin of Guadalupe, ca. 1700

The Conquest of Tenochtitlan

History painting of the Spanish Conquest of Tenochtitlan, 17th century

Folding Screen with Indian Wedding and Flying Pole (Biombo con desposorio indígena y palo volador) - Google Art Project

Folding Screen with Indian Wedding and Voladores, ca. 1690

Neoclassical and Secular Art

Sor Juana by Miguel Cabrera
Posthumous portrait of seventeenth-century nun and savante, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Miguel Cabrera 1750.
Verdadero retrato de Santa María Virgen de Guadalupe
Painting of Our Lady of Guadalupe, including scenes of the apparition of the Virgin Mary to Juan Diego by Josefus De Ribera Argomanis. (1778)

While most commissioned art was for churches, secular works were commissioned as well. Portrait painting was known relatively early in the colonial period, mostly of viceroys and archbishops. Beginning in the late Baroque period, portrait painting of local nobility became a significant genre. Two notable painters of this type are brothers Nicolás and Juan Rodríguez Juárez. These works followed European models, with symbols of rank and titles either displayed unattached in the outer portions or worked into another element of the paintings such as curtains.[34]

Another type of secular colonial painting is called casta paintings referring to the depiction of racial hierarchy racially in eighteenth-century New Spain. Some were likely commissioned by Spanish functionaries as souvenirs of Mexico. A number of artists of the era created casta paintings, including Miguel Cabrera, José de Ibarra, Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz, Francisco Clapera, and Luis de Mena, but most casta paintings are unsigned. Ibarra, Morlete, and possibly Cabrera were of mixed race and born outside Mexico City.[39] Mena's only known casta painting links the Virgin of Guadalupe and the casta system, as well as depictions of fruits and vegetables and scenes of everyday life in mideighteenth-century Mexico. It is one of the most-reproduced examples of casta paintings, one of the small number that show the casta system on a single canvas rather than up to 16 separate paintings. It is unique in uniting the thoroughly secular genre of casta painting with a depiction of the Virgin of Guadalupe.[40] Production of these paintings stopped after the Mexican War of Independence, when legal racial categories were repudiated in independent Mexico. Until the run-up to the 500th anniversary of the Columbus's 1492 voyage, casta paintings were of little or no interest, even to art historians, but scholars began systematically studying them as a genre.[41][42][43]

Mexico was a crossroads of trade in the colonial period, with goods from Asia and Europe mixing with those natively produced. This convergence is most evident in the decorative arts of New Spain.[38] It was popular among the upper classes to have a main public room, called a salon de estrado, to be covered in rugs and cushions for women to recline in Moorish fashion. Stools and later chairs and settees were added for men. Folding screens were introduced from Japan, with Mexican-style ones produced called biombos The earliest of these Mexican made screens had oriental designs but later ones had European and Mexican themes. One example of this is a screen with the conquest of Mexico one side and an aerial view of Mexico City on the other at the Franz Mayer Museum.[38]

The Crown promoted the establishment in Mexico of the Neoclassical style of art and architecture, which had become popular in Spain. This style was a reinterpretation of Greco-Roman references and its use was a way to reinforce European dominance in the Spain's colonies. One Neoclassical artist from the Academy at the end of the colonial period was Manuel Tolsá. He first taught sculpture at the Academy of San Carlos and then became its second director. Tolsá designed a number of Neoclassical buildings in Mexico but his best known work is an equestrian status of King Charles IV in bronze cast in 1803 and originally placed in the Zócalo. As of 2011 it can be seen at the Museo Nacional de Arte.[44]

Along with the construction of temples and houses artistic religious themes proliferated. In New Spain, as in the rest of the New World, since the seventeenth century, particularly during the eighteenth century, the portrait became an important part of the artistic repertoire. In a society characterized by a deep religious feeling which was imbued, it was expected that many portraits reflected the moral virtues and piety of the model.[45]

De español y mestiza, castiza
A casta painting by Miguel Cabrera, depicting in standard fashion parents of two different racial categories and the racial classification of their offspring. Here he shows a Spanish (español) father, Mestiza (mixed Spanish-Indian) mother, and their Castiza daughter.

Some prominent painters of this period are: Cristóbal de Villalpando, Juan Correa, José de Ibarra, Joseph Mora, Nicolas Rodriguez Juarez, Francisco Martinez, Miguel Cabrera, Andrés López and Nicolás Enríquez. Sebastian Zalcedo painted ca. 1780 a beautiful allegory of the Virgin of Guadalupe in oil on copper foil. In this century Josep Antonio de Ayala was a prominent artist, who is known for painting The family of the Valley at the foot of Our Lady of Loreto c. 1769. This devotional painting was commissioned to be done for the children of the del Valle family in memory of his parents and is characteristic of the painting of this century.[46]

A description of colonial art says: "In the "Sponsorship of Saint Joseph on the Caroline College", Saint Joseph is seen as a major figure of the work, who carries on his left side the child Jesus. Two archangels flank him and maintain its long purple robe. At the top two little angels are observed with intent to crown the holy". "For centuries, the work was attributed to Manuel Caro, but the meticulous restoration work allowed to find the signature of the original author. Miguel Cabrera"[47]

In the 18th century, artists increasingly included the Latin phrase pinxit Mexici (painted in Mexico) on works bound for the European market as a sign of pride in their artistic tradition.[48]

The Academy of San Carlos

Rafael Ximeno y Planes - Portrait of Manuel Tolsá - Google Art Project
Portrait of Manuel Tolsá, director of the Academy of San Carlos by Rafael Ximeno y Planes, director of painting at the Academy

The last colonial era art institution established was the Academy of San Carlos in 1783.[44] While the depiction of saints consumed most artistic efforts, they were not without political effects. The most important of these was the rise of the cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe as an American rather than European saint, representative of a distinct identity.[49]

By the late 18th century, Spain's colonies were becoming culturally independent from Spain, including its arts. The Academy was established by the Spanish Crown to regain control of artistic expression and the messages it disseminated. This school was staffed by Spanish artists in each of the major disciplines, with the first director being Antonio Gil.[44] The school became home to a number of plaster casts of classic statues from the San Fernando Fine Arts Academy in Spain, brought there for teaching purposes. These casts are on display in the Academy's central patio.[50] The Academy of San Carlos survived into post-independence Mexico.

Gallery

Rafael Ximeno Y Planes - The Miracle of the Little Spring - Google Art Project

Rafael Ximeno y Planes, director of painting at the Academy of San Carlos, The Miracle of the Little Spring (1813)

Miguel Cabrera - Doña María de la Luz Padilla y (Gómez de) Cervantes - Google Art Project

Miguel Cabrera (1695–1768). Doña María de la Luz Padilla y Gómez de Cervantes, ca. 1760. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum

La consagración de los templos paganos y la primera misa en México-Tenochtitlan

The consecration of pagan temples and the first mass in Mexico-Tenochtitlan by José Vivar y Valderrama, ca. 1752. Oil on canvas.

Casta painting all

Las castas. Anonymous, 18th century, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.

Bautizo de Ixtlixóchitl

Baptism of Ixtlilxochitl by José Vivar y Valderrama, 18th century.

ScreenConquest17Cent01

A Biombo screen with a depiction of the Spanish conquest of Mexico at the Franz Mayer Museum

VillaRicaCoatArmsDF

Tile Mosaic of the Coat of arms of Villa Rica, Veracruz, the first town council founded by Spaniards. Mosaic located in Mexico City

Indian collecting cochineal

Indian Collecting Cochineal with a Deer Tail by José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1777)

Ayala La familia del Valle a los pies de la Virgen de Loreto

Josep Antonio de Ayala, La familia del Valle a los pies de la Virgen de Loreto (The family of the Valley at the foot of the Madonna of Loreto), 1769

Dibujo Escudo de Armas de México

Preliminary drawing for the frontispiece of the Coat of Arms of Mexico, ca. 1743.

El Parian - 18th century in New Spain

The Parian (El Parián), ca. 1770

Traslado de la imagen y dedicación del santuario de Guadalupe, Ciudad de México, Manuel de Arellano

Manuel Arellano, Inauguration of the Sanctuary of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico city (Traslado de la imagen y dedicación del santuario de Guadalupe en la Ciudad de México), 1709

Cabrera Pintura de Castas

Miguel Cabrera, Painting of Castes (Pintura de las Castas), 1763

Retrato de familia Fagoga Arozqueta - Anónimo ca.1730

Portrait of family Fagoga Arozqueta (Retrato de la Familia Fagoga Arozqueta), 1730

Independence to the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, 1821–1911

Early Post-independence era the Mid Nineteenth Century

Retrato del excelentísimo señor don José María Morelos
Hero of Independence, Father José María Morelos, artist unknown, painted ca. 1812.
Flag of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893)
The Mexican flag during most of the nineteenth century. The flag with the eagle wearing a gold crown was designed by Agustín de Iturbide, emperor of Mexico 1821–22.
Valle de México José Maria Velazco 3
José María Velasco, El Valle de México.

Artists of the independence era in Mexico (1810–21) produced works showing the insurgency's heroes. A portrait of secular cleric José María Morelos in his military uniform was painted by an unknown artist. The portrait is typical of those from the late eighteenth century, with framing elements, a formal caption, and new elements being iconography of the emerging Mexican nationalism, including the eagle atop the nopal cactus, which became the central image for the Mexican flag.[51] Morelos was the subject of a commissioned statue, with Pedro Patiño Ixtolinque, who trained at the Academy of San Carlos and remained an important sculptor through the era of era independence.[52]

The Academy of San Carlos remained the center of academic painting and the most prestigious art institution in Mexico until the Mexican War of Independence, during which it was closed.[53] Despite its association with the Spanish Crown and European painting tradition, the Academy was reopened by the new government after Mexico gained full independence in 1821. Its former Spanish faculty and students either died during the war or returned to Spain, but when it reopened it attracted the best art students of the country, and continued to emphasize classical European traditions until the early 20th century.[53][54]

The academy was renamed to the National Academy of San Carlos. The new government continued to favor Neoclassical as it considered the Baroque a symbol of colonialism. The Neoclassical style continued in favor through the reign of Maximilian I although President Benito Juárez supported it only reluctantly, considering its European focus a vestige of colonialism.[50]

Despite Neoclassicism's association with European domination, it remained favored by the Mexican government after Independence and was used in major government commissions at the end of the century. However, indigenous themes appeared in paintings and sculptures. One indigenous figure depicted in Neoclassical style is Tlahuicol, done by Catalan artist Manuel Vilar in 1851. In 1887, Porfirio Díaz commissioned the statue of the last Aztec emperor, Cuauhtémoc, which can be seen on Paseo de la Reforma. Cuauhtémoc is depicted with a toga-like cloak with a feathered headdress similar to an Etruscan or Trojan warrior rather than an Aztec emperor. The base has elements reminiscent of Mitla and Roman architecture. This base contains bronze plates depicting scenes from the Spanish conquest, but focusing on the indigenous figures.[54]

There were two reasons for this shift in preferred subject. The first was that Mexican society denigrated colonial culture—the indigenous past was seen as more truly Mexican.[38] The other factor was a worldwide movement among artists to confront society, which began around 1830. In Mexico, this anti-establishment sentiment was directed at the Academy of San Carlos and its European focus.[55]

In the first half of the 19th century, the Romantic style of painting was introduced into Mexico and the rest of Latin America by foreign travelers interested in the newly independent country. One of these was Bavarian artist Johann Moritz Rugendas, who lived in the country from 1831 to 1834. He painted scenes with dynamic composition and bright colors in accordance with Romantic style, looking for striking, sublime, and beautiful images in Mexico as well as other areas of Latin America. However much of Rugendas's works are sketches for major canvases, many of which were never executed. Others include Englishman Daniel Egerton, who painted landscapes in the British Romantic tradition, and German Carl Nebel, who primarily created lithographs of the various social and ethnic populations of the country.[56]

VelorioJaraDF
El Velorio by José María Jara 1889

A number of native-born artists at the time followed the European Romantic painters in their desire to document the various cultures of Mexico. These painters were called costumbristas, a word deriving from costumbre (custom). The styles of these painters were not always strictly Romantic, involving other styles as well. Most of these painters were from the upper classes and educated in Europe. While the European painters viewed subjects as exotic, the costumbristas had a more nationalistic sense of their home countries. One of these painters was Agustín Arrieta from Puebla, who applied realistic techniques to scenes from his home city, capturing its brightly painted tiles and ceramics. His scenes often involved everyday life such as women working in kitchen and depicted black and Afro-Mexican vendors.[57]

Late Nineteenth Century to the Revolution

NezahualcoyotlGardenTADF
A bronze casting (1888–1889) of Nezahualcoyotl, by Jesús F. Contreras at the Garden of the Triple Alliance, Filomeno Mata street, historical center of Mexico City.
SceneTortureCuautemocMonumentDF
Cuauhtemoc's torture on a monument to him on the Paseo de la Reforma, by Gabriel Guerra (1847–1893).

In the mid-to late 19th century Latin American academies began to shift away from severe Neoclassicism to “academic realism”. Idealized and simplified depictions became more realistic, with emphasis on details. Scenes in this style were most often portraits of the upper classes, Biblical scenes, and battles—especially those from the Independence period. When the Academy of San Carlos was reopened after a short closure in 1843, its new Spanish and Italian faculty pushed this realist style. Despite government support and nationalist themes, native artists were generally shorted in favor of Europeans.[58]

One of the most important painters in Mexico in the mid 19th century was Catalan Pelegrí Clavé, who painted landscapes but was best known for his depictions of the intellectual elite of Mexico City. Realist painters also attempted to portray Aztec culture and people by depicting settings inhabited by indigenous people, using live indigenous models and costumes based on those in Conquest era codices. One of these was Félix Parra, whose depictions of the conquest empathized with the suffering of the indigenous. In 1869, José Obregón painted The Discovery of Pulque; he based his depictions of architecture on Mixtec codices, but misrepresented temples as a setting for a throne.[58]

The art of the 19th century after Independence is considered to have declined, especially during the late 19th century and early 20th, during the regime of Porfirio Díaz (1876–1911). Although during this time, painting, sculpture, and the decorative arts were often limited to imitation of European styles,[59] the emergence of young artists, such as Diego Rivera and Saturnino Herrán, increased the focus on Mexican-themed works. This meant that following the military phase of the Mexican Revolution in the 1920s, Mexican artists made huge strides is forging a robust artistic nationalism.

In this century there are examples of murals such as folkloric style created between 1855 and 1867 in La Barca, Jalisco.[60]

Highlights at this time: Pelegrín Clavé, Juan Cordero, Felipe Santiago Gutiérrez and José Agustín Arrieta. In Mexico, in 1846 he was hired to direct Pelegrín Clavé's reopening of the Academy of San Carlos, a body from which he promoted the historical and landscaping themes with a pro-European vision.[61]

Gallery

Entrada del Generalisimo Don Agustin de Iturbide a Mexico

Entrance of Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City in 1821. Unknown artist, no date.

Water carrier in Mexico by Claudio Linati 1828

Claudio Linati, Mexican Water carrier

Miliciens provinciaux de Guazacualco by Claudio Linati 1828

Claudio Linati Militia of Guazacualco

Cacique Apache by Claudio Linati 1828

Claudio Linati Apache chief

Tortilleras Nebel

Carl Nebel Las Tortilleras, one of 50 plates in his Voyage pittoresque et archéologique dans la partie la plus intéressante du Mexique

Nebel Voyage 41 Indias de la Sierra

Carl Nebel's depiction of Sierra Indians.

Costumes Mexicains00

Casimiro Castro Mexicans in a rural scene outside Mexico City (1855)

Arrietatertulia1

Agustín Arrieta, Tertulia de pulquería, 1851

Arrietacomedor

Agustín Arrieta, Cuadro de comedor, pintado entre 1857 y 1859, oleo sobre tela

El Costeño

Agustín Arrieta, El Costeño the painting shows a man from the coast, likely Veracruz, holding a basket of fruits including mamey, tuna and pitahaya.

TulumCatherwood1844

Frederick Catherwood, Main temple at Tulum, from Views of Ancient Monuments.

Catherwood stela d

Frederick Catherwood Lithograph of Stela D. Copan (1844), from Views of Ancient Monuments.

Gran Teatro Nacional Mexico City by Pedro Gualdi

Pedro Gualdi, Gran Teatro Nacional de México/Teatro Santa Anna, Mexico City

Juan Cordero - Portrait of Doña Dolores Tosta de Santa Anna - Google Art Project

Juan Cordero, Portrait of General Antonio López de Santa Anna's wife, Doña Dolores Tosta de Santa Anna. (1855)

Juan Cordero - Cristopher Columbus at the Court of the Catholic Monarchs - Google Art Project

Christopher Columbus at the Court of the Catholic Monarchs (painted in Italy, 1850/1) by Juan Cordero

FundacionMexicoDF

José María Jara (1867–1939), Foundation of Mexico City. Museo Nacional de Arte. (1889)

Inspiracion de Cristobal Colon by Jose Maria Obregon, 1856

El Inspiración de Cristobal Colon by José Obregon. (1856)

Descubrimiento del pulque José María Obregón Óleo sobre tela 1869

The Discovery of Pulque by José Obregón at the Museo Nacional de Arte. (1869)

DelasCasasParraDF

Félix Parra, Fray Bartolomé de las Casas (1875) exhibited at the Centennial International Exposition of Philadelphia in 1876.

MatanzaCholula

Matanza de Cholula, by Félix Parra. (1875)

El suplicio de Cuauhtémoc

Leandro Izaguirre Torture of Cuauhtémoc (1892)

Jose ma velasco exconvento

Patio del Exconvento de San Agustín, José María Velasco

Valle de México José Maria Velazco 3

View of the Valley of Mexico by José María Velasco

Vicente Guerrero (1865)

Oil painting of Vicente Guerrero, leader of independence and president of Mexico. Ramón Sagredo (1865)

Miguel Hidalgo con estandarte

Painting of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, considered the father of Mexican independence, by Antonio Fabrés

Clausell Paisaje con bosque y río

Joaquín Clausell, Countryside with forest and river.

Saturnino Herrán - La cosecha, 1909

Saturnino HerránLa cosecha ("The Harvest"), 1909

Saturnino Herrán - The offering - Google Art Project

Saturnino Herrán La ofrenda ("The Offering"), 1913

Saturnino Herran Mujer en Tehuantepec (1914)

Saturnino Herrán Mujer en Tehuantepec ("Woman of Tehuantepec) 1914

Posada2.Catrina.jpeg

José Guadalupe Posada, Calavera Catrina, mocking the styles of elite women of the late nineteenth century

José Guadalupe Posada, Calavera oaxaqueña, broadsheet, 1903

José Guadalupe Posada, 1903, Calavera oaxaqueña. Posada published illustrations for many broadsheets

20th century

GuadalupeRevueltasSICDF
A portion of Alegoría a la Virgen de Guadalupe by Fermín Revueltas located in one of the walls of the San Ildefonso College.

The Academy of San Carlos continued to advocate classic, European-style training until 1913. In this year, the academy was partially integrated with National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Between 1929 and the 1950s, the academy’s architecture program was split off as a department of the university; the programs in painting, sculpture, and engraving were renamed the National School of Expressive Arts, now the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas (ENAP). Both moved to the south of the city in the mid-20th century, to Ciudad Universitaria and Xochimilco respectively, leaving only some graduate programs in fine arts in the original academy building in the historic center. ENAP remains one of the main centers for the training of Mexico’s artists.[50]

TreeLifeScience2MuseoLuzDF
The Tree of Life or The Tree of Science painted by Roberto Montenegro at the San Pedro y San Pablo College (Museum of Light)

Mexican muralism and Revolutionary art

Fragmento Mural Alfredo Zalce 6 063
Detail of mural "Gente y paisaje de Michoacán" at the Palacio de Gobierno in Michoacán (1962)

While a shift to more indigenous and Mexican themes appeared in the 19th century, the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920 had a dramatic effect on Mexican art.[50][53] The conflict resulted in the rise of the Partido Revolucionario Nacional (renamed the Partido Revolucionario Institucional), which took the country in a socialist direction. The government became an ally to many of the intellectuals and artists in Mexico City[33][38] and commissioned murals for public buildings to reinforce its political messages including those that emphasized Mexican rather than European themes. These were not created for popular or commercial tastes; however, they gained recognition not only in Mexico, but in the United States.[62]

This production of art in conjunction with government propaganda is known as the Mexican Modernist School or the Mexican Muralist Movement, and it redefined art in Mexico.[63] Octavio Paz gives José Vasconcelos credit for initiating the Muralist movement in Mexico by commissioning the best-known painters in 1921 to decorate the walls of public buildings. The commissions were politically motivated—they aimed to glorify the Mexican Revolution and redefine the Mexican people vis-à-vis their indigenous and Spanish past.[64]

The first of these commissioned paintings were at San Ildefonso done by Fernando Leal, Fermín Revueltas, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Diego Rivera. The first true fresco in the building was the work of Jean Charlot. However, technical errors were made in the construction of these murals: a number of them began to blister and were covered in wax for preservation.[65] Roberto Montenegro painted the former church and monastery of San Pedro y San Pablo, but the mural in the church was painted in tempera and began to flake. In the monastery area, Montenegro painted the Feast of the Holy Cross, which depicts Vasconcelos as the protector of Muralists. Vasconcelos was later blanked out and a figure of a woman was painted over him.[66]

The first protagonist in the production of modern murals in Mexico was Dr. Atl. Dr Atl was born “Gerard Murillo” in Guadalajara in 1875. He changed his name in order to identify himself as Mexican. Atl worked to promote Mexico's folk art and handcrafts. While he had some success as a painter in Guadalajara, his radical ideas against academia and the government prompted him to move to more liberal Mexico City. In 1910, months before the start of the Mexican Revolution, Atl painted the first modern mural in Mexico. He taught major artists to follow him, including those who came to dominate Mexican mural painting.[59]

The muralist movement reached its height in the 1930s with four main protagonists: Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco, and Fernando Leal. It is the most studied part of Mexico's art history.[33][38][67] All were artists trained in classical European techniques and many of their early works are imitations of then-fashionable European paintings styles, some of which were adapted to Mexican themes.[1][63] The political situation in Mexico from the 1920s to 1950s and the influence of Dr. Atl prompted these artists to break with European traditions, using bold indigenous images, lots of color, and depictions of human activity, especially of the masses, in contrast to the solemn and detached art of Europe.[33]

Preferred mediums generally excluded traditional canvases and church porticos and instead were the large, then-undecorated walls of Mexico's government buildings. The main goal in many of these paintings was the glorification of Mexico's pre-Hispanic past as a definition of Mexican identity.[33] They had success in both Mexico and the United States, which brought them fame and wealth as well as Mexican and American students.[62]

These muralists revived the fresco technique for their mural work, although Siqueiros moved to industrial techniques and materials such as the application of pyroxilin, a commercial enamel used for airplanes and automobiles.[33] One of Rivera's earliest mural efforts emblazoned the courtyard of the Ministry of Education with a series of dancing tehuanas (natives of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico). This four-year project went on to incorporate other contemporary indigenous themes, and it eventually encompassed 124 frescoes that extended three stories high and two city blocks long.[33] The Abelardo Rodriguez Market was painted in 1933 by students of Diego Rivera, one of whom was Isamu Noguchi.[68]

Another important figure of this time period was Frida Kahlo, the wife of Diego Rivera. While she painted canvases instead of murals, she is still considered part of the Mexican Modernist School as her work emphasized Mexican folk culture and colors.[33][69] Kahlo's self-portraits during the 1930s and 40s were in stark contrast to the lavish murals artists like her husband were creating at the time. Having suffered a crippling bus accident earlier in her teenage life, she began to challenge Mexico's obsession with the female body. Her portraits, purposefully small, addressed a wide range of topics not being addressed by the mainstream art world at the time. These included motherhood, domestic violence, and male egoism.

Her paintings never had subjects wearing lavish jewelry or fancy clothes like those found in muralist paintings. Instead, she would sparsely dress herself up, and when there were accessories, it added that much more importance to them. She would also depict herself in very surreal, unsettling scenarios like in The Two Fridas where she depicts two versions of herself, one with a broken heart and one with a healthy infusing the broken heart with “hopeful” blood., or Henry Ford Hospital where she depicts herself in having an abortion and the struggle she had in real life coming to terms with it.

Although she was the wife of Diego Rivera, her self-portraits stayed rather obscured from the public eye until well after her passing in 1954. Her art has grown in popularity and she is seen by many to be one of the earliest and most influential feminist artists of the 20th century.[70]

Gallery

Hidalgo de José Clemente Orozco

José Clemente Orozco, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Jalisco Governmental Palace, Guadalajara

LaTrincheraOrozcoSICDF

José Clemente Orozco, The Trench San Ildefonso College, Mexico City

Murales Rivera - Markt in Tlatelolco 3

Diego Rivera Tenochtitlan, Palacio Nacional, Mexico City.

RiveraMuralNationalPalace

Diego Rivera Mural in the main stairwell of the National Palace

Mural David Alfaro Siqueiros en el Tecpan Tlatelolco

David Alfaro Siqueiros, Mural at Tecpan

Selling Mexican art abroad

Despite maintaining an active national art scene, Mexican artists after the muralist period had a difficult time breaking into the international art market. One reason for this is that in the Americas, Mexico City was replaced by New York as the center of the art community, especially for patronage.[71] Within Mexico, government sponsorship of art in the 20th century (dominated until 2000 by the PRI party) meant religious themes and criticism of the government were effectively censored. This was mostly passive, with the government giving grants to artists who conformed to their requirements.[72]

Other Artistic Expressions 1920–1950

HoyTamayoBADF
Mexico de Hoy by Rufino Tamayo on the first floor of the Palacio de Bellas Artes

The first to break with the nationalistic and political tone of the muralist movement was Rufino Tamayo. For this reason he was first appreciated outside of Mexico.[73] Tamayo was a contemporary to Rivera, Siqueiros, and Orozco, and trained at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes. Like them he explored Mexican identity in his work after the Mexican Revolution. However, he rejected the political Social Realism popularized by the three other artists and was rejected by the new establishment.[74]

He left for New York in 1926 where success allowed him to exhibit in his native Mexico. His lack of support for the post-Revolutionary government was controversial. Because of this he mostly remained in New York, continuing with his success there and later in Europe. His rivalry with the main three Mexican muralists continued both in Mexico and internationally through the 1950s. Even a belated honorific of “The Fourth Great One” was controversial.[74]

In the 1940s, Wolfgang Paalen published the extremely influential DYN magazine in Mexico City, which focussed on a transitional movement between surrealism to abstract expressionism.

In 1953, Museo Experimental El Eco (in Mexico City) opened; it was created by Mathias Goeritz.

The Rupture Movement

Murayl y tempusfugit
A mural and clock sculpture by Manuel Felguerez at Universidad La Salle, Campus central.

The first major movement after the muralists was the Rupture Movement, which began in the 1950s and 1960s with painters such as José Luis Cuevas, Gilberto Navarro, Rafael Coronel, Alfredo Casaneda, and sculptor Juan Soriano. They rejected social realism and nationalism and incorporated surrealism, visual paradoxes, and elements of Old World painting styles.[69][75] This break meant that later Mexican artists were generally not influenced by muralism or by Mexican folk art.[69]

José Luis Cuevas created self-portraits in which he reconstructed scenes from famous paintings by Spanish artists such as Diego Velázquez, Francisco de Goya, and Picasso. Like Kahlo before him, he drew himself but instead of being centered, his image is often to the side, as an observer. The goal was to emphasize the transformation of received visual culture.[76]

Another important figure during this time period was Swiss-Mexican Gunther Gerzso, but his work was a “hard-edged variant” of Abstract Expressionism, based on clearly defined geometric forms as well as colors, with an effect that makes them look like low relief. His work was a mix of European abstraction and Latin American influences, including Mesoamerican ones.[76][77] In the watercolor field we can distinguish Edgardo Coghlan and Ignacio Barrios who were not aligned to a specific artistic movement but were not less important.

The Olympics in Mexico City (1968); later

"Designed by Mathias Goeritz, a series of sculptures ... [lined] the "Route of Friendship" (Ruta de la Amistad) in celebration of the Olympics ... In contestation to the government-sanctioned artistic exhibition for the Olympics, a group of diverse, independent visual artists organize a counterpresentation entitled Salón Independiente, or Independent Salon; the exhibition signifies a key event in the resistance by artists of state-controlled cultural policies. This show of antigovernment efforts by artists would also be expressed in a mural in support of student movement's protests; the work became known as the Mural Efímero (or Ephemeral Mural)" at UNAM".[78]

The third Independent Salon was staged in 1970. In 1976 "Fernando Gamboa spearheads the organization of an exposition of abstract art entitled El Geometrismo Mexicano Una Tendencia Actual".[79]

"In an attempt to reassess ... post-1968 Mexican art, the Museum of Science and Art at UNAM" organized in 2007, the exhibition La Era de la Discrepancia. Arte y cultura visual en México 1968-1997[80]

In 1990 the exhibition Mexico: Esplendor de Treinta Siglos, started its world tour at Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

Neo-expressionism

From the 1960s to the 1980s Neo-expressionist art was represented in Mexico by Manuel Felguerez, Teresa Cito, Alejandro Pinatado, and Jan Hendrix.[75][81]

Swiss-German artist, Mathias Goeritz, in the 1950s created public sculptures including the Torres Satélite in Ciudad Satélite. In the 1960s, he became central to the development of abstract and other modern art along with José Luis Cuevas and Pedro Friedeberg.[82]

Neomexicanismo

In the mid-1980s, the next major movement in Mexico was Neomexicanismo, a slightly surreal, somewhat kitsch and postmodern version of Social Realism that focused on popular culture rather than history.[33] The name neomexicanismo was originally used by critics to belittle the movement. Works were not necessarily murals: they used other mediums such as collage and often parodied and allegorized cultural icons, mass media, religion, and other aspects of Mexican culture. This generation of artists were interested in traditional Mexican values and exploring their roots—often questioning or subverting them. Another common theme was Mexican culture vis-à-vis globalization.[83]

Postmodern

Art from the 1990s to the present is roughly categorized as Postmodern, although this term has been used to describe works created before the 1990s. Major artists associated with this label include Betsabeé Romero,[84] Monica Castillo, Francisco Larios,[69] Martha Chapa and Diego Toledo.[75]

Tribute to Wirikuta, Betsabeé Romero

Tribute to Wirikuta by Betsabeé Romero

MauricioAntionio01

Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega at his workshop in Nezahualcoyotl

Wholeness by Sandra Pani

Wholeness by Sandra Pani

The success of Mexican artists is demonstrated by their inclusion in galleries in New York, London, and Zurich.[85]

Art collections and galleries

In 1974 Museo de Arte Carrillo Gil (MACG), a gallery and museum, opened.

Museo Tamayo de Arte Contemporáneo opened in Mexico City in 1981. The National Museum of Art (MUNAL) opened in 1982.

Centro Cultural Arte Contemporáneo opened in Mexico City in 1986, now defunct. "In 1998 ... with the sudden death of its chief executive, Televisa closed ... [the gallery] for a time, as the turnover in the company coincided with a drastic drop in the company's profitability". [86] [Parts of the] collection have since been exhibited at "different museums, requiring its own space": at Tamayo Museum in 2001, at the Fine Arts Palace Museum[87] ... in 2002; and at MUNAL in 2003.[88]

In 1994, the foundation behind Colección Jumex and its collection of contemporary art, was established; it's located in the industrial outskirts of Mexico City.[89]

Kurimanzutto—a private gallery was founded in 1999.[72]

In 1994 the Olmedo Museum[90] was opened to the public.

In 1996 the Gelman collection was donated to Metropolitan Museum of Art (in New York); part of the Gelmans' collection is on display in the Muros Museum in Cuernavaca.

Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo (MUAC) opened in 2008.

Private art exhibition is concentrated to major urban centers, in particular Monterrey, Nuevo Léon, Guadalajara, Oaxaca City and Puebla.[90]

Art criticism

Octavio Mercado said in 2012 that the activity of art criticism still can be found in specialized magazines and nationally disseminated newspapers; furthermore, a new generation of art critics include Daniela Wolf, Ana Elena Mallet, Gabriella Gómez-Mont, and Pablo Helguera. [91] (Prior to that, claims were made in 2004, that a deficit of native writing about Mexican art, symbolism, and trends, resulted in modern Mexican art shown abroad having been mislabeled or poorly described, as foreign institutions do not sufficiently understand or appreciate the political and social circumstances behind the pieces.[92])

20th century Mexican artists

Clausell Paisaje con bosque y río
Joaquín Clausell's Paisaje con bosque y río
Francisco Goitia - Zacatecas Landscape with Hanged Men II - Google Art Project
Francisco Goitia's "Zacatecas Landscape with Hanged Men II", circa 1914, oil on canvas, 194 × 109.7 cm. Museo Nacional de Arte
Cosmogonía
By Gustavo Arias Murueta, "Cosmogonía"

Some of the most prominent painters in this century are:

The great Mexican muralists of the post-revolution developed, with the paint mural, the concept of "public art", an art to be seen by Ias masses in major public buildings of the time, and could not be bought and transported easily elsewhere, as with easel painting.[95]

21st century

Mexican Street Artist
Mexican artist creating an ephemeral work of street art in chalk on the streets of the Historical Center of Mexico City

Just like many other parts in the world, Mexico has adopted some modern techniques like with the existence of street artists depicting popular paintings from Mexico throughout history or original content.

Modern Mexican visual artists

Some of the most prominent painters in this century are:

013Sor Juana
Modern interpretation of the portrait of Sor Juana by Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega.
  • Eliseo Garza Aguilar, painter and performance artist. Considered among the leading exponents of provocative and thoughtful art of the Third Millennium. In search of a critical response from viewers, combines his paintings in the performances with the theatrical histrionics.
  • Emanuel Espintla, painter and performer. Considered among the leading exponents of Mexican naive art and Fridamania.
  • Pilar Goutas, a painter who uses oil on amate support, strongly influenced by Pollock and Chinese calligraphy.
  • Torres Rafael Correa, he settled in Mexico in 2001 and joined the workshop of contemporary art, "The Moth" in Guadalajara, doing various art projects and scenographic. In Mexico works with painters, José Luis Malo, Rafael Sáenz, Edward Enhanced and sculptor Javier Malo. He participated in workshops recorded by the painter Margarita Pointelin. In 2003 he made a formation of Washi Zoo Kei with the Salvadoran master Addis Soriano.
  • Enrique Pacheco, sculptor, painter, characterized by merge painting and sculpture with worldwide recognition.
  • Pilar Pacheco Méndez, visual artist and sound.[96]
  • Daniel Lezama, visual artist. Works on all major formats oil. Born in 1968 to Mexican American parents.
  • Roberto Cortazar, visual artist, painter.
  • Margarita Orozco Pointelin
  • Jazzamoart, visual artist, Guanajuato.
  • Rafael Cauduro, painter, sculptor, muralist.
  • Arturo Rivera, Painter.
  • Germán Montalvo, Painter.
  • Omar Rodriguez-Graham, Painter. Born in Mexico City in 1978.
  • Vicente Rojo, Painter.
  • Sebastian, painter, sculptor.
  • Miguel Sanchez Lagrieta, Painter, visual artist.
  • Gabriel Orozco, Painter, Sculptor Veracruz.

Popular arts and handcrafts

Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos votive 1920 1922
Ex-voto painting from the early 1920s honoring Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos.

Mexican handcrafts and folk art, called artesanía in Mexico, is a complex category of items made by hand or in small workshops for utilitarian, decorative, or other purposes. These include ceramics, wall hangings, certain types of paintings, and textiles.[97] Like the more formal arts, artesanía has both indigenous and European roots and is considered a valued part of Mexico's ethnic heritage.[98]

This linking among the arts and cultural identity was most strongly forged by the country's political, intellectual, and artistic elite in the first half of the 20th century, after the Mexican Revolution.[98] Artists such as Diego Rivera, Rufino Tamayo, and Frida Kahlo used artesanía as inspiration for a number of their murals and other works.[98] Unlike the fine arts, artesanía is created by common people and those of indigenous heritage, who learn their craft through formal or informal apprenticeship.[97] The linking of artesanía and Mexican identity continues through television, movies, and tourism promotion.[99]

Most of the artesanía produced in Mexico consists of ordinary things made for daily use. They are considered artistic because they contain decorative details or are painted in bright colors, or both.[97] The bold use of colors in crafts and other constructions extends back to pre-Hispanic times. These were joined by other colors introduced by European and Asian contact, always in bold tones.[100]

Design motifs vary from purely indigenous to mostly European with other elements thrown in. Geometric designs connected to Mexico's pre-Hispanic past are prevalent, and items made by the country's remaining purely indigenous communities.[101] Motifs from nature are popular, possibly more so than geometric patterns in both pre-Hispanic and European designs. They are especially prevalent in wall-hangings and ceramics.[102]

One of the best of Mexico's handcrafts is Talavera pottery produced in Puebla.[38] It has a mix of Chinese, Arab, Spanish, and indigenous design influences.[103] The best known folk paintings are the ex-voto or retablo votive paintings. These are small commemorative paintings or other artwork created by a believer, honoring the intervention of a saint or other figure. The untrained style of ex-voto painting was appropriated during the mid-20th century by Kahlo, who believed they were the most authentic expression of Latin American art.[104]

Cinema

Francisco Villa
Iconic image of Pancho Villa during the Mexican Revolution, a publicity still taken by Mutual Film Corporation photographer John Davidson Wheelan, January 1914.[105]

Cinematography came to Mexico during the Mexican Revolution from the U.S. and France. It was initially used to document the battles of the war. Revolutionary general Pancho Villa himself starred in some silent films. In 2003, HBO broadcast And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself, with Antonio Banderas as Villa; the film focuses on the making of the film The Life of General Villa. Villa consciously used cinema to shape his public image.[106]

The first sound film in Mexico was made in 1931, called Desde Santa. The first Mexican film genre appeared between 1920 and 1940, called ranchero.[107]

While Mexico's Golden Age of Cinema is regarded as the 1940s and 1950s, two films from the mid to late 1930s, Allá en el Rancho Grande (1936) and Vamanos con Pancho Villa (1935), set the standard of this age thematically, aesthetically, and ideologically. These films featured archetypal star figures and symbols based on broad national mythologies. Some of the mythology according to Carlos Monsiváis, includes the participants in family melodramas, the masculine charros of ranchero films, femme fatales (often played by María Félix and Dolores del Río), the indigenous peoples of Emilio Fernández’s films, and Cantinflas’s peladito (urban miscreant).[108]

Settings were often ranches, the battlefields of the Revolution, and cabarets. Movies about the Mexican Revolution focused on the initial overthrow of the Porfirio Díaz government rather than the fighting among the various factions afterwards. They also tended to focus on rural themes as “Mexican”, even though the population was increasingly urban.[108]

Mexico had two advantages in filmmaking during this period. The first was a generation of talented actors and filmmakers. These included actors such as María Félix, Jorge Negrete, Pedro Armendáriz, Pedro Infante, Cantinflas, and directors such as Emilio “El Indio” Fernandez and cinematographer Gabriel Figueroa. Many of these starts had success in the United States and at the Cannes Film Festival .[107][109] On the corner of La Brea and Hollywood Boulevard, there is a sculpture of four women who represent the four pillars of the cinema industry, one of whom is Mexican actress Dolores del Rio .[107] Gabriel Figueroa is known for black-and-white camerawork that is generally stark and expressionist, with simple but sophisticated camera movement.[110] The second advantage was that Mexico was not heavily involved in the Second World War, and therefore had a greater supply of celluloid for films, then also used for bombs.[107]

Bird of Paradise (1932) 1
A scene from Bird of Paradise (1932) with Dolores del Río.

In the 1930s, the government became interested in the industry in order to promote cultural and political values. Much of the production during the Golden Age was financed with a mix of public and private money, with the government eventually taking a larger role. In 1942 the Banco Cinematográfico financed almost all of the industry, coming under government control by 1947. This gave the government extensive censorship rights through deciding which projects to finance.[108] While the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) censored films in many ways in the 1940s and 1950s, it was not as repressive as other Spanish speaking countries, but it played a strong role in how Mexico's government and culture was portrayed.[108][110]

The Golden Age ended in the late 1950s, with the 1960s dominated by poorly made imitations of Hollywood westerns and comedies. These films were increasingly shot outdoors and popular films featured stars from lucha libre. Art and experimental film production in Mexico has its roots in the same period, which began to bear fruit in the 1970s.[107][110] Director Paul Leduc surfaced in the 1970s, specializing in films without dialogue. His first major success was with Reed: Insurgent Mexico (1971) followed by a biography of Frida Kahlo called Frida (1984). He is the most consistently political of modern Mexican directors. In the 1990s, he filmed Latino Bar (1991) and Dollar Mambo (1993). His silent films generally have not had commercial success.[110]

In the late 20th century the main proponent of Mexican art cinema was Arturo Ripstein Jr.. His career began with a spaghetti Western-like film called Tiempo de morir in 1965 and who some consider the successor to Luis Buñuel who worked in Mexico in the 1940s. Some of his classic films include El Castillo de la pureza (1973), Lugar sin limites (1977) and La reina de la noche (1994) exploring topics such as family ties and even homosexuality, dealing in cruelty, irony, and tragedy.[110] State censorship was relatively lax in the 1960s and early 1970s, but came back during the latter 1970s and 1980s, monopolizing production and distribution.[107]

Another factor was that many Mexican film making facilities were taken over by Hollywood production companies in the 1980s, crowding out local production.[110] The quality of films was so diminished that for some of these years, Mexico's Ariel film award was suspended for lack of qualifying candidates.[107] Popular filmmaking decreased but the art sector grew, sometimes producing works outside the view of censors such as Jorge Fons’ 1989 film Rojo Amanecer on the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre. The movie was banned by the government but received support in Mexico and abroad. The film was shown although not widely. It was the beginning of more editorial freedom for filmmakers in Mexico.[110]

Starting in the 1990s, Mexican cinema began to make a comeback, mostly through co-production with foreign interests. One reason for international interest in Mexican cinema was the wild success of the 1992 film Como Agua Para Chocolate (Like Water for Chocolate).[107][110] In 1993, this film was the largest grossing foreign language film in U.S. history and ran in a total of 34 countries.[109] Since then, Mexican film divided into two genres. Those for a more domestic audience tend to be more personal and more ambiguously political such as Pueblo de Madera, La Vida Conjugal, and Angel de fuego. Those geared for international audiences have more stereotypical Mexican images and include Solo con tu Pareja, La Invencion de Cronos along with Como Agua para Chocolate.[109][110]

Mexico's newest generation of successful directors includes Alejandro González Iñárritu, Guillermo del Toro, and Alfonso Cuarón. Films include Cuarón/Children of Men filmed in England and El Laberinto del Fauno, which was a Mexican/Spanish production. Film professionals in the early 21st century tend to be at least bilingual (Spanish and English) and are better able to participate in the global market for films than their predecessors.[107]

Photography in Mexico

MetlacBridgeKahlo
An image of the Metlac Bridge, taken by Guillermo Kahlo.

Photography came to Mexico in the form of daguerreotype about six months after its discovery, and it spread quickly. It was initially used for portraits of the wealthy (because of its high cost), and for shooting landscapes and pre-Hispanic ruins.[111] Another relatively common type of early photographic portraits were those of recently deceased children, called little angels, which persisted into the first half of the 20th century. This custom derived from a Catholic tradition of celebrating a dead child's immediate acceptance into heaven, bypassing purgatory. This photography replaced the practice of making drawings and other depictions of them as this was considered a “happy occasion.”[112] Formal portraits were the most common form of commercial photography through the end of the 19th century.[111]

Modern photography in Mexico did not begin as an art form, but rather as documentation, associated with periodicals and government projects. It dates to the Porfirio Díaz period of rule, or the Porfiriato, from the late 19th century to 1910.[113][114] Porfirian-era photography was heavily inclined toward the presentation of the nation's modernization to the rest of the world, with Mexico City as its cultural showpiece. This image was European-based with some indigenous elements for distinction.[115]

Stylized images of the indigenous during the Porfirato were principally done by Ybañez y Sora in the costumbrista painting style, which was popular outside of Mexico.[111] The most important Porfirian era photographer was Guillermo Kahlo, who worked with associate Hugo Brehme.[111] Kahlo established his own studio in the first decade of the 1900s and was hired by businesses and the government to document architecture, interiors, landscapes, and factories.[116]

Kahlo's style reflected the narratives of the period, solely focusing on major constructions and events, and avoiding the common populace.[117] It avoided subjects that hinted at the political instability of the country at the time, such as strike actions.[118] One major Kahlo project was the Photographic Inventory of Spanish Colonial Church Architecture in Mexico (1910), which consisted of twenty five albums sponsored by the federal government to document the remaining colonial architecture.[119] Kahlo's photography was used to link Mexico's past to its progress with political and social power provided in symbols and ideals, as well to link the government's aspirations with its colonial and pre-Hispanic past.[120]

Decena trágica
A scene from the Decena Trágica, February 1913, from the Agustín Casasola archives.

Another pioneer of Mexican photography was Agustín Victor Casasola. Like Kahlo, he began his career in the Porfirato, but his career was focused on photography for periodicals. Again like Kahlo, Casasola's work prior to the Mexican Revolution focused on non-controversial photographs, focusing on the lives of the elite. The outbreak of civil war caused Casasola's choice of subject to change. He began to focus not only on portraits of the main protagonists (such as Francisco Villa) and general battle scenes, but on executions and the dead. He focused on people whose faces showed such expressions as pain, kindness, and resignation.[113]

His work during this time produced a large collection of photographs, many of which are familiar to Mexicans as they have been widely reprinted and reused, often without credit to Casasola. After the war, Casasola continued to photograph common people, especially migrants to Mexico City during the 1920s and 1930s. His total known archives comprise about half a million images with many of his works archived in the former monastery of San Francisco in Pachuca.[113]

Kahlo and Casasola are considered the two most important photographers to develop the medium in Mexico, with Kahlo defining architectural photography and Casasolas establishing photojournalism. Neither man thought of himself as an artist—especially not Casasolas—who thought of himself as a historian in the Positivist tradition, but the photography of both show attention to detail, lighting, and placement of subjects for emotional or dramatic effect.[121][122]

For the rest of the 20th century, most photography was connected to documentation. However, artistic trends from both inside and outside the country had an effect. In the 1920s, the dominant photographic style was Pictorialism, in which images had a romantic or dream-like quality due to the use of filters and other techniques. American Edward Weston broke with this tradition, taking these effects away for more realistic and detailed images.[113][123] This caused a split in the photography world between Pictorialists and Realists both inside and outside of Mexico.[113]

Weston and his Italian assistant Tina Modotti were in Mexico from 1923 to 1926, allying themselves with Mexican Realist photographers Manuel Álvarez Bravo as well as muralists such as Gabriel Fernández Ledesma. These photographers' political and social aspirations matched those of the muralist movement and the new post-Revolution government.[113][121][124] Mariana Yampolsky, originally from the U.S., became an important photographer in Mexico. Photography and other arts shifted to depictions of the country's indigenous heritage and the glorification of the Mexican common people.[121] This was mainly to reject the elitist and heavily European values of the Porfiriato, along with the increasing cultural influence of the United States in favor of an “authentic” and distinct Mexican identity.[125] Another was the government's decision to use this imagery, rather than the still-fresh memories of the battles and atrocities of the Revolution to promote itself.[126]

Manuel Alvarez Bravo experimented with abstraction in his photography and formed his own personal style concerned with Mexican rites and customs. He was active from the 1920s until his death in the 1990s. Like other artists of the 20th century, he was concerned with balancing international artistic trends with the expression of Mexican culture and people. His photographic techniques were concerned with transforming the ordinary into the fantastic. From the end of the 1930s to the 1970s his photography developed along with new technologies such as color, using the same themes. In the 1970s, he experimented with female nudes.[127]

These post-Revolution photographers influenced the generations after them, but the emphasis remained on documentary journalism, especially for newspapers. For this reason, the focus remained on social issues. This included work by Nacho López and Hector Garcia, best known for their photography of the student uprising of 1968.[111]

During the 1970s, a fusion of various styles retained a social focus.[111] During the same period, institutions were established that dedicated themselves to the promotion of photography and conservation of photographs, such as the Centro de la Imagen, the Fototeca Nacional del INAH, and the publication Luna Córnea.[128]

Photography in Mexico from the latter 20th century on remains mostly focused on photojournalism and other kinds of documentary. Francisco Mata de Rosas is considered the most notable photographer in contemporary Mexico mostly working with documentaries. He has published a number of books including México Tenochtitlan and Tepito, Bravo el Barrio. Eniac Martínez specializes in panoramas. Patricia Aridjis works with social themes, mostly to illustrate books. Gerardo Montiel Klint's work has been described as a “shadowing and dark world”, focusing on the angst and violence of adolescents.[128] The most recent generation of photographers work with new and digital technologies. One of these is Javier Orozco who specializes in interiors.[111]

However, purely artistic photography has had an impact. In 2002, a photographic exhibit by Daniela Rossell featured images of Mexican multimillionaires posing in their ostentatious homes, filled with expensive paintings, hunting trophies, crystal chandeliers, gold lamé wallpaper, and household help. The photographs set off a wave of social criticism as well as tabloid gossip.[129]

Gallery

Piedra del sol Porfirio Diaz

Porfirio Díaz with the Piedra del Sol, photographer not known

Emiliano Zapata-Libreria del Congreso

General Emiliano Zapata, leader of revolutionaries in Morelos beginning in 1911 and ending in his assassination in 1919[130]

Francisco Villa

Iconic image of Pancho Villa during the Mexican Revolution, a publicity still taken by Mutual Film Corporation photographer John Davidson Wheelan, January 1914.[105]

Niño Soldado

Boy soldier during the Mexican Revolution, Archivo Casasola.[131]

See also

Further reading

General – Latin American art

  • Ades, Dawn. Art in Latin America: The Modern Era, 1820–1980. New Haven: Yale University Press 1989.
  • Baddeley, Oriana & Fraser, Valerie (1989). Drawing the Line: Art and Cultural Identity in Contemporary Latin America. London: Verso. ISBN 0-86091-239-6.
  • Alcalá, Luisa Elena and Jonathan Brown. Painting in Latin America: 1550–1820. New Haven: Yale University Press 2014.
  • Anreus, Alejandro, Diana L. Linden, and Jonathan Weinberg, eds. The Social and the Real: Political Art of the 1930s in the Western Hemisphere. University Park: Penn State University Press 2006.
  • Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon Press 2005.
  • Barnitz, Jacqueline. Twentieth-Century Art of Latin America. Austin: University of Texas Press 2001.
  • Craven, David. Art and Revolution in Latin America, 1910–1990. New Haven: Yale University Press 2002.
  • Dean, Carolyn and Dana Leibsohn, "Hybridity and Its Discontents: Considering Visual Culture in Colonial Spanish America," Colonial Latin American Review, vol. 12, No. 1, 2003.
  • delConde, Teresa (1996). Latin American Art in the Twentieth Century. London: Phaidon Press Limited. ISBN 0-7148-3980-9.
  • Donahue-Wallace, Kelly. Art and Architecture of Viceregal Latin America, 1521–1821. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 2008.
  • Fernández, Justino (1965). Mexican Art. Mexico D.F.: Spring Books.
  • Frank, Patrick, ed. Readings in Latin American Modern Art. New Haven: Yale University Press 2004.
  • Goldman, Shifra M. Dimensions of the Americas: Art and Social Change in Latin America and the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1994.
  • Latin American Artists of the Twentieth Century. New York: MoMA 1992.
  • Latin American Spirit: Art and Artists in the United States. New York: Bronx Museum 1989.
  • Ramírez, Mari Carmen and Héctor Olea, eds. Inverted Utopias: Avant Garde Art in Latin America. New Haven: Yale University Press 2004.
  • Reyes-Valerio, Constantino. Arte Indocristiano, Escultura y pintura del siglo XVI en México. Mexico City: INAH Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes 2000.
  • Sullivan, Edward. Latin American Art. London: Phaidon Press, 2000.
  • Turner, Jane, ed. Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Art. New York: Grove's Dictionaries 2000.

General – Mexican art

  • Artes de México (1953–present). Individual issues on particular topics.
  • Museum of Modern Art, Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art 1940.
  • Oles, James. Art and Architecture in Mexico. London: Thames & Hudson 2013.
  • Paz, Octavio (1987). Essays on Mexican Art. Helen Lane (translator). New York: Harcourt Brace and Company. ISBN 0-15-129063-6.
  • Rosas, José Luis, ed. (1982). Historia del Arte Mexicano [History of Mexican Art] (in Spanish). 1. Mexico City: SALVAT Mexicana de Ediciones SA de CV. ISBN 968-32-0199-7.
  • Rosas, José Luis, ed. (1982). Historia del Arte Mexicano [History of Mexican Art] (in Spanish). 2. Mexico City: SALVAT Mexicana de Ediciones SA de CV. ISBN 968-32-0220-9.
  • Rosas, José Luis, ed. (1982). Historia del Arte Mexicano [History of Mexican Art] (in Spanish). 3. Mexico City: SALVAT Mexicana de Ediciones SA de CV. ISBN 968-32-0221-7.
  • Rosas, José Luis, ed. (1982). Historia del Arte Mexicano [History of Mexican Art] (in Spanish). 4. Mexico City: SALVAT Mexicana de Ediciones SA de CV. ISBN 968-32-0222-5.
  • Rosas, José Luis, ed. (1982). Historia del Arte Mexicano [History of Mexican Art] (in Spanish). 5. Mexico City: SALVAT Mexicana de Ediciones SA de CV. ISBN 968-32-0237-3.
  • Vargas Lugo, Elisa. Estudio de pintura colonial hispanoamericana. Mexico City: UNAM 1992.
  • Zavala, Adriana. Becoming Modern, Becoming Tradition: Women, Gender and Representation in Mexican Art. State College: Penn State University Press 2010.

Prehispanic art

  • Boone, Elizabeth Hill (2000). Stories in Red and Black : Pictorial Histories of the Aztecs and Mixtecs. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-292-70876-1.
  • Klein, Cecilia. "Visual Arts: Mesoamerica". Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1539–1552.
  • Miller, Mary Ellen. The Art of Mesoamerica: From Olmecs to Aztecs. London: Thames & Hudson 2012.
  • Pasztory, Esther. Pre-Columbian Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Paxton, Merideth and Leticia Staines Cicero, eds. Constructing Power and Place in Mesoamerica: Pre-Hispanic Paintings from Three Regions. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 2017. ISBN 978-0-8263-5906-3
  • Townsend, Richard F. State and Cosmos in the Art of Tenochtitlan. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archeology 20. Washington D.C., Dumbarton Oaks 1979.

Colonial-era art

  • Armella de Aspe, Virginia and Mercedes Meade de Angula. A Pictorial Heritage of New Spain: Treasures of the Pinacoteca Virreinal. Mexico City: Fomento Cultural Banamex 1993.
  • Burke, Marcus. Pintura y escultura en Nueva España: El barroco. Mexico City: Azabache 1992.
  • Burke, Marcus. Treasures of Mexican Colonial Painting. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico 1998.
  • Castello Yturbide, Teresa and Marita Martínez del Río de Redo. Biombos mexicanos. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Historia e Antropología (INAH), 1970.
  • Gruzinski, Serge. "Colonial Indian Maps in sixteenth-century Mexico". In Res' 13 (Spring 1987)
  • Hernández-Durán, Raymond. "Visual Arts: Seventeenth Century". Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, 1558–1568.
  • Katzew, Ilona. Casta Paintings: Images of Race in Eighteenth-Century Mexico. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
  • Katzew, Ilona, ed. Painted in Mexico, 1700-1790: Pinxit Mexici. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art 2017. ISBN 978-3-7913-5677-8
  • Kubler, George. Mexican Architecture of the Sixteenth Century. 2 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press 1948.
  • Mundy, Barbara E. The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1996.
  • Peterson, Jeanette, The Paradise Garden Murals of Malinalco: Utopia and Empire in Sixteenth-Century Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press 1993.
  • Pierce, Donna, ed. Exploring New World Imagery. Denver: Denver Museum of Art 2005.
  • Reyes-Valerio, Constantino (2000). Arte Indocristiano, Escultura y pintura del siglo XVI en México (in Spanish). Mexico D.F.: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes. ISBN 970-18-2499-7.
  • Robertson, Donald. Mexican Manuscript Painting of the Early Colonial Period. New Haven: Yale University Press 1959.
  • Schreffler, Michael. "Visual Arts: Sixteenth Century." Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1553–1558.
  • Sebastián, Santiago. Iconografía e iconología del arte novohispano. Mexico City: Azabache 1992.
  • Toussaint, Manuel. Colonial Art in Mexico, edited and translated by Elizabeth Wilder Weismann. Austin: University of Texas Press 1967.
  • Tovar de Teresa, Guillermo. Pintura y escultura en Nueva España, 1557–1640. Mexico City: Fundación Mexicana para la Educación Ambienttal and Radioprogramma de México 1992.
  • Widdifield, Stacie G. "Visual Arts: Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Academic Art." Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1568–1576.

Nineteenth-century art

  • Fernández, Justino. El arte del siglo XIX. Mexico City: UNAM-IIE 1967.
  • García Barragán, Elisa. El pintor Juan Cordero: Los días y las obras. Mexico City: UNAM 1984.
  • Moriuchi, Mey-Yen. Mexican Costumbrismo: Race, Society, and Identity in Nineteenth-Century Art. University Park: Penn State University Press 2018.
  • Pintores mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City: Museo de San Carlos. Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA) 1985.
  • Ramírez, Fausto. "Vertientes nacionalistas en el modernismo." In El nacionalismo y el arte mexicano. Mexico City: UNAM 1986.
  • Rodríguez Prampolini, Ida. La crítica de arte en el siglo XIX. 3 vols. Mexico City: UNAM 1964.
  • Rodríguez Prampolini, Ida. "La figura del indio en la pintura del siglo XIX, fondo ideológico," Arte, Sociedad e Ideología. 3 (Oct-Nov. 1977).
  • Romero de Terreros, Manuel. Catálogos de las Exposiciones de la Antigua Academia de San Carlos, 1850–1898. Mexico City: UNAM-IIE 1963.
  • Segre, Erica. Intersected Identities: Strategies of Visualization in Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century Mexican Culture. New York and Oxford: Berhahn Books 2007.
  • Uribe, Eloisa. Problemas de la producción escultórica en la ciudad de México, 1843–1847. Mexico City: Universidad Iberoamericana 1984.
  • Uribe, Eloisa, ed. Y todo ....por una nación, historia social de la producción plástica de la ciudad Mexicana, 1761–1910. Mexico City: INAH-SEP 1987.
  • Widdiefield, Stacie G. The Embodiment of the National in Late Nineteenth-Century Mexican Painting. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1996.
  • Widdifield, Stacie G. "Visual Arts: Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Academic Art." Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1568–1576.

Modern art

  • Alonso, Ana María. "Conforming Discomformity: 'Mestizaje, Hybridity, ahd the Aesthetics of Mexican Nationalism." Cultural Anthropology vol. 19, no. 4 (2004) 459-90.
  • Billeter, Erika, ed. Images of Mexico: The Contribution of Mexico to 20th-Century Art. Frankfurt: Shirn Kunsthall Frankfurt 1997.
  • Coffey, Mary. How a Revolutionary Art Became Official Culture: Murals, Museums, and the Mexican State. Durham: Duke University Press 2012.
  • Elliott, Ingrid. "Visual Arts: 1910–37, The Revolutionary Tradition." Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1576–1584.
  • Emmerich, Luis Carlos. 100 Pintores Mexicanos/100 Mexican Painters. Monterrey: Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de Monterrey 1993.
  • Ferrer, Elizabeth. Through the Path of Echoes: Contemporary Art in Mexico. New York: Independent Curators 1990.
  • Flores, Tatiana. Mexico's Revolutionary Avant-Gardes: From Estridentismo to ¡30-30!. New Haven: Yale University Press 2013.
  • Folgarait, Leonard. Mural Painting and Social Revolution in Mexico, 1920–1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1998.
  • Gallo, Ruben (2004). New Tendencies in Mexican Art : The 1990s. Gordonsville, VA: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6100-6.
  • García Ponce, Juan. Nueve Pintores Mexicanos. Mexico City: Era 1968,
  • Gilbert, Courtney. "Visual Arts: 1920–45, Art Outside the Revolutionary Tradition." Encyclopedia or Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1584–1590.
  • Good, Carl and John V. Waldron, eds. The Effects of the Nation: Mexican Art in an Age of Globalization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press 2001.
  • Hurlburt, Laurance P. The Mexican Muralists in the United States. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press
  • Indych-López, Anna. Muralism Without Walls: Rivera, Orozco, and Siqueiros in the United States, 1927–1940. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press 2009.
  • Ittman, John, ed. Mexico and Modern Printmaking, A Revolution in the Graphic Arts, 1920 to 1950. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art 2006.
  • Oles, James, ed. South of the Border, Mexico in the American Imagination, 1914–1947. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery 1993.
  • Picard, Charmaine. "Visual Arts: 1945-96." Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1590–1594.
  • Rodríguez, Antonio. A History of Mexican Mural Painting. London: Thames & Hudson 1969.
  • Segre, Erica. Intersected Identities: Strategies of Visualization in Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century Mexican Culture. New York and Oxford: Berhahn Books 2007.
  • Sullivan, Edward. Aspects of Contemporary Mexican Painting. New York: The Americas Society 1990.

Photography

  • Bartra, Eli. "Women and Portraiture in Mexico". In "Mexican Photography." Special Issue, History of Photography 20, no. 3 (1996)220-25.
  • Cabrera Luna, Claudia, Mayra Mendoza Avilés, Friedhelm Schimdt-Welle, and Arnold Spitta, eds. Hugo Brehme y la Revolución Mexicana/Und die Mexikanische Revolution. Mexico City and Germany: DAAD, INAH, and SINAFO 2009.
  • Casanova, Rosa and Adriana Konzevik. Mexico: A Photographic History. Mexico City: INAH/RM 2007.
  • Casasola, Gustavo. Historia gráfica de la Revolución Mexicana. 4 volumes. Mexico City: Trillas 1960.
  • Cuevas-Wolf, Cristina; Werckmeister, Otto Karl (1997). Indigenous cultures, leftist politics and photography in Mexico from 1921 to 1940 (PhD thesis). Northwestern University. Docket 9814199.
  • Debroise, Olivier. Mexican Suite: A History of Photography in Mexico. Translated by Stella de Sá Rego. Austin: University of Texas Press 2001.
  • Ferrer, Elizabeth. A Shadow Born of Earth: Mexican Photography. New York: Universe Publishing 1993.
  • Figarella, Mariana. Edward Weston y Tina Modotti en México. Su inserción dentro de las estrategias estéticas del arte posrevolucionario. Mexico City: UNAM 2002.
  • Folgarait, Leonard. Seeing Mexico Photographed: The work of Horne, Casasola, Modotti, and Álvarez Bravo. New Haven: Yale University Press 2008.
  • Lerner, Jesse. The Shock of Modernity: Crime Photography in Mexico City. Madrid: Turner 2007.
  • Mraz, John. "Photography". Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1085–1090.
  • Mraz, John. Looking for Mexico: Modern Visual Culture and National Identity. Durham: Duke University Press 2009.
  • Mraz, John. Photographing the Mexican Revolution: Commitments, Testimonies, Icons. Austin: University of Texas Press 2012.
  • Oles, James, ed. Lola Alvarez Bravo and the Photography of an Era. Mexico City: RM 2012.
  • Ortiz Monasterio, Pablo. Mexico: The Revolution and Beyond: Photographs by Agustín Victor Casasola, 1900–1940. New York: Aperture 2003.
  • Tierra y Libertad! Photographs of Mexico 1900–1935 from the Casasola Archive. Oxford: Museum of Modern Art 1985.
  • Yampolsky, Mariana. The Edge of Time: Photographs of Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press 1998.
  • Ziff, Trisha, ed. Between Worlds: Contemporary Mexican Photography. New York: Impressions 1990.

Cinema

  • de los Reyes, Aurelio. "Motion Pictures: 1896-1930." Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 957–964.
  • Fein, Seth. "Motion Pictures: 1930-60". Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 964–970.
  • Mistron, Deborah. "The Role of Pancho Villa in the Mexican and American Cinema." Studies in Latin American Popular Culture 2:1-13 (1983).
  • Mora, Carl J. The Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society, 1896–1988. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1989.
  • Mora, Carl J. "Motion Pictures: 1960-96." Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 970–972.
  • Noriega, Chon A. and Steven Ricci, eds. The Mexican Cinema Project. Los Angeles: UCLA Film and Television Archives 1994.
  • Pick, Zuzana M. Constructing the Image of the Mexican Revolution: Cinema and the Archive. Austin: University of Texas Press 2010.
  • Ramírez Berg. Charles. Cinema of Solitude: A Critical Study of Mexican Film, 1967–1983. Austin: University of Texas Press 1992.
  • Strayer, Kirsten; Landy, Marcia (2009). Ruins and riots: Transnational currents in Mexican cinema (PhD thesis). University of Pittsburgh. Docket 3400463.

Popular Arts and Artisanry

  • López, Rick. Crafting Mexico: Intellectuals, Artisans, and the State after the Revolution. Durham: Duke University Press 2010.
  • McQuade, Margaret Connors. Talavera Poblana: Four Centuries of a Mexican Ceramic Tradition. New York 1999.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f ver Flam, Jack (October 9, 1990). "Mexican Art Over Three Millennia". Wall Street Journal. New York. p. 20.
  2. ^ Paz, 1987 p.301.
  3. ^ Descubierta en una cueva de México la pintura rupestre más antigua de América / EL MUNDO Archived February 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Rosas Volume 1, p.4.
  5. ^ a b c d e Rosas Volume 1, p.11.
  6. ^ a b c Paz, 1987 p.38.
  7. ^ a b Rosas Volume 1, p.9.
  8. ^ a b Rosas Volume 1, p.12.
  9. ^ a b Paz, 1987 p.41.
  10. ^ a b Rosas Volume 2, p.5–6.
  11. ^ Rosas Volume 2, p.2.
  12. ^ Rosas Volume 2, p.6.
  13. ^ Rosas Volume 2, p.6-7.
  14. ^ a b Rosas Volume 3, p.2.
  15. ^ a b c Rosas Volume 3, p.4.
  16. ^ Rosas Volume 3, p.5.
  17. ^ a b c Rosas Volume 3, p.7.
  18. ^ Rosas Volume 3, p.12.
  19. ^ Rosas Volume 1, p.15.
  20. ^ Rosas Volume 1, p.18.
  21. ^ Rosas Volume 1, p.20-23.
  22. ^ Rosas Volume 2, p.5.
  23. ^ Rosas Volume 2, p.4.
  24. ^ a b Boone 2000, p. 28.
  25. ^ Rosas Volume 4, p.34.
  26. ^ Charlote Ekland. "Mexican Colonial Architecture". Mexican Architecture. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  27. ^ Ida Altman, Sarah Cline, Javier Pescador, The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall 2003, 119.
  28. ^ Rosas Volume 4, p.17.
  29. ^ a b Rosas Volume 4, p.3.
  30. ^ Michael Schrefler, "Visual Arts: Sixteenth Century" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, p. 1557.
  31. ^ Teresa Castello Yturbide, The Art of Featherwork in Mexico, Mexico: Fomento Cultural Banamex 1993.
  32. ^ Schrefler, "Visual Arts", p.1556.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cummings, Joe (January 1, 1999). "Diego, Frida And The Mexican School". Mexconnect newsletter. ISSN 1028-9089. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h "Colonial Art". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  35. ^ Rosas Volume 4, p.10.
  36. ^ Ilona Katzew, "Valiant Styles: New Spanish Painting, 1700–85" in Painting in Latin America, 1550–1820, Luisa Elena Alcalá and Jonathan Brown, eds. New Haven: Yale University Press 2014, p. 169.
  37. ^ Arte y cultura en la colonia Archived October 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Warren, David B. (April 2002). "The Magazine Antiques". Art Journal. 161 (4): 120–129.
  39. ^ Ilona Katzew, "Valiant Styles: New Spanish Painting, 1700-85" in Painting in Latin America, 1550–1820, Luisa Elena Alcalá and Jonathan Brown. New Haven: Yale University Press 2014, p. 169.
  40. ^ Sarah Cline, "Guadalupe and the Castas: The Power of a Singular Colonial Mexican Painting", Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, Vol. 31, Issue 2, Summer 2015, pages 218–246.
  41. ^ Cline, "Guadalupe and the Castas", p. 221.
  42. ^ María Concepción García Sáiz, Las castas mexicanas: un g´enero pictórico americano. Milan: Olivetti, 1989.
  43. ^ Ilona Katzew. Casta Paintings: Images of Race in Eighteenth-Century Mexico. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
  44. ^ a b c "State sponsored art". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  45. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2014-10-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  46. ^ de Romero, Soumaya Slim; Garcia, Minerva Mogollan; Ayala Canseco, Eva Maria, eds. (2006). Seis Siglos de Arte, Cien Grandes Maestros de Romero. Fundacion Carso / Museo Soumaya. ISBN 9789687794303.
  47. ^ "Puebla, Pue. México, Jueves 13 de Marzo de 2008". Comunicacion.buap.mx. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  48. ^ "Painted in Mexico, 1700–1790: Pinxit Mexici". www.metmuseum.org. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. This expression eloquently encapsulates the painters' pride in their own tradition and their connection to larger, transatlantic trends.
  49. ^ Rosas, 1982, p.13.
  50. ^ a b c d Galindo, Carmen; Magdelena Galindo (2002). Mexico City Historic Center. Mexico City: Ediciones Nueva Guia. pp. 70–72. ISBN 968-5437-29-7.
  51. ^ James Oles, Mexican Art and Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson 2013, pp. 151-152.
  52. ^ James Oles, Art and Architecture in Mexico. London: Thames and Hudson 2013, pp. 153-154.
  53. ^ a b c "Academia de San Carlos" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on April 9, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  54. ^ a b "Neoclassicism". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  55. ^ Paz, 1987 p.2.
  56. ^ "Foreign Travelers". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  57. ^ "Costumbristas". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  58. ^ a b dead link "Realism". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  59. ^ a b Burton, Tony (March 14, 2008). "Dr. Atl and the revolution in Mexico's art". Mexconnect newsletter. ISSN 1028-9089. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  60. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2014-10-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  61. ^ "Pintura". Web.archive.org. 2007-10-15. Archived from the original on 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  62. ^ a b Paz, 1987 p.24.
  63. ^ a b Paz, 1987 p.298-299.
  64. ^ Paz, 1987 p.11.
  65. ^ Paz, 1987 p.12.
  66. ^ Paz, 1987 p.12-13.
  67. ^ Lee, Anthony (Spring 1999). "Mexican murals and their meaning". Art Journal. 58 (1): 114–115.
  68. ^ Paz, 1987 p.16.
  69. ^ a b c d Goddard, Dan R. (May 20, 2004). "enfoque ; Artistic update ; Mexican art featured at Blue Star and the Instituto de Mexico". Conexion. San Antonio, Texas. p. 20.
  70. ^ Meade, Teresa (2016). The History of Modern Latin America. pp. 192–193.
  71. ^ Paz, 1987 p.25.
  72. ^ a b Gallo, 2004 p.11.
  73. ^ Paz, 1987 p.24-25.
  74. ^ a b Carlos Suarez De Jesus (July 5, 2007). "Mexican Master". Miami New Times. Miami. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  75. ^ a b c Fajardo, Renee (September 10, 2003). "Miradas Del Arte Mexicano; A modern perspective on contemporary Mexican art". La Voz Bilinguë. Denver, Colorado: 25.
  76. ^ a b "Trends 1950–1970". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  77. ^ Medina, Cuauhtemoc (April 3, 2000). "Opinion invitada/ Gunther Gerzso/Gunther Gerzso: una violencia metaforica" [Invited opinion/Gunther Gerzo:metaphoric violence]. Mural (in Spanish). Guadalajara, Mexico. p. 9.
  78. ^ Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. XXV. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  79. ^ Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. XXVI. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  80. ^ Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. XXXIII. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  81. ^ Sanchez, Leticia (July 11, 1997). "Manuel Felguerez: La huella de su arte" [Manuel Felguerez:The mark of his art]. Reforma (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 1.
  82. ^ "Mathias Goeritz, German-Mexican (1915–1990)". Mexico City: RO Gallery. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  83. ^ "¿Neomexicanismos? Ficciones identitarias en el México de los ochenta" [Neomexicanismos? Identity fiction in Mexico in the eighties] (in Spanish). Mexico City: Museo de Arte Moderno. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  84. ^ Johnson, Ken (July 28, 2000). "ART IN REVIEW; Betsabee Romero". New York Times. New York.
  85. ^ Gallo, 2004 p.10.
  86. ^ Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  87. ^ "The Fine Arts Palace Museum called Palacio de Bellas Artes in." 123RF Stock Photos.
  88. ^ Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  89. ^ Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. xxx. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  90. ^ a b Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  91. ^ Alex M. Saragoza, Ana Paula Ambrosi, Silvia D. Zárate, Alex M. Saragoza, Editors (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: Volume One. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-313-34948-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  92. ^ Gallo, 2004 p.13.
  93. ^ "La Jornada". Jornada.unam.mx. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  94. ^ boart (2014-12-23). "CANTU ART - FEDERICO CANTÚ 1907–1989". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  95. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  96. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  97. ^ a b c "Mexican Popular Arts". Archived from the original on 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  98. ^ a b c Pomar, Maria Teresa (Nov–Dec 1999). "Centenaria presencia de las artesanías" [100 years of arts and crafts] (in Spanish). Mexico City: Mexico Desconocido. Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  99. ^ Iturbe, Mercedes (1996). Iturbe, Mercedes (ed.). Folk Art Aesthetics and Poetry in Belleza y Poesía en el arte popular mexicano (in Spanish and English). Querétaro,QRO: CVS Publicaciones. pp. 223–234. ISBN 968-7377-14-3.
  100. ^ Aprahamian, Peter (2000). Mexican Style:Creative ideas for enhancing your space. New York: Universe Publishing. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-7893-0402-5.
  101. ^ Aprahamian, Peter (2000). Mexican Style:Creative ideas for enhancing your space. New York: Universe Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7893-0402-5.
  102. ^ Aprahamian, Peter (2000). Mexican Style:Creative ideas for enhancing your space. New York: Universe Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7893-0402-5.
  103. ^ del Paso, Fernando (1996). Iturbe, Mercedes (ed.). Form and Color in the Manual Arts of Mexico in Belleza y Poesía en el arte popular mexicano (in Spanish and English). Querétaro,QRO: CVS Publicaciones. pp. 245–256. ISBN 968-7377-14-3.
  104. ^ "Trends 1970-present". Latin American Art. Britannica. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  105. ^ a b John Mraz, Photographing the Mexican Revolution, Austin: University of Texas Press 2012, pp. 246-47. Inv. #287647. Fondo Casasola. SINAFO-Fototeca Nacional de INAH.
  106. ^ Deborah Mistron. "The Role of Pancho Villa in the Mexican and American Cinema." Studies in Latin American Popular Culture 2:1-13 (1983).
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h i Truax, Eileen (January 29, 2007). "El Cine Mexicano Vuelve a Brillar" [Mexican Cinema Shines Again]. La Opinion (in Spanish). Los Angeles. pp. 1A, 16A.
  108. ^ a b c d Strayer, 2009 p.7-12.
  109. ^ a b c MacDonald, Christine (1994). "Cinema renaissance: Mexican films captivate world audiences". Business Mexico. 4 (1): 60–61.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cox, Alex (November 1995). "Roads to the south: In praise of Mexican cinema". Film Comment. 31 (6): 26.
  111. ^ a b c d e f g Monroy Nasr, Rebeca. "Historia de la Fotografía en México" [History of Mexican photography] (in Spanish). Mexico City: Mexico Desconocido. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  112. ^ Marino, Daniela (Summer 1997). "Prayer for a sleeping child: Iconography of the funeral ritual of little angels in Mexico". The Journal of American Culture. 20 (2): 37–49. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734x.1997.2002_37.x.
  113. ^ a b c d e f Rita Pomade (June 1, 2004). "The legacy of Agustin Victor Casasola (Photographer 1874–1938)". Mexconnect. ISSN 1028-9089. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  114. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.7.
  115. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.24.
  116. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.35.
  117. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.37.
  118. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.26.
  119. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.25.
  120. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.34.
  121. ^ a b c Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.9.
  122. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.18-25.
  123. ^ "Edward Weston: Pictorialist Pioneer". USA Today. September 27, 2003. pp. 62–65 s.
  124. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.17-18.
  125. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.9-10.
  126. ^ Cuevas-Wolf, 1997 p.27.
  127. ^ Alonso, Alejandro (June 13, 1997). "Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Mexico en imagenes" [Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Mexico in images]. Reforma (in Spanish). Mexico City. p. 14.
  128. ^ a b Aguilar Sosa, Yanet (May 20, 2009). "Los 13 grandes de la fotografía mexicana" [The 13 greats of Mexican photography]. El Universal (in Spanish). Mexico City. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  129. ^ Gallo, 2004 p.47.
  130. ^ Archivo General de la Nación, Mexico City, Archivo Fotográfico Díaz, Delgado y García.
  131. ^ Photograph by Antonio Gomes Delgado El Negro, Casasola Archive, Mexico

External links

Academy of San Carlos

The Academy of San Carlos (Spanish: Academia de San Carlos) is located at 22 Academia Street in just northeast of the main plaza of Mexico City. It was the first major art academy and the first art museum in the Americas. It was founded in 1781 as the School of Engraving and moved to the Academia Street location about 10 years later. It emphasized classical European training until the early 20th century, when it shifted to a more modern perspective. At this time, it also integrated with the National Autonomous University of Mexico, eventually becoming the Faculty of Arts and Design, which is based in Xochimilco. Currently, only graduate courses of the modern school are given in the original academy building.

Alfeñique

An alfeñique is a confection molded from sugar paste. The design and construction of these figures can vary from region to region. Today, alfeñique figures, especially calaveras (known in the US as Sugar Skulls), are widely created in Mexico for the Day of the Dead celebrations in November.

Barro negro pottery

Barro negro pottery ("black clay") is a style of pottery from Oaxaca, Mexico, distinguished by its color, sheen and unique designs. Oaxaca is one of few Mexican states which is characterized by the continuance of its ancestral crafts, which are still used in everyday life. Barro negro is one of several pottery traditions in the state, which also include the glazed green pieces of Santa María Atzompa; however, barro negro is one of the best known and most identified with the state. It is also one of the most popular and appreciated styles of pottery in Mexico. The origins of this pottery style extends as far back as the Monte Alban period and for almost all of this pottery's history, had been available only in a grayish matte finish. In the 1950s, a potter named Doña Rosa devised a way to put a black metallic like sheen onto the pottery by polishing it before firing. This look has made the pottery far more popular. From the 1980s to the present, an artisan named Carlomagno Pedro Martínez has promoted items made this way with barro negro sculptures which have been exhibited in a number of countries.

Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado "La Esmeralda"

La Esmeralda - National School of Painting, Sculpture and Printmaking (Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado. ENPEG "La Esmeralda") is a Mexican art school located in Mexico City.

The history of the ENPEG started with the foundation of a sculpture and wood carving school in the former La Merced Cloister (Exconvento de la Merced) in the Historic center of Mexico City by Guillermo Ruiz in 1927. In the 1930s, the school moved to the alley Callejón de la Esmeralda (now Calle San Fernando), Colonia Guerrero, which gave it the name "La Esmeralda". Also Raúl Anguiano, Feliciano Peña and José Chávez Morado taught in Ruiz' school. In 1943 Antonio M. Ruiz became head of the seemingly provisorily school. He redesigned the building, separated the training in classes and developed the first curriculum, which achieved certification by the Secretaría de Educación Pública in 1943 accompanied by the official status of an art school. Notable teachers at this time were Diego Rivera, Francisco Zúñiga, Frida Kahlo, Carlos Orozco Romero, Federico Cantú, Luis Ortiz Monasterio, María Izquierdo and Agustín Lazo. In 1994 "La Esmeralda" moved from Colonia Guerrero to Centro Nacional de las Artes (National Center for Arts).

Huichol art

Huichol art broadly groups the most traditional and most recent innovations in the folk art and handcrafts produced by the Huichol people, who live in the states of Jalisco, Durango, Zacatecas and Nayarit in Mexico. The unifying factor of the work is the colorful decoration using symbols and designs which date back centuries. The most common and commercially successful products are "yarn paintings" and objects decorated with small commercially produced beads. Yarn paintings consist of commercial yarn pressed into boards coated with wax and resin and are derived from a ceremonial tablet called a neirika. The Huichol have a long history of beading, making the beads from clay, shells, corals, seeds and more and using them to make jewelry and to decorate bowls and other items. The "modern" beadwork usually consists of masks and wood sculptures covered in small, brightly colored commercial beads fastened with wax and resin.

While the materials have changed and the purpose of many of the items have changed from religious to commercial purposes, the designs have changed little, and many retain their religious and symbolic significance. Most outsiders experience Huichol art as tourists in areas such as Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta, without knowing anything about the people who make the items, and the meanings of the designs. There are some notable Huichol artists in the yarn painting and beadwork fields, and both types of work have been commissioned for public display.

La Calavera Catrina

La Calavera Catrina ('Dapper Skeleton', 'Elegant Skull') or Catrina La Calavera Garbancera is a 1910–1913 zinc etching by the Mexican printmaker, cartoon illustrator and lithographer José Guadalupe Posada. She is offered as a satirical portrait of those Mexican natives who, Posada felt, were aspiring to adopt European aristocratic traditions in the pre-revolution era. La Catrina has become an icon of the Mexican Día de Muertos, or Day of the Dead.

The zinc etching depicts a female skeleton dressed only in a hat, her chapeau en attende is related to European styles of the early 20th century. The original leaflet describes a person who was ashamed of their indigenous origins and dressed imitating the French style while wearing lots of makeup to make their skin look whiter. This description also uses the word garbancera, a nickname given to people of indigenous ancestry who imitated European style and denied their own cultural heritage.

List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago

The city of Chicago, Illinois has many cultural institutions and museums, large and small. Major cultural institutions include:

the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Chicago Architecture Foundation, Lyric Opera of Chicago, Goodman Theater, Joffrey Ballet, Central Public Harold Washington Library, and the Chicago Cultural Center, all in the Loop;

Lincoln Park's Lincoln Park Zoo, Lincoln Park Conservatory, Chicago History Museum, Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum and Steppenwolf Theatre;

the Field Museum, Shedd Aquarium, and Adler Planetarium in the Near South Side's Museum Campus;

the Museum of Science and Industry, Oriental Institute, Smart Museum of Art, and DuSable Museum in Hyde Park;

the Museum of Contemporary Art, The Second City comedy troupe, and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater in Near North Side;

the Garfield Park Conservatory;

and Pilsen's National Museum of Mexican Art;

as well as the Brookfield Zoo, Chicago Botanic Gardens, and Morton Arboretum in nearby suburbs.

María Teresa Pomar

María Teresa Pomar was a collector, researcher and promoter of Mexican handcrafts and folk art along with the communities associated with them. She began as a collector then working with museums to promote handcrafts and then working to found a number of museums and other organizations to the same purpose. She became one of Mexico’s foremost experts on the subject, serving as director of different organizations and judge at competitions in Mexico and abroad. She died in 2010 while she was serving as the director of the Museo Universitario de Artes Populares of the University of Colima, which changed its name to honor her.

Mexican muralism

Mexican muralism was the promotion of mural painting starting in the 1920s, generally with social and political messages as part of efforts to reunify the country under the post Mexican Revolution government. It was headed by “the big three” painters, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. From the 1920s to about 1970s a large number of murals with nationalistic, social and political messages were created on public buildings, starting a tradition which continues to this day in Mexico and has had impact in other parts of the Americas, including the United States where it served as inspiration for the Chicano art movement.

Museo Nacional de Arte

The Museo Nacional de Arte (MUNAL) (English: National Museum of Art) is the Mexican national art museum, located in the historical center of Mexico City. The museum is housed in a neoclassical building at No. 8 Tacuba, Col. Centro, Mexico City. It includes a large collection representing the history of Mexican art from the mid-sixteenth century to the mid 20th century. It is recognizable by Manuel Tolsá's large equestrian statue of Charles IV of Spain, who was the monarch just before Mexico gained its independence. It was originally in the Zocalo but it was moved to several locations, not out of deference to the king but rather to conserve a piece of art, according to the plaque at the base. It arrived at its present location in 1979.

National Museum of Mexican Art

The National Museum of Mexican Art (Formerly known as the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum) is a museum which features Mexican, Latino, and Chicano art and culture. The museum was founded in 1982 by Carlos Tortolero and Helen Valdez. Located in the Pilsen neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, the current building in Harrison Park opened on March 27, 1987. The museum is the only Latino museum accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. The mission of the museum is to display Mexican culture as one sin fronteras (without borders). The museum describes itself as the largest Latino cultural institution in America.

National Supreme Court of Justice

The National Supreme Court of Justice (Spanish: Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (SCJN) is the Mexican institution serving as the country's federal high court and the spearhead organisation for the judiciary of the Mexican Federal Government. It consists of eleven magistrates, known as ministers of the court, one of whom is designated the court's president.

Judges of the SCJN are appointed for 15 years. They are ratified through affirmation by the Senate from a list proposed by the President of the Republic. The ministers chosen will select from among themselves who shall be the President of the Court to serve a four-year period; any given minister may serve out more than one term as president, but may not do so consecutively.

Piteado

Piteado is an artisan technique where pita or ixtle (thread made from the fiber of the century plant) is embroidered onto leather in decorative patterns. The technique is used to make belts, sandals, hair bands, saddles, and other leather accessories. The technique is popular in Mexico and Central America, and typical designs include flowers, animals, charreada, and Pre-Hispanic symbols.

Jalisco, a Mexican State was famous for this type of handicraft, especially the town of Colotlan. This region has become a big producer of two kinds of non-traditional piteado industry. One which uses automated manufacturing embroidery machines to make imitation piteado products and one where non-precious silvery and golden wires are inserted in leather works which are then fraudulently traded as genuine gold and silver.

The piteado work is a traditional art craft made by hand used in some Mexican Folklore, and has spread to several communities in other Mexican states, including Hidalgo, Guerrero, Veracruz, San Luis Potosi, State of Mexico, Durango, Zacatecas, Guerrero, Michoacán, and Chiapas.

Colotlán a town of Jalisco call itself piteado global capital, because there are many saddlers shops, and piteado dedicated craftsmen as a main source of income for its inhabitants. Each one of those piteado-workshop employs three types of workers, each dedicated to a specialized task: drawers, embroiderers, and punteadores. There is an annual fair in promotion of local piteado artisan's art.

Hand embroidering a belt requires about 48 hours of labor. The kind of cactus thread used to embroidery is produced in Veracruz, Chiapas, and Oaxaca.

Artisans from those regions make well-finished and more elaborate piteado works, but because of the lack of advertising and promotion, it is often not possible for them to sell to their intended market.

There is a foundation which promotes piteado in Veracruz, with branches in Florida and Shanghai, which embraces, supports, and makes contributions of machinery and equipment to communities of artisans. This organization also encourages scientific research to improve the plant from which the cactus fiber is obtained, bringing together the communities involved. They connect farmers from northern Oaxaca with biochemical and agricultural researchers in the Guatemalan region of Mesaltenango, supporting the experimental designs of some new products, giving resources and support to those potential artisans with great innovative creations, and continuing to preserve these natural non-renewable resources. The group encourages the improvement of the process of manufacturing some traditional products already on the market, the continued propagation of the art form, and the preservation of the history behind it.

Pulque

Pulque ['pulke] (Classical Nahuatl: metoctli), or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented sap of the maguey (agave) plant. It is traditional to central Mexico, where it has been produced for millennia. It has the color of milk, somewhat viscous consistency and a sour yeast-like taste.The drink's history extends far back into the Mesoamerican period, when it was considered sacred, and its use was limited to certain classes of people. After the Spanish Conquest of Mexico, the drink became secular and its consumption rose. The consumption of pulque reached its peak in the late 19th century. In the 20th century, the drink fell into decline, mostly because of competition from beer, which became more prevalent with the arrival of European immigrants. There are some efforts to revive the drink's popularity through tourism.

Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte

The Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte (SNCA; national system of art creators) is a Mexican art association of the Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, that was founded per presidential decree of September 3, 1993. Aim is the advancement and acceptance of creative activities as an essential part of national identity and appreciation. The associations contains several notable artists and scientists, who rendered outstanding services by their work to the creative identity of Mexico.

The grant program of the SNCA includes scholarships of the Fondo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (FONCA).

Skull art

Indigenous Mexican art celebrates the skeleton and uses it as a regular motif. The use of skulls and skeletons in art originated before the Conquest: The Aztecs excelled in stone sculptures and created striking carvings of their Gods. Coatlicue, the Goddess of earth and death, was portrayed with a necklace of human hearts, hands and a skull pendant. She was imbued with the drama and grandeur necessary to dazzle the subject people and to convey the image of an implacable state. The worship of death involved worship of life, while the skull – symbol of death – was a promise to resurrection. The Aztecs carved skulls in monoliths of lava, and made masks of obsidian and jade. Furthermore, the skull motif was used in decoration. They were molded on pots, traced on scrolls, woven into garments, and formalized into hieroglyphs.

Straw painting

Straw paintings are craft objects made by shaping straw into patterns and representational images.

By modeling and playing with straw, people, especially women, started weaving straw into artistic objects. As time passed, they acquired more skill in working with straw and a century ago, created a very specific art, the art of weaving straw into pictures by using and combining the natural colours and shades of oats, barley, rye, wheat, and other grasses. These "paintings" have become a speciality of China, Mexico, and Subotica in Serbia and its vicinity.

Teresa del Conde

Teresa del Conde Pontones (January 12, 1935 – February 16, 2017) was a Mexican art critic and art historian.

Textiles of Oaxaca

The state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico has a noteworthy tradition of finely crafted textiles, particularly handmade embroidery and woven goods that frequently use a backstrap loom. Oaxaca is home to several different groups of indigenous peoples, each of which has a distinctive textile tradition.

Most notably present in the Oaxaca state are the Zapotec, Nahua and Mixtec tribes. Each of these groups of indigenous people contributed their own influences on the modern atuendos or “attires” in Oaxaca today. Textiles and particular clothing garments and accessories can tell a lot about the culture in which they were produced. By analyzing the textiles, the technology used to create the garment can be deciphered. Many of the tools used were similar throughout Mexico, however, some tools were more common in specific regions or villages, resulting in many of the similarities in embroidery and patterns. The different garments created in Oaxaca also differ based on the indigenous peoples’ view of the world and their own social structures. For example, a cape-like garment called a Tilma or Las Capa, made of cotton was strictly reserved for members of upper-class. Most textiles made from cotton were used by the upper class because it was a material that was much easier to work with than the usual leaves of plants, thus making the crop a luxury.

Many of the ancient textile and attire traditions from Mexico have disappeared over time with climate change being one of the reasons why. Because many of these antique, traditional styles of dress have become obsolete, they can often only be recreated or analyzed from murals and sculptures that depict the textiles and attire as well as how both were worn. Consequently, as these older textiles and traditional styles became less popular over time, it gave rise to the contemporary indigenous dress that is often seen today; this contemporary dress is known as the Traje de Tehuana. The attires of ancient Mexico still influence the contemporary dress; some of the garments have actually been passed on over time which slight adjustments of textile, materials used, embroidery, patterns etc. The effect of the ancient attire on the contemporary dress is evident through the similarities and purposes of the contemporary styles. In ancient dress, a Tilma, was a part of a man’s dress, usually made of cotton and worn by the upper-class. However, it is evident that in contemporary dress, a Rebozo (also called Sarape or Gabán) is a shawl worn by women and heavily influenced by the Tilma. Many of the key aspects and characteristics of older attire serve as a template for the patterns and embroidery seen in contemporary textiles and garments.

History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society
North American art
Sovereign states
Dependencies and
other territories

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.