Federal Highway 1 (Spanish: Carretera Federal 1, Fed. 1) is a free (libre) part of the federal highway corridors (los corredores carreteros federates) of Mexico, and the highway follows the length of the Baja California Peninsula from Tijuana, Baja California, in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, in the south. The road connects with Via Rapida, which merges into the American Interstate 5 (I-5) at the international border south of San Ysidro, California.
Fed. 1 is often called the Carretera Transpeninsular (Transpeninsular Highway) and runs a length of 1,711 kilometres (1,063 mi) from Tijuana to Cabo San Lucas. Most of its course is two lanes. Completed in 1973, its official name is the Benito Juárez Transpeninsular Highway (Carretera Transpeninsular Benito Juarez). It is named after one of Mexico's most revered heroes.
Federal Highway 1
|Carretera Federal 1|
|Benito Juarez Transpeninsular Highway|
Carretera Transpeninsular Benito Juarez
|Maintained by Secretariat of Communications and Transportation|
|Length||1,711 km (1,063 mi)|
|North end||I-5 at Mexico–United States border near Tijuana|
|South end||Fed. 19 in Cabo San Lucas|
|Mexican Federal Highways|
List • Autopistas
The road begins in the border city of Tijuana. It is bypassed from here to Ensenada by Fed. 1D, a toll road. Then, the road continues south past Maneadero. Much of it follows or passes near the route of Portola's march from Loreto to San Diego during the establishment of the Spanish missions in Baja California.
Federal highway corridors in Mexico are generally designated with even numbers for west-east routes and odd numbers for north–south routes. Numerical designations usually ascend southward away from the U.S. border for west-east routes, and usually ascend eastward away from the Pacific Ocean for North-South routes. Therefore, Fed. 1, due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, has the lowest possible odd number designation, and intersecting West-East federal highway corridors usually conform to this pattern.
Kilometer markers track the distance along Fed. 1 through Baja California in four separate improved segments. The first of these is the 109-kilometre (68 mi) length from Tijuana to Ensenada, which is known informally as Mex 1 Libre to distinguish it from Fed. 1D, the parallel toll road. The second portion of signed road runs 196 kilometres (122 mi) from Ensenada to San Quintín. The third segment comprises 128 kilometres (80 mi) from San Quintín to the Parador Punta Prieta junction. A final segment stretches 128 kilometres (80 mi) from Punta Prieta to the border of the state of Baja California Sur near Guerrero Negro. The total route of Fed. 1 in Baja California is 713 km (443 mi).
Continuing south into the two Mexican states that comprise the Baja California peninsula, Guerrero Negro is the nearest community to the point where Fed. 1 meets the 28th parallel north. Afterward Fed. 1 leaves the western coast and crosses to the eastern coast at Santa Rosalía. The route continues southward past Puerto Escondido and gains altitude at Sierra de la Giganta, then veers southwest and through agricultural lands and Ciudad Constitución. After crossing a desert the route encounters La Paz on the eastern coast. The route continues along the gulf side of the peninsula through San José del Cabo to its terminus at Cabo San Lucas.
After crossing state lines the kilometer markers progress in the opposite direction. Baja California signage count from north to south, but Baja California Sur signage count from south to north. So in opposite order from the road signage, a progressive route southward would span 221 kilometres (137 mi) from Guerrero Negro to Santa Rosalía, 197 kilometres (122 mi) from Santa Rosalía to Loreto, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Loreto to Ciudad Insurgentes, 240 kilometres (150 mi) from Ciudad Insurgentes to La Paz, and 224 kilometres (139 mi) from La Paz to Cabo San Lucas.
Bahía las Palmas is a 19 miles (31 km) bight on the Gulf of California in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Located on the East Cape,
it is north of Cabo San Lucas, accessed by Mexican Federal Highway 1.Baja California
Baja California (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaxa kaliˈfoɾnja] (listen), English: Lower California), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California), is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California (El Territorio Norte de Baja California). It has an area of 70,113 km2 (27,071 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. state of Arizona, and the Gulf of California (also known as the "Sea of Cortez"), and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.
The state has an estimated population of 3,315,766 (2015) much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south, and similar to San Diego County, California on its north. Over 75% of the population lives in the capital city, Mexicali, in Ensenada, or in Tijuana. Other important cities include San Felipe, Rosarito and Tecate. The population of the state is composed of Mestizos, mostly immigrants from other parts of Mexico, and, as with most northern Mexican states, a large population of Mexicans of Spanish ancestry, and also a large minority group of East Asian, Middle Eastern and indigenous descent. Additionally, there is a large immigrant population from the United States due to its proximity to San Diego and the lower cost of living compared to San Diego. There is also a significant population from Central America. Many immigrants moved to Baja California for a better quality of life and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America.
Baja California is the twelfth largest state by area in Mexico. Its geography ranges from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California, where the Picacho del Diablo, the highest point of the peninsula, is located. This mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry and mediterranean. In the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in this area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe, the major wine-producing area in Mexico. To the east of the mountain range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives way to the Vizcaino Desert. The state is also home to numerous islands off both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California. The Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are also on the Pacific Shore. On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel de la Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep and narrow Canal de Ballenas.Baja California Peninsula
The Baja California Peninsula (English: Lower California Peninsula, Spanish: Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km (775 miles) from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km (25 miles) at its narrowest to 320 km (200 miles) at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km (1,900 miles) of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).
The peninsula is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of California and the Colorado River. There are four main desert areas on the peninsula: the San Felipe Desert, the Central Coast Desert, the Vizcaíno Desert and the Magdalena Plain Desert.Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaxa kaliˈfoɾnja suɾ] (listen), English: "South Lower California"), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur (English: Free and Sovereign State of South Lower California), is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Before becoming a state on 8 October 1974, the area was known as the El Territorio Sur de Baja California ("South Territory of Lower California"). It has an area of 73,909 km2 (28,536 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico, and occupies the southern half of the Baja California Peninsula, south of the 28th parallel, plus the uninhabited Rocas Alijos in the Pacific Ocean. It is bordered to the north by the state of Baja California, to the west by the Pacific Ocean, and to the east by the Gulf of California, or the "Sea of Cortés". The state has maritime borders with Sonora and Sinaloa to the east, across the Gulf of California.
The state is home to the tourist resorts of Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo. Its largest city and capital is La Paz.Cabo San Lucas
Cabo San Lucas (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkaβo san ˈlukas], "Saint Luke Cape"), or simply Cabo, is a resort city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. As of 2015, the population of the city was 81,111 inhabitants. Cabo San Lucas together with San José del Cabo is known as Los Cabos. Together they form a metropolitan area of 305,983 inhabitants.Cabo has been rated as one of Mexico's top 5 tourist destinations; it is known for its beaches, scuba diving locations, balnearios, the sea arch El Arco de Cabo San Lucas, and marine life. The Los Cabos Corridor has become a heavily trafficked vacation destination for tourists, with numerous resorts and timeshares along the coast between Cabo San Lucas and San José del Cabo.
Cabo houses a range of wildlife, including rays, sharks, birds, and a range of fish, such as mahi-mahi (dorado), and striped marlin.Ciudad Constitución
Ciudad Constitución is a city in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. It is the seat of Comondú Municipality. As of 2015, the city had a total population of 44,918 inhabitants.. Ciudad Constitución is a small city which serves as a gateway to Magdalena Bay.Effects of the car on societies
Since the start of the twentieth century, the role of the car has become highly important though controversial. It is used throughout the world and has become the most popular mode of transport in the more developed countries. In developing countries, the effects of the car on society are not as visible, however they are significant. The development of the car built upon the transport sector first started by railways. This has introduced sweeping changes in employment patterns, social interactions, infrastructure and the distribution of goods.
Nonetheless the positive effects on access to remote places and mobility comfort provided by the automobile, allowing people to geographically increase their social and economic interactions, the negative effects of the car on everyday life are not negligible. Although the introduction of the mass-produced car represented a revolution in industry and convenience, creating job demand and tax revenue, the high motorisation rates also brought severe consequences to the society and to the environment. The modern negative consequences of heavy automotive use include the use of non-renewable fuels, a dramatic increase in the rate of accidental death, the disconnection of local community, the decrease of local economy, the rise in obesity and cardiovascular diseases, the emission of air and noise pollution, the emission of greenhouse gases, generation of urban sprawl and traffic, segregation of pedestrians and other active mobility means of transport, decrease in the railway network, urban decay and the high cost per unit-distance on which the car paradigm is based.Hurricane Newton (2016)
Hurricane Newton was the first hurricane to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula since Odile in 2014. The fifteenth named storm and the ninth hurricane of the 2016 Pacific hurricane season, Newton formed as a tropical depression out of an area of low pressure off of the coast of Mexico on September 4. Despite only moderately favorable conditions, the storm quickly intensified while moving north and became a hurricane roughly a day after being designated. Attaining peak intensity early on September 6, Newton then proceeded to make landfall on the Baja California Peninsula shortly afterwards. It quickly weakened and degenerated into a remnant low on September 7, before dissipating the next day.
Ahead of the storm, several preparations were made to avoid a calamity similar to what Odile had caused two years prior. The hurricane was
responsible for at least nine deaths, mainly attributed to flooding; and US$95.7 million in damages.La Misión, Baja California
La Misión or Misión de San Miguel is a village in Baja California located on Mexican Federal Highway 1 approximately 41 miles south of the San Ysidro border crossing on the Gold Coast of the Baja California peninsula. The census of 2010 reported a population of 920 inhabitants. The small town of Primo Tapia, located 15 km north, is the closest town to La Misión. Puerto Nuevo, known for their lobster restaurants, is 20 km north of the village. La Mision is so small, it's often simply referred to as "K-44" or "kilometro 44", which is its nearest highway marker. The port city of Ensenada is 50 km south of La Misión while the town of Rosarito is 40 km north.
The ruins of Misión San Miguel Arcángel de la Frontera can be found near the center of the village.La Paz, Baja California Sur
La Paz (pronounced [la ˈpas] (listen), Peace) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur and an important regional commercial center. The city had a 2015 census population of 244,219 inhabitants, making it the most populous city in the state. Its metropolitan population is somewhat larger because of the surrounding towns, such as El Centenario, Chametla and San Pedro. It is in La Paz Municipality, which is the fourth-largest municipality in Mexico in geographical size and reported a population of 290,286 inhabitants on a land area of 20,275 km2 (7,828 sq mi).The population of La Paz has grown greatly since the 2000s. The growth is largely because the city has one of the highest standards of living and security in Mexico.La Paz is served by the Manuel Márquez de León International Airport with flights to the most important cities of Mexico: Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey. Airlines flying into La Paz include Aeroméxico Connect, Volaris and VivaAerobus. Two ferry services operate from the port of Pichilingue outside the city, connecting the Baja California peninsula to the mainland at Mazatlán and Topolobampo, near Los Mochis.List of highways numbered 1
The following highways are numbered 1. For roads numbered A1, see list of A1 roads. For roads numbered B1, see list of B1 roads. For roads numbered M1, see List of M1 roads. For roads numbered N1, see list of N1 roads.Punta Colonet
Punta Colonet (Chuwílo Ksaay (dry arroyo) in the Kiliwa language), 115 km south of Ensenada on Mexican Federal Highway 1, 30 km north of Camalú, Baja California, is one of the most productive agricultural areas in Mexico's Baja California peninsula. Technically, it is a geographic feature, a cape, but the area has two communities: Ejido México (aka Ejido Punta Colonet), and Ejido 27 de Enero, on opposite sides of the Colonet Creek (Arroyo Colonet), part of Ensenada Municipality. Its proximity to Mexican Federal Highway 1 and the United States have spurred the growth of large commercial farming in the area. The point, nearby town, bay, and cape are reputedly named after Captain James Colnett, a British sea captain who explored this section of the Pacific coast in the late 18th century. There has been tremendous growth in the region over the last five years. The population has grown from 2,346 in 2000 Census to 3,278 in 2010 Census for Ejido Colonet, with 27 de Enero home to 474 people in 2010.Punta San Pedro Airstrip
Punta San Pedro Airstrip or Bahía Concepción Airstrip (IATA: N/A) is a dirt airstrip in Municipality of Mulegé, Baja California Sur state, Mexico.
It is located 8 miles (13 km) south of Mulegé on Mexican Federal Highway 1, in the Bahía Concepción area.
The airstrip is used solely for general aviation purposes.Rosarito Beach
Rosarito is a coastal resort city in the Mexican state of Baja California located approximately 10 miles south of the U.S. border in Rosarito Beach Municipality. Often mistakenly called Rosarito Beach because of the well-known Rosarito Beach Hotel, the town of Rosarito is one part of the municipality named Playas de Rosarito ("Beaches of Rosarito").
Its beaches and dance clubs are a popular destination for young people from the United States during the Memorial Day and Labor Day weekends. Rosarito Beach is the seat of the municipality of Rosarito Beach. The city is the second largest in the Tijuana metropolitan area and southern beach city of the San Diego–Tijuana international metropolitan region.
It is the westernmost municipal seat in Mexico, slightly farther west than neighboring Tijuana, which lies inland to its north-northeast. As of 2010, the city had a population of 65,278.San Ignacio, Baja California Sur
San Ignacio is a palm oasis town in Mulegé Municipality of northern Baja California Sur state in Mexico.
It is located on Mexican Federal Highway 1 between Guerrero Negro and Santa Rosalía.
The town had a 2010 census population of 667 inhabitants and grew at the site of the Cochimí settlement of Kadakaamán and the Jesuit Mission San Ignacio founded in 1728 by Juan Bautista Luyando.San Quintín, Baja California
San Quintín is a coastal town on the west coast of the Mexican state of Baja California, in the Municipality of Ensenada, some 190 km (118 mi.) south of the city of Ensenada on Mexican Federal Highway 1. The town is also in the middle of an important agricultural area, especially for growing strawberries and tomatoes. The largest nearby locality is Lázaro Cardenas, home to 16,294 people as of the 2010 census. The whole area (6 localities) houses roughly 25,000 people, up from 20,000 in 2000. This is the largest population cluster south of Ensenada within the state.The coast also has many sand dunes, and is a popular place for off-road vehicles.
The town is on the west coast of the central Baja California Peninsula, near the Bahía de San Quintín, 300 km (187 mi) south of the San Ysidro–Tijuana international border along Federal Highway 1.
The Misión Santo Domingo de la Frontera lies 20 km north of San Quintín.San Ysidro Port of Entry
The San Ysidro Port of Entry (aka San Ysidro Land Port of Entry and San Ysidro LPOE) is the largest land border crossing between San Diego and Tijuana, and one of the busiest land border crossings in the world with 70,000 northbound vehicles and 20,000 northbound pedestrians crossing each day, in addition to southbound traffic. It connects Mexican Federal Highway 1 on the Mexican side with Interstate 5 on the American side. The San Ysidro Port of Entry is one of three ports of entry in the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan region.Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur
Santa Rosalía (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsanta rosaˈli.a]) is a town located in the Mulegé Municipality of northern Baja California Sur, Mexico. It is on the Gulf of California coast of the Baja California Peninsula. As of 2015, the town had a population of 14,160 inhabitants. It was once a company town.XESDD-AM
XESDD-AM or La Tremenda is a radio station in Tijuana, Baja California. It broadcasts on 1030 kHz from a site along Mexican Federal Highway 1 near Puerto Nuevo in Playas de Rosarito Municipality, shared with sister station XESS-AM 620.