A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as metropolitan districts. However, all of them have been granted or regranted royal charters to give them borough status (as well as, in some cases, city status). Metropolitan boroughs have been effectively unitary authority areas since the abolition of the metropolitan county councils by the Local Government Act 1985. However, metropolitan boroughs pool much of their authority in joint boards and other arrangements that cover whole metropolitan counties, such as combined authorities.
|Also known as:|
|Category||Local authority districts|
|Found in||Metropolitan county|
|Created by||Local Government Act 1972|
|Created||1 April 1974|
|Number||36 (as of 2008)|
|Populations||0.1 - 1.1 million|
The term "metropolitan borough" was first used for administrative subdivisions of the County of London between 1900 and 1965. There were 28 of these metropolitan boroughs, which were replaced by a new system of larger London Boroughs in 1965, when the County of London was replaced by Greater London.
The current metropolitan boroughs were created in 1974 as subdivisions of the new metropolitan counties, created to cover the six largest urban areas in England outside Greater London. The new districts replaced the previous system of county boroughs, municipal boroughs, urban and rural districts. The districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million.
Metropolitan districts were originally parts of a two-tier structure of local government, and shared power with the metropolitan county councils (MCCs). They differed from non-metropolitan districts in the division of powers between district and county councils. Metropolitan districts were local education authorities, and were also responsible for social services and libraries, but in non-metropolitan counties these services were the responsibility of county councils.
In 1986, the metropolitan county councils were abolished under the Local Government Act 1985 and most of their functions were devolved to the metropolitan boroughs, making them, to a large extent, unitary authorities in all but name. At the same time, however, some of the functions of the abolished metropolitan county councils were taken over by joint bodies such as passenger transport authorities, and joint fire, police and waste disposal authorities.
The metropolitan districts are administered by metropolitan district councils. They are the principal local authorities in the six metropolitan counties and are responsible for running most local services, such as schools, social services, waste collection and roads.
The 36 metropolitan boroughs are:
|Metropolitan county||Metropolitan districts||Number||County population|
|Greater Manchester||Manchester, Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan||10||2,573,200|
|Merseyside||Liverpool, Knowsley, St Helens, Sefton, Wirral||5||1,365,000|
|South Yorkshire||Sheffield, Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham||4||1,290,000|
|Tyne and Wear||Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside, Sunderland||5||1,089,400|
|West Midlands||Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, Walsall, Wolverhampton||7||2,591,300|
|West Yorkshire||Leeds, Bradford, Calderdale, Kirklees, Wakefield||5||2,161,200|
The 2015 Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council election took place on 7 May 2015 to elect members of Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council in England. This was on the same day as other local elections.2015 Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council election
The 2015 Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council election took place on 7 May 2015 to elect members of Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council in England. It was held on the same day as other local elections.2015 Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council election
The 2015 Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council election took place on 7 May 2015 to elect members of the Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council in England. It was held on the same day as other local elections and on the same day as the General Election.
The Conservative Party won every seat with 3 exceptions (The Green Party held Chelmsley Wood and Smith's Wood, and UKIP gained Kingshurst and Fordbridge from Labour).2015 St Helens Metropolitan Borough Council election
The 2015 St Helens Metropolitan Borough Council election took take place on 7 May 2015 to elect members of St Helens Metropolitan Borough Council in England. This was on the same day as other local elections.Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley
The Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England; its main town is Barnsley.
The borough is bisected by the M1 motorway; it is rural to the west, and largely urban/industrial to the east. 68% of Barnsley's 32,863 hectares is green belt and 9% is national park land, the majority of which is West of the M1. In 2007 it was estimated that Barnsley had 224,600 residents, measured at the 2011 census as 231,221. nine tenths of whom live east of the M1.
The borough was formed under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the county borough of Barnsley with Cudworth, Darfield, Darton, Dearne, Dodworth, Hoyland Nether, Penistone, Royston, Wombwell and Worsborough urban districts, along with Penistone Rural District, part of Hemsworth Rural District and part of Wortley Rural District, all in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
The borough now forms part of both the Sheffield City Region and the Leeds City Region.Metropolitan Borough of Bolton
The Metropolitan Borough of Bolton (listen) is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England, named after its largest town, Bolton, but covering a far larger area which includes Blackrod, Farnworth, Horwich, Kearsley,
Westhoughton, and part of the West Pennine Moors. It has a population of 276,800.
The boundaries were set by of the Local Government Act 1972, and cover eight former local government districts; seven Urban Districts from the administrative county of Lancashire, and the County Borough of Bolton. The metropolitan districts of Bury, Salford and Wigan lie to the east, south and west respectively; and the non-metropolitan districts of Blackburn with Darwen and Chorley in Lancashire to the north and north-west.Metropolitan Borough of Bury
The Metropolitan Borough of Bury is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester in North West England, just north of Manchester, which consists of six towns: Bury, Ramsbottom, Tottington, Radcliffe, Whitefield and Prestwich. Bury bounds the Lancashire districts of Rossendale and Blackburn with Darwen to the north.
The Metropolitan Borough of Bury, which covers 24,511 acres (99 km2) and has a population of 181,900, was created on 1 April 1974, with the transfer of functions from the county borough of Bury and the boroughs of Prestwich and Radcliffe, along with the urban districts of Tottington and Whitefield, and part of the urban district of Ramsbottom, all previously in Lancashire.Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster
The Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire in Yorkshire and the Humber Region of England.
In addition to the town of Doncaster, the borough covers the towns of Mexborough, Conisbrough, Thorne, Bawtry and Tickhill.
The borough was created on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the former county borough of Doncaster along with the urban districts of Adwick le Street, Bentley with Arksey, Conisbrough, Mexborough, Tickhill along with Doncaster Rural District and Thorne Rural District, the parish of Finningley from East Retford Rural District and small parts of the parish of Harworth from Worksop Rural District from Nottinghamshire.Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley
The Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England. It comprises the towns and districts of Kirkby, Prescot, Huyton, Whiston, Halewood, Cronton and Stockbridge Village; Kirkby, Huyton, and Prescot being the major commercial centres. It takes its name from the village of Knowsley, though its headquarters are in Huyton. It forms part of the wider Liverpool City Region.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Huyton-with-Roby Urban District, Kirkby Urban District and Prescot Urban District, along with most of Whiston Rural District and a small part of West Lancashire Rural District, all from the administrative county of Lancashire.
According to the 2011 census, 80.9% of people in Knowsley describe themselves as Christian, the highest proportion in any local authority in England and Wales.It is known for Knowsley Hall and Knowsley Safari Park.Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale
The Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester in North West England. It is named after its largest town, Rochdale, but spans a far larger area which includes the towns of Middleton, Heywood, Littleborough and Milnrow, and the village of Wardle.
The borough was formed in 1974 as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972 and is an amalgamation of six former local government districts. It was originally proposed that the borough include the neighbouring town of Bury and disclude Middleton; Bury however went on to form the administrative centre for the adjacent Metropolitan Borough of Bury.Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham
The Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England. It is named after its largest town, Rotherham, but also spans the outlying towns of Maltby, Rawmarsh, Swinton, Wath-upon-Dearne, and also Dinnington and Laughton
as well as a suburban and rural element composed of hills, escarpments and broad valleys.
The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the County Borough of Rotherham, with Maltby, Rawmarsh, Swinton and Wath-upon-Dearne urban districts along with Rotherham Rural District and Kiveton Park Rural District.
Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council is one of the safest Labour councils in the United Kingdom, although the number of Labour council seats dropped from 92% to 79% in 2014 following the Rotherham child sexual exploitation scandal.Metropolitan Borough of Sefton
The Metropolitan Borough of Sefton in Merseyside, England, was formed on 1 April 1974 by the amalgamation of the county boroughs of Bootle and Southport, the municipal borough of Crosby, the urban districts of Formby and Litherland, and part of West Lancashire Rural District within the new county of Merseyside. The borough consists of a coastal strip of land on the Irish Sea, and extends from Bootle in the south, to Southport in the north. In the south-east, it extends inland to Maghull. The district is bounded by Liverpool to the south, Knowsley to the south-east, and West Lancashire to the east.
It is named after the village and parish of Sefton, near Maghull. When the borough was created in the Local Government Act 1972 a name was sought that would not unduly identify the borough with any of its constituent parts, particularly the former county boroughs of Bootle and Southport. The locality had strong links with both the Earl of Sefton and the Earl of Derby, resident of Knowsley Hall, and given the fact that the immediately adjacent borough was subsequently named Knowsley it seems equally likely that the choice of name was derived from the names of the local nobility. A Sefton Rural District covering some of the villages in the district existed from 1894 to 1932.Metropolitan Borough of St Helens
The Metropolitan Borough of St Helens is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, in North West England. It is named after its largest town St Helens, and covers an area which includes the settlements of Sutton, St Helens, Earlestown, Rainhill, Eccleston, Clock Face, Haydock, Billinge, Rainford and Newton-le-Willows.
The Metropolitan Borough Council is made up of 48 councillors, with three representing each of the 16 wards of the borough.Metropolitan Borough of Stockport
The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester in North West England. As well as the town of Stockport, it includes the outyling areas of Bramhall, Cheadle, Cheadle Hulme, Marple, Bredbury, Reddish, Woodley and Romiley. In 2001, it had a population of 284,500.Metropolitan Borough of Walsall
The Metropolitan Borough of Walsall is a local government district in the West Midlands, England, with the status of a metropolitan borough. It is named after its largest settlement, Walsall, but covers a larger area which also includes the towns of Aldridge, Bloxwich, Brownhills, Darlaston and Willenhall. The borough had an estimated population of 254,500 in 2007.The current boundaries were set as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, with a change to the north of the borough in 1994. It is bounded on the west by the City of Wolverhampton, the south by the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, to the south east by the City of Birmingham, and by the Staffordshire districts of Lichfield, Cannock Chase and South Staffordshire to the east, north and northwest respectively. Most of the borough is highly industrialised and densely populated, but areas around the north and east of the borough are open space.
In 1986 the borough became an effective unitary authority when the West Midlands County Council was abolished. However it remains part of the West Midlands for ceremonial purposes, and for functions such as policing, fire and public transport.Metropolitan Borough of Wigan
The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, in North West England. It is named after its largest component town and former county borough, Wigan and includes the towns and villages of Leigh, part of Ashton-in-Makerfield, Ince-in-Makerfield, Hindley, Orrell, Standish, Atherton, Tyldesley, Golborne, Lowton, Billinge, Astley, Haigh and Aspull. The borough was formed in 1974 and is an amalgamation of several former local government districts and parishes. The borough has three civil parishes and lies directly to the west of the City of Salford and southwest of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. The local authority is Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council.Metropolitan Borough of Wirral
The Metropolitan Borough of Wirral is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, in North West England. It has a population of 321,238, and encompasses 60 square miles (160 km2) of the northern part of the Wirral Peninsula. Major settlements include Birkenhead, Wallasey, Bebington, Heswall, Hoylake and West Kirby. The city of Liverpool over the Mersey, faces the northeastern side of Wirral. Bordering is the River Mersey to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and the River Dee to the west; the borough of Cheshire West and Chester occupies the remainder of the Wirral Peninsula and borders the borough of Wirral to the south. The borough of Wirral has greater proportions of rural areas than the Liverpool part of Merseyside.Sandwell
Sandwell is a metropolitan borough of the West Midlands county in England. The borough is named after the Sandwell Priory, and spans a densely populated part of the West Midlands conurbation. According to Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council, the borough comprises the six amalgamated towns of Oldbury, Rowley Regis, Smethwick, Tipton, Wednesbury, and West Bromwich, although these places consist of numerous smaller settlements and localities. Though West Bromwich is the largest town in the borough and its designated Strategic Town Centre, Sandwell Council House (the headquarters of the local authority) is situated in Oldbury.
Bordering Sandwell is the City of Birmingham to the east, the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley to the south and west, the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall to the north, and the City of Wolverhampton to the north-west. Spanning the borough are the parliamentary constituencies of West Bromwich West, West Bromwich East, Warley, and part of Halesowen and Rowley Regis, which crosses into the Dudley borough.
At the 2011 census, the borough had a population of 309,000 and an area of 86 square kilometres (33 sq mi).
Metropolitan districts of England
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities
1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics.