Metropolis

A metropolis (/mɪˈtrɒpəlɪs/)[2] is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Ancient Greek (μητρόπολις) and means the "mother city" of a colony (in the ancient sense), that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation.

A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which is not the core of that agglomeration, is not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. The plural of the word is metropolises,[3] although the Latin plural is metropoles, from the Greek metropoleis (μητρoπόλεις).

For urban centers outside metropolitan areas that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis ("regio" for short) was introduced by German academics in 2006.[4]

Skyscrapers of Shinjuku 2009 January
Skyline of Tokyo, the world's most populous metropolis, with Mount Fuji in the background
Pano Manhattan2007 amk
New York City has garnered the nickname Metropolis to describe the city in the daytime in popular culture, contrasting with Gotham, sometimes used to describe New York City at night.[1]

History

Lightmatter colosseum
The Colosseum at night in Rome, Italy

In the ancient world, a metropolis was the city or state of origin of a colonyalankotaraj,

Etymology and modern usage

Metropolis (μητρόπολις) is a Greek word, coming from μήτηρ, mḗtēr meaning "mother" and πόλις, pólis meaning "city" or "town", which is how the Greek colonies of antiquity referred to their original cities, with whom they retained cultic and political-cultural connections. The word was used in post-classical Latin for the chief city of a province, the seat of the government and, in particular, ecclesiastically for the seat or see of a metropolitan bishop to whom suffragan bishops were responsible. This usage equates the province with the diocese or episcopal see.[5]

Global city

The concept of a global city (or world city) is of a city that has a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socioeconomic means. The term has become increasingly familiar, because of the rise of globalization (i.e., global finance, communications, and travel). An attempt to define and categorize world cities by financial criteria was made by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), based primarily at Loughborough University in England. The study ranked cities based on their provision of "advanced producer services" such as accountancy, advertising, finance and law. The inventory identifies three levels of world cities and several sub-ranks (see GaWC study).

A metropolis is not necessarily a global city—or, being one, it might not be among the top-ranking—due to its standards of living, development, and infrastructure. A metropolis that is also a global city is a global metropolis.

Africa

Nile-Cairo
Cairo Skyline

Egypt

Cairo and Alexandria are considered Egypt's biggest metropolises.

Nigeria

Lagos is the most populous metropolis in Nigeria as well as in Africa.

South Africa

In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or "Category A municipality" is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a conurbation. This is by contrast to areas which are primarily rural, where the local government is divided into district municipalities (comparable to a "county" in the US) and local municipalities. There are eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa.

Casablanca Metropolis
Casablanca city Metropolis

Morocco

In Morocco there are five metropolitan areas:Casablanca, Rabat, Tangier, Fes and Marrakech are considered Morocco's biggest metropolises. Of these, Casablanca is the largest.

Americas

Argentina

Buenos Aires - Monserrat - Avenida 9 de Julio
Aerial view of Buenos Aires

In Argentina, Buenos Aires is the principal metropolis with a population of around fifteen and a half million.[6] The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the third-largest conurbation in Latin America.[7] Buenos Aires is the main political, financial, industrial, commercial, and cultural hub of Argentina.

Brazil

Sampa Noite
São Paulo is Brazil's largest city

In Brazil, São Paulo is the principal metropolis with over 20 million inhabitants. In the larger cities, such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (population 6.3 million), favelas (slums) grew up over decades as people migrated from rural areas in order to find work. The term used in Brazilian Portuguese for a metropolitan area is Região Metropolitana. Others metropolises in Brazil with more than one million inhabitants include: Belém, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Campinas, Curitiba, Feira de Santana, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, and Salvador.

Canada

Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour
Toronto is Canada's largest city.

The City of Toronto has a population of 2.7 million while The Greater Toronto Area is Canada's most urbanized region with a population of over 6 million people. It is also the heart of Canada's finance and banking industry, a global travel hub, and is of major national and global political importance. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core where the urban core has a population of at least 100,000.[8] Canada's largest metropoles are Toronto, Ontario, Montreal, Quebec and Vancouver, British Columbia.

Chile

The primary metropolis in Chile is Santiago, with a population of 7 million in the metropolitan area. Santiago is the main political, financial, industrial, commercial, and cultural hub of Chile.

Colombia

In Colombia, Bogotá is the main metropolis with over 13 million inhabitants residing in its Metropolitan Area, which includes boroughs like Soacha, Mosquera, Cota, and Chía. The second metropolis in Colombia is Medellín, which includes such boroughs as Envigado, Itagüi, La Estrella, and Sabaneta. This metropolitan area is known for having the first and only Metro in Colombia, the Medellín Metro. Bogotá has the Transmilenio, a Rapid Transit Metro-bus system.

Mexico

In Mexico, the term metropolis is used to refer to an urban area of economic, political, and cultural importance. Mexico City represents all three factors as it is the country's capital and financial center with 27 million people. Other metropolises are Monterrey and Guadalajara, both metropolitan areas with a population over 6,000,000 inhabitants.

Peru

The Lima metropolitan area is Peru's capital and largest city with over 10 million inhabitants, more than one third of the total national population.

United States

Top of Rock Cropped
New York City is the largest city in the U.S.

In the United States, an incorporated area or group of areas having a population more than 50,000 is required to have a metropolitan planning organization in order to facilitate major infrastructure projects and to ensure financial solvency. Thus, a population of 50,000 or greater has been used as a de facto standard to define a metropolis in the United States. A similar definition is used by the United States Census Bureau. The bureau defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area as "at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants." The ten largest metropolitan cities in the USA are New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Phoenix, San Diego, and Dallas , with New York City being the largest.

Asia

Afghanistan

The capital city, Kabul, has grown to become the country's sole metropolis, and is the only city with more than one million people.[9]

Bangladesh

GulshanDhaka
Dhaka is Bangladesh's largest city

In the People's Republic of Bangladesh, there are eleven metropolitan areas: Dhaka North, Dhaka South, Gazipur, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Sylhet, Barisal, and Rangpur. Lands are highly priced and residents are considered to have a better urban lifestyle. Special police departments are allotted for the metropolitan cities, and there are city corporations for which mayors are elected for five-year regimes. Most of these cities have population density of 35,000/square mile or more. Dhaka is considered a mega city because its population surpasses 10 million.[10]

India

Mumbai night water
Mumbai is India's largest city

As of the 2011 Indian census, there are 53 urban agglomerations with a population of one million or more. The top-ten metropolitan areas based on their population are Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Patna , Ahmedabad, Pune, Visakhapatnam, Surat . Other important cities include Kanpur, Nagpur, Indore, Lucknow, Jaipur etc. The Census Commission defines the qualification for metropolitan city as, "the cities having a population of more than 1 million (one million) and above" and Megacity as, "the cities having a population of more than 10 million and above".[11]

Indonesia

WsaragihJakarta
Jakarta, the largest and busiest city in Indonesia

In Indonesia, the metropolitan cities are in Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi), the biggest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia and the fifth metropolitan area in the world (2007). The other cities are Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang and Medan.

Iran

North of Tehran Skyline view
Tehran is Iran's largest city

In Iran, the metropolitan cities are in Tehran and Mashhad and other cities such as Shiraz, Karaj, Isfahan, Tabriz and Ahvaz.

Japan

2019 Tokyo Tower at night 02

Tokyo - The most populous metropolitan area in Japan.

Nakanoshima, Osaka in 201504

Skyline of Osaka metropolis

Meieki from Heiwa Park Aqua Tower

Nagoya is The largest industrial city in Japan.

The Japanese legal term to (都) is by designation to be translated as "metropolis".[12] however existing translations predate the designation. Structured like a prefecture instead of a normal city, there is only one to in Japan, namely Tokyo. As of 2008, Japan has 11 other cities with populations greater than one million. The same Kanji character in Chinese, or in generic Japanese (traditional or non-specific), translates variously—city, municipality, special municipality—all qualify.

Kazakhstan

In Kazakhstan, Almaty is the largest city whilst the capital Astana is the second largest, both having populations of over one million each.

Lebanon

Beirut, Sidon, and Tripoli are three of the main metropolitan areas along the Lebanese coast. Most of Lebanon's metropolitan areas and biggest cities are situated along the coast.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, the major metropolitan cities are Karachi , Gawadar , Lahore, Faislabad, Multan, the twin cities of capital Islamabad and Rawalpindi.

Philippines

Ortigas Tonight
Metro Manila, the most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines

The Philippines has three metropolises as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority. They are Manila, Cebu, and Davao[13]

Metropolitan Manila, or Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the city of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines. It is composed of 17 cities namely Manila, Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Pasig, Parañaque, Quezon City, San Juan, Taguig, Valenzuela and Pateros. The region is the political, economic, social, cultural, and educational center of the Philippines. As proclaimed by Presidential Decree No. 940, Metro Manila as a whole is the Philippines' seat of government but the city of Manila is the capital. The largest city in the metropolis is Quezon City, while the largest business district is the Makati Central Business District.

Republic of China (Taiwan)

Taipei skyline cityscape at night with full moon

Taipei - the most populous metropolitan area in Taiwan.

Kaohsiung Skyline

Skyline of Kaohsiung metropolis

台中七期 (cropped)

Skyline of Taichung metropolis

Taipei, the largest city in the Republic of China (Taiwan), is the political, economic, and cultural center of the Taiwanese. The Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area consists of 4 administrative regions (Taipei, New Taipei, Keelung, and Taoyuan) with more than 9 million people inhabited.[14]

The second largest metropolis in Taiwan is Kaohsiung, which is both the economic and cultural center of southern Taiwan with the largest sea port in Taiwan – the Kaohsiung Port and the second busiest international airport in Taiwan – Kaohsiung International Airport. It has a population of nearly 3 million inhabitants.[15]

Singapore

The Republic of Singapore is a sovereign city-state and a metropolis.

South Korea

In the Republic of Korea there are seven special and metropolitan cities at autonomous administrative levels. These are the most populous metropolitan areas in the country. In decreasing order of the population of 2015 census, they are Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju and Ulsan.

According to the census of 2015, cities of Changwon and Suwon also qualify for being elevated to the level of metropolitan cities (having population over 1 million), but any future plans to promote them into metropolitan city are unlikely to be accepted because of political concerns about the structure of administrative divisions. There are also some county-level cities with increasing population near 1 million, namely Goyang, Yongin, and Seongnam, but they are also unlikely to be promoted into metropolitan city because they are all satellite cities of Seoul.

Sri Lanka

The City of Colombo is the largest city in Sri Lanka. The Colombo Metropolitan Area is Sri Lanka's most urbanized region with a population of over 5 million people.[16][17][18][19]

United Arab Emirates

There are 8 metropolises in the UAE: Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Al Ain, Ajman, Ras Al-Khaimah, Fujairah and Umm Al-Quwain. Of these, Dubai is the largest.[20]

Uzbekistan

Tashkent is Uzbekistan's most populous city and the only with over one million residents.

Europe

Czech Republic

Prague is the Czech Republic's only metropolis, with more than 1.3 million people living within the city limits and with more than 2.6 million living in its metropolitan area. This makes the Prague metropolitan area one of largest in Europe.[21]

Denmark

In Denmark the only metropolis is the capital, Copenhagen, situated in the Capital Region of Denmark. It has more than 750,000 people living in city proper and 1.28 million in its urban area.[22]

Finland

Finland's capital, Helsinki, along with the neighboring areas forms a metropolitan area with an approximate population of 1.45 million people. This area is the only metropolis in the country.

France

A 2014 law allowed any group of communes to cooperate in a larger administrative division called a métropole. One métropole, Lyon, also has status as a department.

France's national statistics institute, Insee, designates 12 of the country's urban areas as metropolitan areas. Paris, Lyon and Marseille are the biggest, the other nine being Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, Nice, Nantes, Strasbourg, Rennes, Grenoble and Montpellier.[23]

Germany

Über den Dächern von Berlin

Berlin is Germany's largest city.

Dortmund Centrum

Rhine-Ruhr is Germany's largest metropolis (the photo shows Dortmund).

Frankfurt Skyline at night (Unsplash)

Frankfurt is one of Germany's most important cities.

The largest German city by administrative borders is Berlin, while Rhine-Ruhr is the largest metropolitan area (with more than 10 million people). The importance of a city is measured with three groups of indicators, also called metropolitan functions: The decision making and control function, the innovation and competition function, and the gateway function. These functions are seen as key domains for metropolitan regions in developing their performance.

In spatial planning, a metropolis is usually observed within its regional context, thus the focus is mainly set on the metropolitan regions. These regions can be mono central or multi central. Eleven metropolitan regions have been defined due to these indicators: Berlin-Brandenburg, Bremen-Oldenburg, Dresden-Halle-Leipzig, Frankfurt-Rhine-Main, Hamburg, Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg, Munich, Nuremberg, Rhine-Neckar, Rhine-Ruhr (with Cologne/Bonn), and Stuttgart.[24]

Hungary

Budapest has a population of 1 750 000, more than eight times the population of the second largest city, Debrecen.

Italy

As of January 1, 2015, there are 14 "metropolitan cities" in Italy. Rome, Milan, Naples and other big cores have taken in urban zones from their surrounding areas and merged them into the new entities, which have been home for one out of three Italians. The provinces remained in the parts of the country not belonging to any Città Metropolitana.[25]

Poland

Warszawa - widok z góry śmieciowej Radiowo
Warsaw, the capital and largest city of Poland

The Union of Polish Metropoles (Polish: Unia Metropolii Polskich), established in 1990, is an organization of the largest cities in the country. Currently twelve cities are members of the organization, of which 11 have more than a quarter-million inhabitants. The largest metropolitan area in Poland, if ranked solely by the number of inhabitants, is the Silesian Metropolis (in fact a metroplex), with around 3 million inhabitants (5 million inhabitants in the Silesian metropolitan area), followed by Warsaw, with around 1.7 million inhabitants in the city proper and 3.1 million in the Warsaw metropolitan area. The Silesian Metropolis is an initiative of recent years attempting to unite a large conurbation into one official urban unit. Other Polish metropoles are Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Tricity, Szczecin and Bydgoszcz.

Spain

Spain has around 15 metropolitan areas with a population greater than 500,000 people. The largest metropoles with populations greater than a million people are Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Sevilla.

Romania

Romania has one big metropolis, Bucharest with a population greater than 2,500,000 people. Other metropolitan areas with populations greater than a half million people are Cluj-Napoca, Iasi, Timisoara, Brasov, Constanta and Craiova.

Turkey

In Turkey the metropolitan cities are described as "büyükşehir". There are 30 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey now. The largest by far is İstanbul, followed by Ankara, İzmir and Bursa.

United Kingdom

City of London skyline from London City Hall - Oct 2008
London is the largest city in the UK

In the UK, the term the Metropolis was used to refer to London, or the London conurbation. The term is retained by the London police force, the Metropolitan Police Service (the "Met"). The chief officer of the Metropolitan Police is formally known as the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. Since 1974 six conurbations (outside London) have been known as metropolitan counties, each divided into metropolitan districts. Other conurbations in the United Kingdom are also sometimes considered to be metropolitan areas, most notably the West Midlands (centred on the city of Birmingham), West Yorkshire (centred on the city of Leeds), Merseyside (centred on the city of Liverpool),Greater Manchester and Greater Glasgow which make up the most densely populated areas in the British Isles outside London.

Oceania

Australia

Sydney Opera house 3
Sydney is Australia's largest city and metropolis

The Government of Australia defines a metropolitan area as any statistical division or district with a population of more than 100,000.[26] According to this definition, there are at least 16 metropolitan areas in Australia, including every state capital. By population the largest of these metropolitan areas is Sydney (urban area population at 2016 Census of 5,029,768) and the smallest is Darwin, Northern Territory (Urban area population at 2016 census of 145,916).[27]

Metropolis as a mainland area

In France, Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands, the word metropolis (métropole (Fr.) / metrópole (Port.) / metrópoli (Spa.) / metropool (Dutch)) designates the mainland part of a country situated on or close to the European mainland; in the case of France, this means France without its overseas departments. For Portugal and Spain during the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire period, the term was used to designate Portugal or Spain minus its colonies (the Ultramar). In France métropole can also be used to refer to a large urban agglomeration; for example, "La Métropole de Lyon" (the Lyon Metropolis).

See also

Other city types
Lists
Planning theories
Other

References

  1. ^ Keri Blakinger (March 8, 2016). "From Gotham to Metropolis: A look at NYC's best nicknames". Daily News. New York. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  2. ^ "Definition of Metropolis". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  3. ^ "Definition of metropolis". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  4. ^ Prof. Dr. Iris Reuther (FG Stadt- und Regionalplanung, Universität Kassel): Presentation "Regiopole Rostock". December 11, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2009 (pdf).
  5. ^ "metropolis, n." OED Online, Oxford University Press, June 2017, www.oed.com/view/Entry/117704. Retrieved December 19, 2017; "polis, n.2." OED Online, Oxford University Press, June 2017, www.oed.com/view/Entry/146859. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  6. ^ "Censo 2010. Resultados provisionales: cuadros y gráficos" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  7. ^ "About Buenos Aires". EnjoyBA. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  8. ^ "census metropolitan area (cma) and census agglomeration (ca), 2001 census". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  9. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/kabul-present-day-2014-3?IR=T
  10. ^ "South Asia – World Population Day – July 11(South Asia Urban Growth)". World Bank. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  11. ^ "Population of UAs/Towns" (pdf). he Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. p. 3. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  12. ^ "Local Government in Japan" (PDF). Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. p. 41. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2007.
  13. ^ "Philippine Development Plan 2017–2022, Chapter 3: An overlay of economic growth, demographic trends and physical characteristics" (PDF). National Economic and Development Authority. 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  14. ^ 鄉鎮市區人口及按都會區統計. Taiwan Ministry of Interior. 2013.
  15. ^ "高雄市政府主計處全球資訊網 – 首頁". dbaskmg.kcg.gov.tw (in Chinese). Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  16. ^ Kumarage A, Amal. "Impacts of Transportation Infrastructure and Services on Urban Poverty and Land Development in Colombo, Sri Lanka" (PDF). November 1, 2007. Global Urban Development Volume 3 Issue 1. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  17. ^ "The 10 Traits of Globally Fluent Metro Areas" (PDF). 2013. Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  18. ^ "Colombo: The Heartbeat of Sri Lanka/ Metro Colombo Urban Development Project". March 21, 2013. The World Bank. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  19. ^ "Turning Sri Lanka's Urban Vision into Policy and Action" (PDF). 2012. UN Habitat, Chapter 1, Page 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  20. ^ "United Arab Emirates: metropolitan areas". World-gazetteer.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  21. ^ "Database – Eurostat". European Commission. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  22. ^ "Statistikbanken". statistikbanken.dk. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  23. ^ Brutel, Chantal (January 18, 2011). "Un maillage du territoire français" [A network of French territory] (in French). Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques.
  24. ^ "Initiativkreise Europäische Metropolregion in Deutschland: IKM". Deutsche-metropolregionen.org. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  25. ^ "How Italy puts cities in charge".
  26. ^ "1217.0.55.001 – Glossary of Statistical Geography Terminology, 2003". Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  27. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Media Release – Ten years of growth: Australia's population hotspots (Media Release)". abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2018.

Further reading

Church of Greece

The Church of Greece (Greek: Ἐκκλησία τῆς Ἑλλάδος, Ekklisía tis Elládos [ekliˈsia tis eˈlaðos]), part of the wider Greek Orthodox Church, is one of the autocephalous churches which make up the communion of Orthodox Christianity. Its canonical territory is confined to the borders of Greece prior to the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 ("Old Greece"), with the rest of Greece (the "New Lands", Crete, and the Dodecanese) being subject to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. However, most of the dioceses of the Metropolises of the New Lands are de facto administered as part of the Church of Greece for practical reasons, under an agreement between the churches of Athens and Constantinople. The primate of the Church of Greece is the Archbishop of Athens and All Greece.

Daily Planet

The Daily Planet is a fictional broadsheet newspaper appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly in association with Superman. The newspaper was first mentioned in Action Comics #23 (April 1940). The Daily Planet building's most distinguishing and famous feature is the enormous globe that sits on top of the building.

The newspaper is based in the fictional city of Metropolis, and employs Clark Kent, Lois Lane, and Jimmy Olsen, with Perry White as its editor-in-chief. The building's original features appear to be based upon the Old Toronto Star Building, where Superman co-creator Joe Shuster was a newsboy when the Toronto Star was still called the Daily Star. Shuster has claimed that Metropolis was visually inspired by Toronto. However, over the years, Metropolis has served as a fictional analogue to New York City.

Ecclesiastical province

An ecclesiastical province is one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. In general, an ecclesiastical province consists of several dioceses (or eparchies), one of them being the archdiocese (or archeparchy), headed by metropolitan bishop or archbishop who has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over all other bishops of the province.

In the Greco-Roman world, ecclesia (Greek ἐκκλησίᾱ, ekklēsiā (Latin ecclesia) meaning "congregation, church") was used to refer to a lawful assembly, or a called legislative body. As early as Pythagoras, the word took on the additional meaning of a community with shared beliefs. This is the meaning taken in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Septuagint), and later adopted by the Christian community to refer to the assembly of believers.In the history of Western world (sometimes more precisely as Greco-Roman world) adopted by the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, Christian ecclesiastical provinces were named by analogy with the secular Roman province as well as certain extraterritorial formations of western world in early medieval times (see Early Middle Ages). The administrative seat of each province is an episcopal see. In hierarchical Christian churches that have dioceses, a province is a collection of those dioceses (as a basic unit of administration).

Over the years certain provinces adopted the status of metropolis and have a certain degree of self-rule. A bishop of such province is called the metropolitan bishop or metropolitan. The Catholic Church (both Latin and Eastern Catholic), the Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion all have provinces. These provinces are led by a metropolitan archbishop.

Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Greek: Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, IPA: [ikumeniˈkon patriarˈçion konstandinuˈpoleos]; Latin: Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Turkish: Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fifteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, currently Bartholomew I, Archbishop of Constantinople.

Because of its historical location as the capital of the former Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and its role as the Mother Church of most modern Orthodox churches, Constantinople holds a special place of honor within Orthodoxy and serves as the seat for the Ecumenical Patriarch, who enjoys the status of Primus inter pares (first among equals) among the world's Eastern Orthodox prelates and is regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the world's 300 million Orthodox Christians.The Ecumenical Patriarchate promotes the expansion of the Christian faith and Orthodox doctrine, and the Ecumenical Patriarchs are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, and the defense of Orthodox Christian traditions. Prominent issues in the Ecumenical Patriarchate's policy in the 21st century include the safety of the believers in the Middle East, reconciliation of the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, and the reopening of the Theological School of Halki which was closed down by the Turkish authorities in 1971.

Greater Tokyo Area

The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, consisting of the Kantō region of Japan, including Tokyo Metropolis, as well as the prefecture of Yamanashi of the neighboring Chūbu region. In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, one of the most common being Capital Region (首都圏, Shuto-ken).

A 2016 United Nations estimate puts the total population at 38,140,000. It covers an area of approximately 13,500 km2 (5,200 mi2), giving it a population density of 2,642 person/km2. It is the second largest single metropolitan area in the world in terms of built-up or urban function landmass at 8,547 km2 (3,300 mi2), behind only New York City at 11,642 km2 (4,495 mi2).The area has the largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a total GDP (nominal) of approximately $2 trillion (¥165 trillion) in 2008. According to research published by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the agglomeration of Tokyo had a total GDP of $1.5 trillion in 2008 (at purchasing power parity), ranking again as the largest urban agglomeration GDP in the world.

Janelle Monáe

Janelle Monáe Robinson (; born December 1, 1985) is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, actress and producer signed to Atlantic Records, as well as her own imprint, the Wondaland Arts Society.

Monáe's musical career began in 2003 when she released an unofficial demo album titled The Audition. In 2007, she publicly debuted with a conceptual EP titled Metropolis: Suite I (The Chase). It peaked at number two on the US Top Heatseekers chart, and in 2010, through Bad Boy Records, Monáe released her first full-length studio album, The ArchAndroid, a concept album and sequel to her first EP.In 2011, Monáe was featured as a guest vocalist on fun.'s single "We Are Young", which achieved major commercial success, topping the charts of over ten countries and garnering Monáe a wider audience. Her second studio album, The Electric Lady, was released in 2013 and debuted at number five on the Billboard 200 chart, serving as the fourth and fifth installments of her seven-part Metropolis concept series.In 2016, Monáe made her theatrical film debut in two high profile productions; she starred in Hidden Figures as NASA mathematician and aerospace engineer Mary Jackson and also starred in Moonlight. Hidden Figures was a box office success, while Moonlight won the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 89th annual ceremony.

Monáe's third studio album, Dirty Computer, also described as a concept album, was released in 2018 to widespread critical acclaim; it was chosen as the best album of the year by several publications and earned Monáe two nominations at the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. The album peaked at number six on the Billboard 200 and was further promoted by Monáe's Dirty Computer Tour, which lasted from June–August 2018.Throughout her career, Monáe has received eight Grammy Award nominations. She won a MTV Video Music Award and the ASCAP Vanguard Award in 2010. She was also honored with the Billboard Women in Music Rising Star Award in 2015 and the Trailblazer of the Year Award in 2018. In 2012, she became a CoverGirl spokeswoman. Boston City Council named October 16, 2013 "Janelle Monáe Day" in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, in recognition of her artistry and social leadership.

Metropolis, Illinois

Metropolis is a city located along the Ohio River in Massac County, Illinois, United States. It has a population of 6,465 according to the 2013 estimate of the United States Census Bureau. Metropolis is the county seat of Massac County and is part of the Paducah, KY-IL Micropolitan Statistical Area in Southern Illinois.

Metropolis (1927 film)

Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang. Written by Thea von Harbou in collaboration with Lang, it stars Gustav Fröhlich, Alfred Abel, Rudolf Klein-Rogge and Brigitte Helm. Erich Pommer produced it in the Babelsberg Studios for Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The silent film is regarded as a pioneering science-fiction movie, being among the first feature-length movies of that genre. Filming took place over 17 months in 1925–26 at a cost of more than five million Reichsmarks.Made in Germany during the Weimar period, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and follows the attempts of Freder, the wealthy son of the city master, and Maria, a saintly figure to the workers, to overcome the vast gulf separating the classes in their city and bring the workers together with Joh Fredersen, the city master. The film's message is encompassed in the final inter-title: "The Mediator Between the Head and the Hands Must Be the Heart".

Metropolis met a mixed reception upon release. Critics found it pictorially beautiful and visually powerful—the film's art direction by Otto Hunte, Erich Kettelhut and Kurt Vollbrecht draws influence from Bauhaus, Cubist and Futurist design, along with touches of the Gothic in the scenes in the catacombs, the cathedral and Rotwang's house—and lauded its complex special effects, but accused its story of naivete. H. G. Wells described the film as "silly", and The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction calls the film's story "trite" and its politics "ludicrously simplistic". The film's alleged Communist message was also criticized.The film's extensive running time also came in for criticism, and Metropolis was cut substantially after its German premiere, with a large portion of Lang's original footage removed. Many attempts have been made since the 1970s to restore the film. In 1984, Italian music producer Giorgio Moroder released a truncated version with a soundtrack by rock artists including Freddie Mercury, Loverboy and Adam Ant. In 2001 a new reconstruction of Metropolis was shown at the Berlin Film Festival. In 2008 a damaged print of Lang's original cut of the film was found in a museum in Argentina. After a long restoration process that required additional materials provided by a print from New Zealand, the film was 95% restored and shown on large screens in Berlin and Frankfurt simultaneously on 12 February 2010.

In 2001, the film was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, the first film thus distinguished.

Metropolis (2001 film)

Metropolis (メトロポリス, Metoroporisu) is a 2001 Japanese science-fiction anime action film loosely based on the 1949 Metropolis manga created by Osamu Tezuka, itself inspired by the 1927 German silent film of the same name, though the two do not share plot elements. The anime, however, does draw aspects of its storyline directly from the 1927 film. (Also, Toho-Towa Distribution, the foreign film distribution division of the anime's distributor, Toho, has handled distribution of the 1927 film in Japan.) The film was directed by Rintaro, written by Katsuhiro Otomo and produced by Madhouse with conceptual support from Tezuka Productions.

Metropolis (Anatolia)

The classical city of Metropolis (Ancient Greek: Μητρόπολις) is situated in western Turkey near Yeniköy village in Torbali municipality - approximately 40 km SE of Izmir. Occupation at the site goes back to the Neolithic period. The Hittite period is also attested.Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods are well represented at the site.

Metropolis (comics)

Metropolis is a fictional city appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, best known as the home of Superman. First appearing by name in Action Comics #16 (Sept. 1939), Metropolis is depicted as a prosperous and massive city in the Northeastern United States, within close proximity to Gotham City.

The co-creator and original artist of Superman, Joe Shuster, modeled the Metropolis skyline after Toronto, where he was born and lived until he was ten. Since then, however, the look and feel of Metropolis has been greatly influenced by New York City.Within the DC Universe, Metropolis is depicted as being one of the largest and wealthiest cities in the world, having a population of 11 million citizens.In addition to Superman, the city is also home to other superheroes, such as Booster Gold and Blue Beetle.

Metropolis (religious jurisdiction)

A metropolis religious jurisdiction, or a metropolitan archdiocese, is an episcopal see whose bishop is the metropolitan bishop of an ecclesiastical province. Metropolises, historically, have been important cities in their provinces.

Metropolis Records

Metropolis Records was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1993. The label releases material in the electro-industrial, synthpop, future pop, darkwave, and gothic music genres, although it is open to releasing any genre of dark alternative music, whether electronic-based or post-punk.

In 1993, Dave Heckman formed Metropolis Records, and started the process of building a roster and partnerships with bands and labels overseas. The label's first releases were issued in May 1994. These albums were "Teignmouth" and "Mental Traveller" by Love Is Colder Than Death, "Revelations 23" by Mentallo and the Fixer, and "Bioculture" by Electro Assassin. Almost immediately, the company was able to expand past simply licensing albums from overseas partners, with the thirteenth release, Mentallo And The Fixer's "Continuum", being the first direct signing by Metropolis. Early releases were by Lassigue Bendthaus, Numb, and Evil's Toy.

In 1995, Metropolis signed industrial act Front Line Assembly. A distribution deal with Caroline Distribution made it possible to get releases into national chain stores like Borders and Tower Records.

Better-known bands Project Pitchfork, Die Form, and cEvin Key (of Skinny Puppy) were released alongside lesser-known acts. Metropolis was involved in the coproduction of 1997's Dark Harvest III concert in Philadelphia, which featured The Sisters Of Mercy in the US for a one night only performance.

Metropolis celebrated its 100th release by the issuing of Re:Boot, a live album from EBM group Front 242.

At the end of the 1990s and in the early 2000s Metropolis issued material by VNV Nation "Empires", Apoptygma Berzerk "Welcome to Earth", Icon of Coil - "Serenity Is the Devil" and Covenant – "United States of Mind". In other types of music, the label released albums by Wumpscut, Haujobb, Das Ich, Suicide Commando, Clan Of Xymox, Juno Reactor, Wolfsheim, London After Midnight, a newly reformed KMFDM, and both an album and DVD by Bauhaus.

Over the next few years, Metropolis continued to expand, signing bands such as The Birthday Massacre, Electric Six, Juno Reactor, IAMX and Gary Numan, as well as the label's top selling album to date, "You'll Rebel to Anything" by Mindless Self Indulgence. 2010 saw Metropolis Records join forces with long-time supporter and friend Jim Semonik to release his "Electronic Saviors: Industrial Music to Cure Cancer" series, a set wherein bands from all over the world donate tracks. To date, the compilations have raised over $30,000 for cancer charities such as Gilda's Club.

Recent additions include the electronic pop singer Alison Moyet and Skinny Puppy.

Metropolis Records has expand ts output to include releases from punk to ambient experimental, rock, trance, electronic industrial, goth rock, and others.

Plainfield, Indiana

Plainfield is a town in Guilford, Liberty, and Washington townships, Hendricks County, Indiana, United States. The population was 27,631 at the 2010 census, and in 2017 the estimated population was 32,865.

Superman

Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books.Ever since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El. As a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside; he was found and adopted by farmers Jonathan and Martha Kent near the small town of Smallville, who named him Clark Kent. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin. His foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, and he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there. Commonly depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, and Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as his classic enduring archenemy, the genius inventor Lex Luthor. He is a friend of many other superheroes in the DC Universe, such as Batman and Wonder Woman.

Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions. He remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises even outside of comic books. He is generally regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time.

The Miami News

The Miami News was an evening newspaper in Miami, Florida. It was the media market competitor to the morning edition of the Miami Herald for most of the 20th century. The paper started publishing in May 1896 as a weekly called The Miami Metropolis.

The Metropolis had become a daily (except Sunday) paper of eight pages by 1903. On June 4, 1923, former Ohio governor James M. Cox bought the Metropolis and renamed it the Miami Daily News-Metropolis. On January 4, 1925 the newspaper became the Miami Daily News, and published its first Sunday edition.Cox had a new building erected for the newspaper, and the Miami News Tower was dedicated on July 25, 1925. This building later became famous as the Freedom Tower. Also on July 25, 1925, the News published a 508 page edition, which still holds the record for the largest page-count for a newspaper.The News was edited by Bill Baggs from 1957 until his death 1969. After that, it was edited by Sylvan Meyer until 1973. Its final editor was Howard Kleinberg, a longtime staffer and author of a comprehensive history of the newspaper. The paper had the distinction of posting its own demise on the final obituary page.

In 1973, the News moved in with the Knight Ridder-owned Herald at One Herald Plaza, sharing production facilities with its morning rival while maintaining a separate editorial staff. A 30-year joint operating agreement inked in 1966 made the Herald responsible for all non-editorial aspects of production, including circulation, advertising and promotion. Citing losses of $9 million per year, declining circulation (from 112,000 in 1966 to 48,000 in 1988 while households in the Dade County area grew 80 percent) and owner Cox Newspapers unable to find a suitable buyer to save the paper, the News ceased publication on December 31, 1988. Some of the newspaper's staff and all of its assets and archives were moved to nearby Cox publication The Palm Beach Post in West Palm Beach. An entire searchable archive of the newspaper is available online via Newspapers.com.A small selection of photographs were donated to the Archives and Research Center of HistoryMiami.Notable former employees include writer Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Dorothy Misener Jurney, journalist and author Helen Muir, Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Don Wright, Boston Globe columnist Adrian Walker, photographer Michael O'Brien, columnist John Keasler and best-selling author Dary Matera, who served as a general assignment reporter from 1977 until 1982.

Tokyo

Tokyo (東京, Tōkyō, English: , Japanese: [toːkʲoː] (listen); lit. "Eastern Capital"), officially Tokyo Metropolis (東京都, Tōkyō-to), one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island, Honshu, and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was formerly named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. It became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu) and the city of Tokyo (東京市, Tōkyō-shi). Tokyo is often referred to as a city but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo.

The 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were formerly Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, and the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo. The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. As of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third (twice) in the International Financial Centres Development Index. The city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System.

Tokyo ranks first in the Global Economic Power Index and third in the Global Cities Index. The GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category (the city also ranked first in the following categories: "helpfulness of locals", "nightlife", "shopping", "local public transportation" and "cleanliness of streets"). As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm. and also the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index. The QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018.

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.

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