Metacritic is a website that aggregates reviews of media products: films, TV shows, music albums, video games, and formerly, books. For each product, the scores from each review are averaged (a weighted average). Metacritic was created by Jason Dietz, Marc Doyle, and Julie Doyle Roberts in 1999. The site provides an excerpt from each review and hyperlinks to its source. A color of green, yellow or red summarizes the critics' recommendations. It has been described as the video game industry's "premier" review aggregator.
Metacritic's scoring converts each review into a percentage, either mathematically from the mark given, or which the site decides subjectively from a qualitative review. Before being averaged, the scores are weighted according to the critic's fame, stature, and volume of reviews.
Type of site
|Alexa rank||1,222 (June 2018)|
|Launched||July 16, 1999|
Metacritic was launched in January 2001 by Marc Doyle, his sister Julie Doyle Roberts, and a classmate from the University of Southern California law school, Jason Dietz, after two years of developing the site. Rotten Tomatoes was already compiling movie reviews, but Doyle, Roberts and Dietz saw an opportunity to cover a broader range of media. They sold Metacritic to CNET in 2005. CNET and Metacritic were later acquired by the CBS Corporation.
In August 2010, the website's appearance was revamped. In June 2018, the website introduced the 'Metacritic: Must-See' label for films that attain scores of 81% or more, with at least 15 professional reviews for the given film. In September 2018, it added the 'Metacritic: Must-Play' certification for video games attaining a score of 90% or more, and a minimum number of 15 reviews from industry professionals.
Scores are weighted averages. Certain publications are given more significance "because of their stature". Metacritic has said that it will not reveal the relative weight assigned to each reviewer.
Games Editor Marc Doyle was interviewed by Keith Stuart of The Guardian to "get a look behind the metascoring process". Stuart wrote: "The metascore phenomenon, namely Metacritic and GameRankings, have become an enormously important element of online games journalism over the past few years". Doyle said that because video games lead to a greater investment of time and money, gamers are more informed about reviews than are fans of film or music; they want to know "whether that hotly anticipated title is going to deliver".
The rating indication of metascores is:
|Generally favorable reviews||75–89||61–80|
|Mixed or average reviews||50–74||40–60|
|Generally unfavorable reviews||20–49||20–39|
Nick Wingfield of The Wall Street Journal has written that Metacritic "influence[s] the sales of games and the stocks of video game publishers". He explains its influence as coming from the higher cost of buying video games than music or movie tickets. Many executives say that low scores "can hurt the long-term sales potential". Wingfield wrote that Wall Street pays attention to Metacritic and GameRankings because the sites typically post scores before sales data are publicly available, citing the respective rapid rise and fall in company values after BioShock and Spider-Man 3 were released.
In an interview with The Guardian, Marc Doyle cited "two major publishers" that "conducted comprehensive statistical surveys through which they've been able to draw a correlation between high metascores and stronger sales" in certain genres. He claimed that an increasing number of businesses and financial analysts use Metacritic as "an early indicator of a game's potential sales and, by extension, the publisher's stock price".
In 2004, Jason Hall and Marcus Johnson of Warner Bros. began "including 'quality metrics' in contracts with partners licensing its movies for games": if a product does not at least achieve a specific score, some deals require the publisher to pay higher royalties.
Some game reviewers take issue with the way Metacritic assigns scores. When a reviewer gives a rating of "A", Metacritic assigns it a value of 100, and for "F" a value of zero; some think a score of 50 would be more appropriate. For a "B–", Metacritic assigns a value of 67, yet some publishers, developers, and websurfers believe it should be closer to 80, in line with the conversion often used in the US education system. Joe Dodson, former editor at Game Revolution, criticized Metacritic and similar sites for turning reviews into scores that are too low. However, Doyle responded: "I feel that ANY scale simply needs to be converted directly with its lowest possible grade equating to 0, and the highest to 100".
Doyle said that some publishers want him to include extra critics, and exclude others, usually because they have given a poor review. Another common complaint from US publishers is that British critics should not be reviewing games that are based on American sports like the NFL, NASCAR, or the NBA. Doyle said: "Conversely, many European publishers feel that American critics are not qualified or properly situated to review football, rally, F1, cricket, and rugby games...once I've decided to track a publication, I cannot pick and choose which reviews I list on Metacritic based on such individual judgments".
Publishers often try to persuade Doyle to exclude reviews they feel are unfair, but he said that once a publication is included, he refuses to omit any of its reviews. A Washington Post review of Uncharted 4 was assigned with a rating of 40/100 by Metacritic; this was the only "negative" review of the game. Gamers who did not like the review petitioned Metacritic to remove the Post as a trusted source.
As a result of its perceived negative influence on the industry, several reviewing sites, including Kotaku and Eurogamer, have dropped numerical reviews that would appear in Metacritic, instead favoring a qualitative assessment of a game.
Metacritic has been criticized for how it handles banning users and their reviews, with no notice or formal process for appeal. Critics and developers have pointed out the website's lack of personal management along with its automatic systems, since a video game can be review bombed with low ratings to damage its reputation. In the same respect, a game can be given multiple 10 ratings by throwaway accounts to make it appear more popular than it actually is. Signal Studios president and creative director Douglas Albright described the website as having "no standards".
Metacritic lists over 9,000 films ranked by aggregate score on a Marcus rating scale.
Assassin's Creed is an action-adventure stealth video game franchise created by Patrice Désilets, Jade Raymond and Corey May, developed and published by Ubisoft using the game engine Anvil Next. It depicts in the centuries-old struggle, now and then, between the Assassins, who fight for peace with free will, and the Templars, who desire peace through control. The series features historical fiction, science fiction and characters, intertwined with real-world historical events and figures. For the majority of time players would control an Assassin in the past history, while they also play as Desmond Miles or an Assassin Initiate in the present day, who hunt down their Templar targets.
The video game series took inspiration from the novel Alamut by the Slovenian writer Vladimir Bartol, while building upon concepts from the Prince of Persia series. It begins with the self-titled game in 2007, and has featured eleven main games. The most recent released game is 2018's Assassin's Creed Odyssey.
A new story and time period are introduced in each entry, and gameplay elements evolve from the previous one. There are three story arcs in the series. For the first five main games, the framing story is set in 2012 and features series protagonist Desmond Miles who uses a machine called the Animus and relives the memories of his ancestors to find a way to avert the 2012 apocalypse. In games till Assassin's Creed Syndicate, Abstergo employees and Assassin initiates recorded genetic memories using the Helix software, helping the Templars and Assassins find new Pieces of Eden in the modern world. The latest two games, Assassin's Creed Origins and Assassin's Creed Odyssey follow ex-Abstergo employee Layla Hassan as she is recruited into the Assassin's Creed.
Main games of Assassin's Creed are set in an open world and presented from the third-person perspective where the protagonists take down targets using their combat and stealth skills with the exploitation of the environment. Freedom of exploration is given to the player the historical settings to finish main and side quests. Apart from single-player missions, some games also provide competitive and cooperative multiplayer gameplay. While main games are produced for major consoles and desktop platforms, multiple spin-off games were also released in accompany for consoles, mobiles, and handhelds platforms.
The main games in the Assassin's Creed video game series have received generally positive reviews for their ambition in visuals, game design, and narratives, with criticism towards the yearly release cycle and frequent bugs. The spin-off games received mixed to positive reviews. The video game series has received multiple awards and nominations, including Game of the Year awards. It is also commercially successful, selling over 100 million copies as of September 2016, becoming Ubisoft's best-selling franchise and one of the highest selling video game franchises of all time. Assassin's Creed was adapted by its self-titled film, which received negative reviews. A book series of art books, encyclopedias, comics, novelizations, and novels is also published. All of the media take place within the same continuity as the main video game series.Call of Duty
Call of Duty is a first-person shooter video game franchise. Starting out in 2003, it first focused on games set in World War II, but over time, the series has seen games set in modern times, the midst of the Cold War, futuristic worlds, and outer space. Infinity Ward was the series' first developer, with Treyarch later becoming the second, creating a two-team development cycle. Sledgehammer Games later became the third developer in the cycle. Activision has served as the publisher for the series since its creation. Several spin-offs and handheld versions of titles have also been made by other developers. The most recent title, Call of Duty: Black Ops 4, was released on October 12, 2018.
The series originally focused on the World War II setting, with Infinity Ward developing the first (2003) and second (2005) titles in the series and Treyarch developing the third (2006). Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare (2007) introduced a new, modern setting, and proved to be the breakthrough title for the series, creating the Modern Warfare sub-series. The game's legacy also influenced the creation of a remastered version, released in 2016. Two other entries, Modern Warfare 2 (2009) and 3 (2011), were made. Infinity Ward have also developed two games outside of the Modern Warfare sub-series, Ghosts (2013) and Infinite Warfare (2016). Treyarch made one last World War II-based game, World at War (2008), before releasing Black Ops (2010) and subsequently creating the Black Ops sub-series. Three other entries, Black Ops II (2012), III (2015), and 4 (2018), were made. Sledgehammer Games, who were co-developers for Modern Warfare 3, have also developed two titles, Advanced Warfare (2014) and WWII (2017).
As of February 2016, the series has sold over 250 million copies. Sales of all Call of Duty games topped US$15 billion. Other products in the franchise include a line of action figures designed by Plan-B Toys, a card game created by Upper Deck Company, Mega bloks sets by Mega Brands, and a comic book mini-series published by WildStorm Productions.Castlevania
Castlevania () is an action-adventure gothic horror video game series created and developed by Konami. It has been released on various platforms, from early systems to modern consoles, as well as handheld devices such as mobile phones. The franchise has also expanded into other media, including comic books, an animated TV series and several spin-off video games.Castlevania is largely set in the eponymous castle of Count Dracula, the main antagonist of the Belmont clan of vampire hunters. It debuted with 1986's Castlevania for the Family Computer Disk System. The first entry and the majority of its sequels are side-scrolling action platformers, and were later succeeded by the 1997 game, Castlevania: Symphony of the Night. Originally released for the PlayStation, it returned to the nonlinear gameplay seen in Castlevania II: Simon's Quest, which introduced RPG elements and exploration. Several installments later adopted Symphony of the Night's gameplay, and along with Super Metroid, it has popularized the Metroidvania genre. 2010 saw the release of Castlevania: Lords of Shadow, a 3D action-adventure reboot of the series developed by MercurySteam.It is one of Konami's most critically acclaimed franchises and also one of the best-selling of all time.Crash Bandicoot
Crash Bandicoot is a franchise of platform video games. The series was created by Andy Gavin and Jason Rubin during their tenure at Naughty Dog for Universal Interactive Studios and Sony Computer Entertainment; the series was originally exclusive to the PlayStation family of video game consoles. The series has appeared on multiple platforms and gone through various developers and spans numerous genres.
The games are mostly set on the fictitious Wumpa Islands, an archipelago situated to the south of Australia where humans and mutants animals co-exist, although other locations are common. The main games in the series are largely platformers, but several are spin-offs in different genres. The protagonist of the series is an mutant enhanced bandicoot named Crash, whose quiet life on the Wumpa Islands is often interrupted by the games' main antagonist, Doctor Neo Cortex, who created Crash and wants him dead. In most games, Crash must defeat Cortex and foil his plans for world domination.David Fincher
David Andrew Leo Fincher (born August 28, 1962) is an American film director, film producer, television director, television producer, and music video director. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008) and The Social Network (2010). For the latter, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director and the BAFTA Award for Best Direction.
He is also known for having directed Alien 3 in his directorial debut, and most known for films in the thriller genre, including Seven (1995), The Game (1997), Fight Club (1999), Panic Room (2002), Zodiac (2007), The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011) and Gone Girl (2014). He was also instrumental in the creation of the Netflix series House of Cards (2013–2018) and Mindhunter (2017–present).
His films Zodiac and The Social Network are ranked in BBC's 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century.Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto (GTA) is an action-adventure video game series created by David Jones and Mike Dailly; the later titles of which were created by brothers Dan and Sam Houser, Leslie Benzies and Aaron Garbut. It is primarily developed by Rockstar North (formerly DMA Design), and published by Rockstar Games. The name of the series references the term used in the US for motor vehicle theft.
Most games in the series are set in fictional locales modelled on cities, usually either Liberty City, Vice City or San Andreas, which are stand-ins for New York City, Miami and the state of California, respectively. The first game encompassed three fictional cities, while subsequent titles tend to emphasise a single setting. Gameplay focuses on an open world where the player can choose missions to progress an overall story, as well as engaging in side activities, all consisting of action-adventure, driving, third-person shooting, carjacking, occasional role-playing, stealth and racing elements. The series focuses on many different protagonists who attempt to rise through the ranks of the criminal underworld, although their motives for doing so vary in each game. The series also has elements of the earlier beat 'em up games from the 16-bit era. The antagonists are commonly characters who have betrayed the protagonist or his organisation, or characters who have the most impact impeding the protagonist's progress. Film and music veterans have voiced characters, including Ray Liotta, Burt Reynolds, Dennis Hopper, Samuel L. Jackson, James Woods, Debbie Harry, Phil Collins, Axl Rose and Peter Fonda.British video game developer DMA Design began the series in 1997. As of 2014, it has eleven stand-alone games and four expansion packs. The third chronological title, Grand Theft Auto III, is considered a landmark title, as it brought the series to a 3D setting and more immersive experience. Subsequent titles have followed and built upon the concept established in Grand Theft Auto III, and received significant acclaim. They have influenced many other open-world action games, and led to the label Grand Theft Auto clone on similar games.
The series has been critically acclaimed and commercially successful, having shipped more than 250 million units, making it the fourth-highest selling video game franchise of all time, behind Nintendo's Mario and Pokémon franchises, and Tetris. In 2006, Grand Theft Auto was featured in a list of British design icons in the Great British Design Quest organised by the BBC and the Design Museum. In 2013, The Telegraph ranked Grand Theft Auto among Britain's most successful exports. The series has also been controversial for its adult nature and violent themes.List of Walt Disney Animation Studios films
This is a list of films from Walt Disney Animation Studios, an American animation studio headquartered in Burbank, California. It creates animated feature films and is owned by The Walt Disney Company. The studio has produced 57 feature films, beginning with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)—one of the first full-length animated feature films and the first one made in the United States—and most recently Ralph Breaks the Internet (2018). Four feature films are in development, with Frozen 2 on November 22, 2019, and three untitled films set to be released on November 25, 2020, November 24, 2021 and November 23, 2022.List of films based on DC Comics
DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book publishers. It produces material featuring numerous well-known superhero characters, including Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, The Flash, Aquaman, and Green Arrow. Most of this material takes place in a shared fictional universe, which also features teams such as the Justice League, the Suicide Squad, and the Teen Titans. The company has also published non-DC Universe-related material, including V for Vendetta, and many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo.
Film adaptations based on DC Comics properties have included serials, live action and animated films, direct-to-video releases, television films, fan-made films, and documentary films.List of films based on Marvel Comics
Marvel Comics is a publisher of American comic books and related media. It counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Spider-Man, Iron Man, Hulk, Thor, Captain America, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Wolverine, Daredevil and Deadpool, and such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, and the Guardians of the Galaxy. Most of Marvel's fictional characters are depicted as occupying a shared fictional universe, most locations mirroring real-life places. Many major characters are based in New York City.Film adaptations based on Marvel Comics properties have included theatrically released film serials, live action and animated feature films, direct-to-video releases, and television films.Monolith Productions
Monolith Productions is an American video game developer based in Kirkland, Washington.Need for Speed
Need for Speed (NFS) is a racing video game franchise published by Electronic Arts and currently developed by Ghost Games. The series centers around illicit street racing and in general tasks players to complete various types of races while evading the local law enforcement in police pursuits. The series released its first title, The Need for Speed in 1994. The most recent game, Need for Speed Payback, was released on November 10, 2017.The next game which is going to launch in 2019 is,Need for Speed 2019,which will decide the series to move on for future or
Destroy the series by Electronic arts
The series has been overseen and had games developed by multiple notable teams over the years including EA Black Box and Criterion Games, the developers of Burnout. The franchise has been critically well received and is one of the most successful video game franchises of all time, selling over 150 million copies of games. Due to its strong sales, the franchise has expanded into other forms of media including a film adaptation and licensed Hot Wheels toys.Pokémon (video game series)
Pokémon is a series of video games developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo as part of the Pokémon media franchise. First released in 1996 in Japan for the Game Boy, the main series of role-playing video games (RPGs), also referred as the "core series" by their developers, has continued on each generation of Nintendo's handhelds.
The games are commonly released in pairs, each with slight variations, with a remake of the games usually released a few years after the original versions for another console. While the main series consists of RPGs, a big number of spin-off games based on the series have been developed by various companies, encompassing other genres such as action role-playing, puzzle, fighting, and digital pet games.
Including spin-offs, as of November 24, 2017, more than 300 million Pokémon games have been sold worldwide on handheld and home consoles, across 76 titles. This makes Pokémon the second best-selling video game franchise, behind Nintendo's own Mario franchise. In addition, Pokémon Go has crossed 1 billion mobile game downloads worldwide.Resident Evil
Resident Evil, known in Japan as Biohazard, is a media franchise created by Shinji Mikami and Tokuro Fujiwara and owned by the Japanese video game company Capcom. The franchise focuses on a series of survival horror games and includes live-action films, animated films, comic books, novels, audio dramas, and merchandise. The story follows outbreaks of zombies and other monsters created mainly by the Umbrella Corporation.
The first Resident Evil was released in 1996, taking place in a mansion overrun with zombies. The franchise has grown to encompass numerous sequels of various genres, incorporating elements of action, exploration, and puzzle solving, and storylines inspired by horror and action films. Resident Evil is Capcom's best-selling video game franchise, with over 90 million units sold worldwide as of January 28, 2019.Richard Linklater
Richard Stuart Linklater (; born July 30, 1960) is an American filmmaker. Linklater is known for his realistic and natural humanist films, which revolve mainly around suburban culture and the effects of the passage of time. His films include the observational comedy film Slacker (1990); the coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused (1993); the romantic drama film trilogy Before Sunrise (1995), Before Sunset (2004), and Before Midnight (2013); the music-themed comedy School of Rock (2003); Boyhood (2014); and the rotoscope animated films Waking Life (2001) and A Scanner Darkly (2006).
In 2002, he began filming Boyhood, a passion project that took over twelve years to complete. The film was released in 2014 to widespread critical acclaim. In 2015, Linklater was included on the annual Time 100 list of the 100 most influential people in the world.Many of his films are noted for their loosely structured narrative; several of his projects—the Before... films and Boyhood—feature the same actors filmed over an extended period of years.Sonic the Hedgehog
Sonic the Hedgehog is a video game franchise produced by Sega centering on a series of high-speed platform games. Sonic, the protagonist, is an anthropomorphic blue hedgehog with supersonic speed. Typically, Sonic must stop antagonist Doctor Eggman's plans for world domination, often helped by his friends, such as Tails, Amy, and Knuckles.
The first Sonic the Hedgehog game, released in 1991, was conceived by Sega's Sonic Team division after Sega requested a new mascot character to replace Alex Kidd and compete with Nintendo's mascot Mario. Its success spawned many sequels and helped Sega become one of the leading video game companies during the 16-bit era of the early 1990s. The first major 3D Sonic game, Sonic Adventure, was released in 1998 for the Dreamcast. Spin-offs have explored other genres, including racing games such as Sonic R (1997) and sports games such as Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games (2007).
By March 2011, the series had sold over 89 million physical copies, and grossed over $5 billion by 2014. As of 2018, the series has shifted 800 million copies, including free-to-play mobile game downloads. Several Sonic games are often included in lists of the greatest games of all time. The franchise has also crossed over into a variety of different media including animation, comic books, and a Hollywood film.WWE 2K
WWE 2K is a series of professional wrestling video games that are currently developed by Visual Concepts and Yuke's, and published by 2K Sports. These series of games are based on the sport of professional wrestling, more specifically, World Wrestling Entertainment, which features the professional wrestling match types, storylines, and playable characters.
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