Messier 98

Messier 98, also known as M98 or NGC 4192, is an intermediate spiral galaxy located about 44.4[3] million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices, about 6° to the east of the bright star Denebola. It was discovered by French astronomer Pierre Méchain on 15 March 1781, along with nearby M99 and M100, and was cataloged by French astronomer Charles Messier on 13 April 1781 in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses & des amas d'Étoiles.[4] Messier 98 has a blue shift and is approaching us at about 140 km/s.[2]

The morphological classification of this galaxy is SAB(s)ab,[3] which indicates it is a spiral galaxy that displays mixed barred and non-barred features with intermediate to tightly-wound arms and no ring.[5] It is highly inclined to the line of sight at an angle of 74°[6] and has a maximum rotation velocity of 236 km/s.[7] The combined mass of the stars in this galaxy is an estimated 76 billion (7.6 × 1010) times the mass of the Sun. It contains about 4.3 billion solar masses of neutral hydrogen and 85 million solar masses in dust.[8] The nucleus is active, displaying characteristics of a "transition" type object. That is, it shows properties of a LINER-type galaxy intermixed with an H II region around the nucleus.[9]

Messier 98 is a member of the Virgo Cluster, which is a large, relatively nearby cluster of galaxies.[10] About 750 million years ago, Messier 98 may have interacted with the large spiral galaxy Messier 99. The two are now separated by a distance of 1,300,000 ly (400,000 pc).[7]

Messier 98
Messier 98
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationComa Berenices
Right ascension 12h 13m 48.292s[1]
Declination+14° 54′ 01.69″[1]
Helio radial velocity−142 ± 4 km/s[2]
Distance44.4 million light years (13.6 Mpc)[3]
Apparent magnitude (V)11.0[4]
Apparent size (V)9′.8 × 2′.8[4]
Other designations
NGC 4192, UGC 7231, PGC 39028[2]


Messier 98

Messier 98 taken by ESO’s New Technology Telescope.[11]

HST 05375

M98, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope

NGC 4192 F Wiki

Spiral galaxy M98, by HST (WFPC2).

See also


  1. ^ a b Skrutskie, M. F.; et al. (February 2006), "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)", Astronomical Journal, 131 (2): 1163–1183, Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S, doi:10.1086/498708.
  2. ^ a b c d "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for Messier 98. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
  3. ^ a b c d Erwin, Peter; Debattista, Victor P. (May 2013), "Peanuts at an angle: detecting and measuring the three-dimensional structure of bars in moderately inclined galaxies", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 431 (4): 3060–3086, arXiv:1301.0638, Bibcode:2013MNRAS.431.3060E, doi:10.1093/mnras/stt385.
  4. ^ a b c Thompson, Robert; Thompson, Barbara (2007), Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders: From Novice to Master Observer, Diy Science, O'Reilly Media, Inc., p. 196, ISBN 978-0596526856.
  5. ^ Buta, Ronald J.; et al. (2007), Atlas of Galaxies, Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–17, ISBN 978-0521820486.
  6. ^ Schoeniger, F.; Sofue, Y. (July 1997), "The CO Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgo cluster", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 90: 1681–1759, Bibcode:1997A&A...323...14S.
  7. ^ a b Duc, Pierre-Alain; Bournaud, Frederic (February 2008), "Tidal Debris from High-Velocity Collisions as Fake Dark Galaxies: A Numerical Model of VIRGOHI 21", The Astrophysical Journal, 673 (2): 787–797, arXiv:0710.3867, Bibcode:2008ApJ...673..787D, doi:10.1086/524868.
  8. ^ Davies, J. I.; et al. (February 2012), "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II – A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 419 (4): 3505–3520, arXiv:1110.2869, Bibcode:2012MNRAS.419.3505D, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19993.x.
  9. ^ Terashima, Yuichi; et al. (1985), "ASCA Observations of "Type 2" LINERs: Evidence for a Stellar Source of Ionization", The Astrophysical Journal, 533 (2): 729–743, arXiv:astro-ph/9911340, Bibcode:2000ApJ...533..729T, doi:10.1086/308690.
  10. ^ Binggeli, B.; Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A. (1985), "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II – A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area", Astronomical Journal, 90: 1681–1759, Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1681B, doi:10.1086/113874.
  11. ^ "Why So Blue?". Retrieved 5 September 2016.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 13m 48.3s, +14° 54′ 01″

98 (number)

98 (ninety-eight) is the natural number following 97 and preceding 99.

List of NGC objects (4001–5000)

This is a list of NGC objects 4001–5000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.


M98 or M-98 may refer to:

M98 (New York City bus), a New York City Bus route in Manhattan

Barrett M98, a Bolt-action sniper rifle

Gewehr 98, a German bolt-action rifle

Messier 98, an intermediate spiral galaxy about 60 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices

M-98 (Michigan highway), a former state highway in Michigan

Messier 88

Messier 88 (also known as M88 or NGC 4501) is a spiral galaxy about 50 to 60 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1781.

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

Orders of magnitude (speed)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between approximately 2.2×10−18 m/s and 3.0×108 m/s. Values in bold are exact.

Virgo Cluster

The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)

away in the constellation Virgo. Comprising approximately 1300 (and possibly up to 2000) member galaxies, the cluster forms the heart of the larger Virgo Supercluster, of which the Local Group (containing our Milky Way galaxy) is a member. The Local Group actually experiences the mass of the Virgo Supercluster as the Virgocentric flow. It is estimated that the Virgo Cluster's mass is 1.2×1015 M☉ out to 8 degrees of the cluster's center or a radius of about 2.2 Mpc.Many of the brighter galaxies in this cluster, including the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, were discovered in the late 1770s and early 1780s and subsequently included in Charles Messier's catalogue of non-cometary fuzzy objects. Described by Messier as nebulae without stars, their true nature was not recognized until the 1920s.The cluster subtends a maximum arc of approximately 8 degrees centered in the constellation Virgo. Although some of the cluster's most prominent members can be seen with smaller instruments, a 6-inch telescope will reveal about 160 of the cluster's galaxies on a clear night. Its brightest member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 49; however its most famous member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 87, which is located in the center of the cluster.

See also

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