Messier 90

Messier 90 (also known as M90 and NGC 4569) is an intermediate spiral galaxy exhibiting a weak inner ring structure about 60 million light-years away[a] in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1781.[3]

Messier 90
Messier90 - SDSS DR14 (panorama)
Messier 90 imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Observation data
Epoch J2000
Constellation Virgo[1]
Right ascension  12h 36m 49.8s[2]
Declination +13° 09′ 46″[2]
Apparent dimension (V) 9.5 × 4.4 moa[2]
Apparent magnitude (V)10.26[2]
TypeSAB(rs)ab,[2] LINER,[2] Sy[2]
Heliocentric radial velocity −235 ± 4[2] km/s
Redshift -0.000784 ± 0.000013[2]
Galactocentric velocity −282 ± 4[2] km/s
Distance 58.7 ± 2.8 Mly (18.00 ± 0.86 Mpc)
Other designations
NGC 4569,[2] UGC 7786,[2] PGC 42089,[2] Arp 76[2]
Database references
SIMBAD Search M90 data
See also: Galaxy, List of galaxies

Membership of the Virgo Cluster

Messier 90 is a member of the Virgo Cluster,[4] being one of its largest and brightest spiral galaxies, with an absolute magnitude of around -22 (brighter than the Andromeda Galaxy).[5] The galaxy is located approximately 1°.5 away from the subgroup centered on Messier 87.[6] As a consequence of the galaxy's interaction with the intracluster medium in the Virgo Cluster, the galaxy has lost much of its interstellar medium. As a result of this process, which is referred to as ram-pressure stripping, the galaxy's interstellar medium and star formation regions appear severely truncated compared to similar galaxies outside the Virgo Cluster[7] and there are even H II regions outside the galactic plane,[7] as well as long (up to 80 kpcs, 260,000 light-years) tails of ionized gas that has been stripped of M90.[8]

Star formation activity

As stated above, the star formation in Messier 90 appears truncated. Consequently, the galaxy's spiral arms appear to be smooth and featureless, rather than knotted like galaxies with extended star formation.,[7] which justifies why this galaxy, along with NGC 4921 in the Coma Cluster has been classified as the prototype of an anemic galaxy.[9] Some authors go even further and consider it is a passive spiral galaxy, similar to those found on galaxy clusters with high redshift.[10]

However, the center of Messier 90 appears to be a site of significant star formation activity, where around 5*104 stars of spectral types O and B that formed around 5-6 million years ago[11] are surrounded by a large amount of A-type supergiants that were born in other starburst that took place before the former, between 15 and 30 million years ago.[12]

Multiple supernovae (up to 105[12]) in the nucleus have produced 'superwinds' that are blowing the galaxy's interstellar medium outward into the intracluster medium.[13] collimated in two jets, one of which is being disturbed by interaction with Virgo's intracluster medium as the galaxy moves through it.[14]


The spectrum of Messier 90 is blueshifted, which indicates that it is moving towards the Earth.[2] In contrast, the spectra of most other galaxies are redshifted. The blueshift was originally used to argue that Messier 90 was actually an object in the foreground of the Virgo Cluster. However, since the phenomenon was limited mostly to galaxies in the same part of the sky as the Virgo Cluster, it appeared that this inference based on the blueshift was incorrect. Instead, the blueshift is thought to be evidence for the large range in velocities of objects within the Virgo Cluster itself.[6]

Distance measurements

Low levels of H I gas prevents using the Tully-Fisher relation to estimate the distance to Messier 90.[13]

Companion galaxies

Messier 90 is rich in globular clusters, with around 1,000 of them[5] and has a satellite galaxy (IC 3583), which is an irregular galaxy; both galaxies were thought to be interacting,[12] however it is now thought they are too far away to be interacting at all.[8]


Come a little closer Messier 90

Messier 90 taken by Hubble.[15]

See also


  1. ^ Tschöke et al. 2001 uses a Hubble constant of 75 (km/s)/Mpc to estimate a distance of 16.8 Mpc to NGC 4569. Adjusting for the 2006 value of 70+2.4
    (km/s)/Mpc we get a distance of 18.0+0.9


  1. ^ R. W. Sinnott, ed. (1988). The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer. Sky Publishing Corporation/Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-933346-51-2.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 4569. Retrieved 1 February 2006.
  3. ^ K. G. Jones (1991). Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37079-0.
  4. ^ B. Binggeli; A. Sandage; G. A. Tammann (1985). "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area. V - Luminosity functions of Virgo Cluster galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 90: 1681–1759. Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1681B. doi:10.1086/113874.
  5. ^ a b "Globular Cluster Systems in Galaxies Beyond the Local Grup". NASA-IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  6. ^ a b A. Sandage; J. Bedke (1994). Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies. Carnegie Institution of Washington. ISBN 978-0-87279-667-6.
  7. ^ a b c R. A. Koopmann; J. D. P. Kenney (2004). "Hα Morphologies and Environmental Effects in Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies". Astrophysical Journal. 613 (2): 866–885. arXiv:astro-ph/0406243. Bibcode:2004ApJ...613..866K. doi:10.1086/423191.
  8. ^ a b Boselli, A.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Fossati, M.; Boissier, S.; Bomans, D.; Consolandi, G.; Anselmi, G.; Cortese, L.; Cote, P.; Durrell, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Fumagalli, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Gwyn, S.; Hensler, G.; Sun, M.; Toloba, E. (2016). "Spectacular tails of ionised gas in the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4569" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 587: A68. arXiv:1601.04978. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A..68B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527795.
  9. ^ Bergh, S. (1976). "A new classification system for galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 206: 883–887. Bibcode:1976ApJ...206..883V. doi:10.1086/154452.
  10. ^ Moran, S. M.; Ellis, R. S.; Smith, G. P.; Rich, R. M.; et al. (2007). "A Wide-Field Survey of Two z ~ 0.5 Galaxy Clusters: Identifying the Physical Processes Responsible for the Observed Transformation of Spirals into S0s". The Astrophysical Journal. 671 (2): 1503–1522. arXiv:0707.4173. Bibcode:2007ApJ...671.1503M. doi:10.1086/522303.
  11. ^ Gabel, J. R.; Bruhweiler, F. C. (2002). "The Central Starburst and Ionization Mechanism in the LINER/H II Region Transition Nucleus in NGC 4569". The Astronomical Journal. 124 (2): 737–750. arXiv:astro-ph/0204371. Bibcode:2002AJ....124..737G. doi:10.1086/341376.
  12. ^ a b c Chyży, K. T.; Soida, M.; Bomans, D. J.; Vollmer, B.; et al. (2006). "Large-scale magnetized outflows from the Virgo Cluster spiral NGC 4569. A galactic wind in a ram pressure wind". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 447 (2): 465–472. arXiv:astro-ph/0510392. Bibcode:2006A&A...447..465C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053819.
  13. ^ a b D. Tschöke; D. J. Bomans; G. Hensler; N. Junkes (2001). "Hot halo gas in the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4569". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 380 (1): 40–54. Bibcode:2001A&A...380...40T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20011354.
  14. ^ Kenney, J. D. P.; Crowl, H.; van Gorkom, J.; Vollmer, B. (2004). "Spiral Galaxy - ICM Interactions in the Virgo Cluster". International Astronomical Union Symposium No. 217. 217: 370–375. arXiv:astro-ph/0403129. Bibcode:2004IAUS..217..370K. doi:10.1017/S0074180900197979.
  15. ^ "Come a little closer". Retrieved 20 May 2019.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 36m 49.8s, +13° 09′ 46″

Anemic galaxy

An anemic galaxy is a type of spiral galaxy characterized by a low contrast between its spiral arms and its disk.

Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies

The Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies is a catalog of peculiar galaxies produced by Halton Arp in 1966. A total of 338 galaxies are presented in the atlas, which was originally published in 1966 by the California Institute of Technology. The primary goal of the catalog was to present photographs of examples of the different kinds of peculiar structures found among galaxies.

List of NGC objects (4001–5000)

This is a list of NGC objects 4001–5000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.

Messier 58

Messier 58 (also known as M58 and NGC 4579) is an intermediate barred spiral galaxy with a weak inner ring structure located within the constellation Virgo, approximately 68 million light-years away from Earth. It was discovered by Charles Messier on April 15, 1779 and is one of four barred spiral galaxies that appear in Messier's catalogue. M58 is one of the brightest galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. From 1779 it was arguably (though unknown at that time) the farthest known astronomical object until the release of the New General Catalogue in the 1880s and even more so the publishing of redshift values in the 1920s.

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

NGC 3312

NGC 3312 is a large and highly inclined spiral galaxy located about 194 million light-years away in the constellation Hydra. The galaxy was discovered by astronomer John Herschel on March 26, 1835. It was later rediscovered by astronomer Guillaume Bigourdan on February 26, 1887. NGC 3312 was later listed and equated with IC 629 because the two objects share essentially the same celestial coordinates. NGC 3312 is the largest spiral galaxy in the Hydra Cluster and is also classified as a LINER galaxy.

NGC 4450

NGC 4450 is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices.

NGC 4457

NGC 4457 is a spiral galaxy located about 55 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo. It is also classified as a LINER galaxy, a class of active galaxy defined by their spectral line emissions. NGC 4457 Is inclined by about 33°. It was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on February 23, 1784. Despite being listed in the Virgo Cluster Catalog as VCC 1145, NGC 4457 is a member of the Virgo II Groups which form an extension of the Virgo cluster.NGC 4457 may have had a recent minor merger with another galaxy.

NGC 4580

NGC 4580 is an unbarred spiral galaxy located about 70 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. NGC 4580 is also classified as a LINER galaxy. It was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on February 2, 1786 and is a member of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4689

NGC 4689 is a spiral galaxy located about 54 million light-years away in the constellation of Coma Berenices. NGC 4689 is also classified as a LINER galaxy. NGC 4689 is inclined at an angle of about 36° which means that the galaxy is seen almost face-on to the Earth's line of sight. NGC 4689 was discovered by astronomer William Herschel on April 12, 1784. The galaxy is a member of the Virgo Cluster.

Virgo (constellation)

Virgo is one of the constellations of the zodiac. Its name is Latin for virgin, and its symbol is ♍. Lying between Leo to the west and Libra to the east, it is the second-largest constellation in the sky (after Hydra) and the largest constellation in the zodiac. It can be easily found through its brightest star, Spica.

Virgo Cluster

The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)

away in the constellation Virgo. Comprising approximately 1300 (and possibly up to 2000) member galaxies, the cluster forms the heart of the larger Virgo Supercluster, of which the Local Group (containing our Milky Way galaxy) is a member. The Local Group actually experiences the mass of the Virgo Supercluster as the Virgocentric flow. It is estimated that the Virgo Cluster's mass is 1.2×1015 M☉ out to 8 degrees of the cluster's center or a radius of about 2.2 Mpc.Many of the brighter galaxies in this cluster, including the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, were discovered in the late 1770s and early 1780s and subsequently included in Charles Messier's catalogue of non-cometary fuzzy objects. Described by Messier as nebulae without stars, their true nature was not recognized until the 1920s.The cluster subtends a maximum arc of approximately 8 degrees centered in the constellation Virgo. Although some of the cluster's most prominent members can be seen with smaller instruments, a 6-inch telescope will reveal about 160 of the cluster's galaxies on a clear night. Its brightest member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 49; however its most famous member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 87, which is located in the center of the cluster.

See also

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