Messier 89

Messier 89 (M89 for short, also known as NGC 4552) is an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by Charles Messier on March 18, 1781. M89 is a member of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies.[3]

Messier 89[1]
Messier89 - HST - Potw1902a
Messier 89 by Hubble Space Telescope.
Observation data
Epoch J2000
Constellation Virgo
Right ascension  12h 35m 39.8s[2]
Declination +12° 33′ 23″[2]
Apparent dimension (V) 5.1 × 4.7 moa[2]
Apparent magnitude (V)10.73[2]
Characteristics
TypeE,[2] LINER,[2] HIISy2[2]
Astrometry
Heliocentric radial velocity 340 ± 4[2] km/s
Redshift 0.001134 ± 0.000014[2]
Galactocentric velocity 290 ± 5[2] km/s
Distance 50 ± 3 Mly (15.33 ± 0.92 Mpc)
Other designations
NGC 4552,[2] UGC 7760,[2] PGC 41968[2]
Database references
SIMBAD Search M89 data
See also: Galaxy, List of galaxies

Features

Current observations indicate that M89 may be nearly perfectly spherical in shape. This is unusual, since all other known elliptic galaxies are relatively elongated ellipsoids. However, it is possible that the galaxy is oriented in such a way that it appears spherical to an observer on Earth but is in fact elliptical.

The galaxy also features a surrounding structure of gas and dust extending up to 150,000 light-years from the galaxy and jets of heated particles that extend 100,000 light-years outwards. This indicates that it may have once been an active quasar or radio galaxy.[4] It also has an extensive and complex system of surrounding shells and plumes, indicating that it originated in one or several mergers.[5]

Chandra studies in the wavelength of the X-Rays show two ring-like structures of hot gas in M89's nucleus, suggesting an outburst there 1-2 million years ago[6] as well as ram-pressure stripping acting on the galaxy as it moves through Virgo's intracluster medium.[7] The supermassive black hole at the core has a mass of (4.8±0.8)×108 M.[8]

M89 also has a large population of globular clusters. A 2006 survey estimates that there are 2,000 ± 700 globulars within 25′ of M89, compared to the estimated 150-200 thought to surround the Milky Way.[9]

References

  1. ^ J. L. Tonry; A. Dressler; J. P. Blakeslee; E. A. Ajhar; et al. (2001). "The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances". Astrophysical Journal. 546 (2): 681–693. arXiv:astro-ph/0011223. Bibcode:2001ApJ...546..681T. doi:10.1086/318301.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 4552. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
  3. ^ Elliptical Galaxy M89 @ SEDS Messier pages
  4. ^ Messier Objects 81-90 @ Sea and Sky
  5. ^ Janowiecki, Steven; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Feldmeier, John J.; et al. (2010). "Diffuse Tidal Structures in the Halos of Virgo Ellipticals". The Astrophysical Journal. 715 (2): 972–985. arXiv:1004.1473. Bibcode:2010ApJ...715..972J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/715/2/972.
  6. ^ Machacek, M.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R. (2014). "Chandra Observations of Nuclear Outflows in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4552 in the Virgo Cluster". The Astrophysical Journal. 648 (2): 947–955. arXiv:astro-ph/0604406. Bibcode:2006ApJ...648..947M. doi:10.1086/505963.
  7. ^ Machacek, M.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Nulsen, P. (2006). "Chandra Observations of Gas Stripping in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4552 in the Virgo Cluster". The Astrophysical Journal. 644 (1): 155–166. arXiv:astro-ph/0508588. Bibcode:2006ApJ...644..155M. doi:10.1086/503350.
  8. ^ Graham, Alister W. (November 2008), "Populating the Galaxy Velocity Dispersion - Supermassive Black Hole Mass Diagram: A Catalogue of (Mbh, σ) Values", Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, 25 (4): 167–175, arXiv:0807.2549, Bibcode:2008PASA...25..167G, doi:10.1071/AS08013.
  9. ^ Tamura, Naoyuki; Sharples, Ray M.; Arimoto, Nobuo; Onodera, Masato; et al. (2006). "A Subaru/Suprime-Cam wide-field survey of globular cluster populations around M87 - I. Observation, data analysis and luminosity function". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 373 (2): 588–600. arXiv:astro-ph/0609067. Bibcode:2006MNRAS.373..588T. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.11067.x.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 35m 39.8s, +12° 33′ 23″

List of Edmonton Oilers records

This is a list of franchise records for the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League.

List of NGC objects (4001–5000)

This is a list of NGC objects 4001–5000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.

M89

M89 or M-89 may refer to:

Messier 89, an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo

M-89 (Michigan highway), a state highway in Michigan

M89SR sniper rifle, a gas operated semi-automatic sniper rifle

M89-class destroyer, a planned class of French destroyers

Messier 91

Messier 91 (also known as NGC 4548 or M91) is a barred spiral galaxy located in the Coma Berenices constellation and is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. M91 is about 63 million light-years away from the earth. It was the last of a group of eight nebulae discovered by Charles Messier in 1781.

Originally M91 was a missing Messier object in the catalogue as the result of a bookkeeping mistake by Messier. It was not until 1969 that amateur astronomer William C. Williams realized that M91 was NGC 4548, which was documented by William Herschel in 1784 (according to other sources, however, the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 4571 was also considered as a candidate for Messier 91 by him.)

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

Virgo (constellation)

Virgo is one of the constellations of the zodiac. Its name is Latin for virgin, and its symbol is ♍. Lying between Leo to the west and Libra to the east, it is the second-largest constellation in the sky (after Hydra) and the largest constellation in the zodiac. It can be easily found through its brightest star, Spica.

Virgo Cluster

The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)

away in the constellation Virgo. Comprising approximately 1300 (and possibly up to 2000) member galaxies, the cluster forms the heart of the larger Virgo Supercluster, of which the Local Group (containing our Milky Way galaxy) is a member. The Local Group actually experiences the mass of the Virgo Supercluster as the Virgocentric flow. It is estimated that the Virgo Cluster's mass is 1.2×1015 M☉ out to 8 degrees of the cluster's center or a radius of about 2.2 Mpc.Many of the brighter galaxies in this cluster, including the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, were discovered in the late 1770s and early 1780s and subsequently included in Charles Messier's catalogue of non-cometary fuzzy objects. Described by Messier as nebulae without stars, their true nature was not recognized until the 1920s.The cluster subtends a maximum arc of approximately 8 degrees centered in the constellation Virgo. Although some of the cluster's most prominent members can be seen with smaller instruments, a 6-inch telescope will reveal about 160 of the cluster's galaxies on a clear night. Its brightest member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 49; however its most famous member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 87, which is located in the center of the cluster.

Stars
(list)
Star
clusters
Nebulae
Galaxies
Galaxy
clusters
Other
List
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.