Messier 88

Messier 88 (also known as M88 or NGC 4501) is a spiral galaxy about 50 to 60 million light-years away[2][3][4] in the constellation Coma Berenices. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1781.

Messier 88
Spiral Galaxy Messier 88
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationComa Berenices
Right ascension 12h 31m 59.2s[1]
Declination+14° 25′ 14″[1]
Helio radial velocity2281
Galactocentric velocity2235
Apparent magnitude (V)10.4[1]
TypeSA(rs)b, HII Sy2[1]
Apparent size (V)6.9 × 3.7 moa[1]
Other designations
NGC 4501, UGC 7675, PGC 41517, VCC 1401[1]


Messier 88 seen by the 24 inch telescope on Mt. Lemmon, USA.

M88 is one of the fifteen Messier objects that belong to the nearby Virgo Cluster of galaxies. It is galaxy number 1401 in the Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC) of 2096 galaxies that are candidate members of the cluster.[5] M88 may be on a highly elliptical orbit that is carrying it toward the cluster center, which is occupied by the giant elliptical galaxy M87. It is currently 0.3–0.48 million parsecs from the center and will come closest to the core in about 200–300 million years. The motion of M88 through the intergalactic medium of the Virgo cluster is creating ram pressure that is stripping away the outer region of neutral hydrogen. This stripping has already been detected along the western, leading edge of the galaxy.[6]

This galaxy is inclined to the line of sight by 64°.[7] It is classified as an Sbc spiral, which lies between the Sb and Sc categories of medium-wound and loosely wound spiral arms, respectively. The arm structure of the spirals is very regular and can be followed down to the galactic core.[8] The maximum rotation velocity of the gas is 241.6 ± 4.5 km/s.[9]

M88 is also classified as a type 2 Seyfert galaxy, which means it produces narrow spectral line emission from highly ionized gas in the galactic nuclei.[10] In the core region there is a central condensation with a 230 parsec diameter, which has two concentration peaks. This condensation is being fed by inflow from the spiral arms.[11] The supermassive black hole at the core of this galaxy has 107.9 solar masses, or about 80 million times the mass of the Sun.[12]

In 1999, supernova 1999cl was discovered in this galaxy.[13]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Results for NGC 4501". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2006-11-14.
  2. ^ "Object Information". 20 September 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  3. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (30 January 2010). "Messier 88". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  4. ^ "M88". 29 June 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  5. ^ Binggeli, B.; Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A. (1985). "Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II – A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area". Astronomical Journal. 90: 1681–1759. Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1681B. doi:10.1086/113874.
  6. ^ Vollmer, B.; et al. (2008). "Pre-peak ram pressure stripping in the Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4501". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 483 (1): 89–106. arXiv:0801.4874. Bibcode:2008A&A...483...89V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078139.
  7. ^ Tully, R. B.; Fisher, J. R. (1977). "A new method of determining distances to galaxies". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 54 (3): 661–673. Bibcode:1977A&A....54..661T.
  8. ^ Möllenhoff, C.; Heidt, J. (2001). "Surface photometry of spiral galaxies in NIR: Structural parameters of disks and bulges". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 368 (1): 16–37. Bibcode:2001A&A...368...16M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20000335.
  9. ^ "Database for physics of galaxies". HyperLeda. Université de Lyon. Retrieved 2009-09-16.
  10. ^ L. S. Sparke; J. S. Gallagher III (2007). Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67186-6.
  11. ^ Onodera, S.; Sofue, Y.; Koda, J.; Nakanishi, H.; Kohno, K. (2002). "CO (J=1-0) Observations of the Non-Barred Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4501". In Ikeuchi, S.; Hearnshaw, J.; Hanawa, T. Proceedings of the IAU 8th Asian-Pacific Regional Meeting. 8Th Asian-Pacific Regional Meeting. p. 199. Bibcode:2002aprm.conf..199O.
  12. ^ Merloni, Andrea; Heinz, Sebastian; di Matteo, Tiziana (2003). "A Fundamental Plane of black hole activity". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 345 (4): 1057–1076. arXiv:astro-ph/0305261. Bibcode:2003MNRAS.345.1057M. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2966.2003.07017.x.
  13. ^ James, N. D. (1999). "Supernova 1999cl in NGC 4501 (M88)". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 109 (4): 178. Bibcode:1999JBAA..109..178J.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 31m 59.2s, +14° 25′ 14″

Coma Berenices

Coma Berenices is an ancient asterism in the northern sky which has been defined as one of the 88 modern constellations. It is located in the fourth galactic quadrant, between Leo and Boötes, and is visible in both hemispheres. Its name means "Berenice's Hair" in Latin and refers to Queen Berenice II of Egypt, who sacrificed her long hair as a votive offering. It was introduced to Western astronomy during the third century BC by Conon of Samos and was further corroborated as a constellation by Gerardus Mercator and Tycho Brahe. Coma Berenices is the only modern constellation named for a historic person.

The constellation's major stars are Alpha Comae Berenices, Beta Comae Berenices and Gamma Comae Berenices. They form a 45-degree triangle, from which Berenice's imaginary tresses, formed by the Coma Star Cluster, hang. The constellation's brightest star is Beta Comae Berenices, a 4.2-magnitude main sequence star similar to the Sun. Coma Berenices contains the North Galactic Pole and one of the richest known galaxy clusters, the Coma Cluster, part of the Coma Supercluster. Galaxy Malin 1, in the constellation, is the first-known giant low-surface-brightness galaxy. Supernova SN 2005ap discovered in Coma Berenices is the second-brightest known, and SN 1940B was the first observed example of a type II supernova. The star FK Comae Berenices is the prototype of an eponymous class of variable stars. The constellation is the radiant of one meteor shower, Coma Berenicids, which has one of the fastest meteor speeds, up to 65 kilometres per second (40 mi/s).

List of NGC objects (4001–5000)

This is a list of NGC objects 4001–5000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.

List of most massive black holes

This is an ordered list of the most massive black holes so far discovered (and probable candidates), measured in units of solar masses (M☉), or the mass of the Sun (approx. 2×1030 kilograms).


M88, M-88 or M/88 may refer to:

Messier 88, a spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices

BMW M88, an inline 6-cylinder piston engine

Tumansky M-88, an air-cooled radial aircraft engine

M88 Recovery Vehicle, a US tank recovery vehicle

M88, now KLYT, a noncommercial Christian radio station in New Mexico

M-88 (Michigan highway), a state highway in Michigan

Snecma M88, an afterburning turbofan engine developed for the Dassault Rafale fighter

A standard firecracker with extra packing, designed to resemble an M-80 explosive

M/88, a rifle cartridge, adopted by Germany in 1888 and the ancestor of the standard German military cartridges up until and throughout the Second World War

M-88 Long Range Sniper Rifle, a sniper rifle adopted by the US Navy

Zastava M88, a semi-automatic handgun produced by Zastava Arms, Serbia

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

Miracle on Manchester

The Miracle on Manchester is the nickname given to a National Hockey League (NHL) playoff game between the Los Angeles Kings and Edmonton Oilers that took place on April 10, 1982 in the league's 65th season. The game, the third in a best-of-five postseason series, was played at The Forum, the Kings' home arena at the time, which was situated on Manchester Boulevard (hence the nickname) in the Los Angeles suburb of Inglewood. The Kings completed the largest comeback in NHL playoff history, going from being down 5-0 to win the game 6-5 in overtime. Combined with upset wins in Games 1 and 5, the Kings eliminated the heavily favored Wayne Gretzky-led Oilers in a 3-2 series victory to reach the second round.

NGC 4654

NGC 4654 is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of 55 million light years (16.8 megaparsecs) from the Milky Way that can be spotted with amateur telescopes.

Seyfert galaxy

Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars. They have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.Seyfert galaxies account for about 10% of all galaxies and are some of the most intensely studied objects in astronomy, as they are thought to be powered by the same phenomena that occur in quasars, although they are closer and less luminous than quasars. These galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centers which are surrounded by accretion discs of in-falling material. The accretion discs are believed to be the source of the observed ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet emission and absorption lines provide the best diagnostics for the composition of the surrounding material.Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, it becomes clear that the luminosity of their cores is of comparable intensity to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.Seyfert galaxies are named after Carl Seyfert, who first described this class in 1943.

Unbarred spiral galaxy

An unbarred spiral galaxy is a type of spiral galaxy without a central bar, or one that is not a barred spiral galaxy. It is designated with an SA in the galaxy morphological classification scheme.

The Sombrero Galaxy is an unbarred spiral galaxy.

Barless spiral galaxies are one of three general types of spiral galaxies under the de Vaucouleurs system classification system, the other two being intermediate spiral galaxy and barred spiral galaxy. Under the Hubble tuning fork, it is one of two general types of spiral galaxy, the other being barred spirals.

Virgo Cluster

The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)

away in the constellation Virgo. Comprising approximately 1300 (and possibly up to 2000) member galaxies, the cluster forms the heart of the larger Virgo Supercluster, of which the Local Group (containing the Milky Way galaxy) is a member. The Local Group actually experiences the mass of the Virgo Supercluster as the Virgocentric flow. It is estimated that the Virgo Cluster's mass is 1.2×1015 M☉ out to 8 degrees of the cluster's center or a radius of about 2.2 Mpc.Many of the brighter galaxies in this cluster, including the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, were discovered in the late 1770s and early 1780s and subsequently included in Charles Messier's catalogue of non-cometary fuzzy objects. Described by Messier as nebulae without stars, their true nature was not recognized until the 1920s.The cluster subtends a maximum arc of approximately 8 degrees centered in the constellation Virgo. Although some of the cluster's most prominent members can be seen with smaller instruments, a 6 inch telescope will reveal about 160 of the cluster's galaxies on a clear night. Its brightest member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 49; however its most famous member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 87, which is located in the center of the cluster.

See also
List of notable Seyfert galaxies
Seyfert 1
Seyfert 2

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