Messier 84

Messier 84 or M84, also known as NGC 4374, is an elliptical or lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo. Charles Messier discovered Messier 84 on 18 March 1781 in a systematic search for "nebulous objects" in the night sky.[6] The object is the 84th in the Messier Catalogue. M84 is situated in the heavily populated inner core of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies.[7]

This is a giant elliptical galaxy with a morphological classification of E1, indicating a flattening of 10%. The half-light radius is 72.5″ and the extinction-corrected total luminosity in the visual band is 7.64×1010 L. The central mass-to-light ratio is 6.5, which steadily increases away from the core. The visible galaxy is surrounded by a massive dark matter halo.[4]

Radio observations and Hubble Space Telescope images of M84 have revealed two jets of matter shooting out from the galaxy's center as well as a disk of rapidly rotating gas and stars indicating the presence of a 1.5 ×109 M[8] supermassive black hole. It also has a few young stars and star clusters, indicating star formation at a very low rate.[9] The number of globular clusters is 1,775±150, which is much lower than expected for an elliptical galaxy.[10]

Two supernovae have been observed in M84: SN 1957[11] and SN 1991bg.[12] Possibly, a third, SN 1980I is part of M84 or, alternatively, one of its neighboring galaxies, NGC 4387 and M86.[13] This high rate of supernova events is rare for elliptical galaxies, which may indicate there is a population of stars of intermediate age in M84.[10]

Messier 84
Messier 84 nucleus by HST
M84. Credit:NOAO.
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 12h 25m 03.74333s[1]
Declination+12° 53′ 13.1393″[1]
Redshift1,060±6 km/s[2]
Helio radial velocity999[3] km/s
Distance54.9 Mly (16.83 Mpc)[3]
Apparent magnitude (V)10.1[2]
Absolute magnitude (V)−22.41±0.10[4]
Apparent size (V)6′.5 × 5′.6[2]
Half-light radius (apparent)72.5±6[4]
Other designations
M84, NGC 4374, PGC 40455, UGC 7494, VCC 763[5]


  1. ^ a b Lambert, S. B.; Gontier, A.-M. (January 2009). "On radio source selection to define a stable celestial frame". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 493 (1): 317–323. Bibcode:2009A&A...493..317L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810582.
  2. ^ a b c "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 4374. Retrieved 2006-11-14.
  3. ^ a b Tully, R. Brent; et al. (August 2016). "Cosmicflows-3". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (2): 21. arXiv:1605.01765. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...50T. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/2/50. 50.
  4. ^ a b c d Napolitano, N. R.; et al. (March 2011). "The PN.S Elliptical Galaxy Survey: a standard ΛCDM halo around NGC 4374?". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 411 (3): 2035–2053. arXiv:1010.1533. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.411.2035N. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17833.x.
  5. ^ "M 84". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-12-17.
  6. ^ Jones, K. G. (1991). Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37079-0.
  7. ^ Finoguenov, A.; Jones, C. (2002). "Chandra Observation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in the Elliptical Galaxy M84". Astrophysical Journal. 574 (2): 754–761. arXiv:astro-ph/0204046. Bibcode:2002ApJ...574..754F. doi:10.1086/340997.
  8. ^ Bower, G.A.; et al. (1998). "Kinematics of the Nuclear Ionized Gas in the Radio Galaxy M84 (NGC 4374)". Astrophysical Journal. 492 (1): 111–114. arXiv:astro-ph/9710264. Bibcode:1998ApJ...492L.111B. doi:10.1086/311109.
  9. ^ Ford, Alyson; Bregman, J. N. (2012). "Detection of Ongoing, Low-Level Star Formation in Nearby Ellipticals". American Astronomical Society. 219: 102.03. Bibcode:2012AAS...21910203F.
  10. ^ a b Gómez, M.; Richtler, T. (February 2004). "The globular cluster system of NGC 4374". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 415 (2): 499–508. arXiv:1703.00313. Bibcode:2004A&A...415..499G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20034610.
  11. ^ Götz, W. (1958). "Supernova in NGC 4374 (= M 84)". Astronomische Nachrichten. 284 (3): 141–142. Bibcode:1958AN....284..141G. doi:10.1002/asna.19572840308.
  12. ^ Kosai, H.; et al. (1958). "Supernova 1991bg in NGC 4374". IAU Circular. 5400: 1. Bibcode:1991IAUC.5400....1K.
  13. ^ Smith, H. A. (1981). "The spectrum of the intergalactic supernova 1980I". Astronomical Journal. 86: 998–1002. Bibcode:1981AJ.....86..998S. doi:10.1086/112975.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 25m 03.7s, +12° 53′ 13″

1989–90 Edmonton Oilers season

The 1989–90 Edmonton Oilers season was the Oilers' 11th season in the NHL, and they were coming off their shortest playoff run in seven years when the Los Angeles Kings defeated Edmonton in the first round of the playoffs. Edmonton would improve their point total from 84 to 90, and finish in 2nd place in the Smythe Division.

Lenticular galaxy

A lenticular galaxy (denoted S0) is a type of galaxy intermediate between an elliptical (denoted E) and a spiral galaxy in galaxy morphological classification schemes. They contain large-scale discs but they do not have large-scale spiral arms. Lenticular galaxies are disc galaxies that have used up or lost most of their interstellar matter and therefore have very little ongoing star formation. They may, however, retain significant dust in their disks. As a result, they consist mainly of aging stars (like elliptical galaxies). Despite the morphological differences, lenticular and elliptical galaxies share common properties like spectral features and scaling relations. Both can be considered early-type galaxies that are passively evolving, at least in the local part of the Universe. Connecting the E galaxies with the S0 galaxies are the ES galaxies with intermediate-scale discs.

List of NGC objects (4001–5000)

This is a list of NGC objects 4001–5000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.

List of black holes

This is a list of black holes (and stars considered probable candidates) organized by size (including black holes of undetermined mass); some items in this list are galaxies or star clusters that are believed to be organized around a black hole. Messier and New General Catalogue designations are given where possible.

List of most massive black holes

This is an ordered list of the most massive black holes so far discovered (and probable candidates), measured in units of solar masses (M☉), or the mass of the Sun (approx. 2×1030 kilograms).


M84 or M-84 may refer to:

Messier 84, a lenticular galaxy in the Virgo Cluster

M-84, a Yugoslav main battle tank

M84 machine gun, a Yugoslav copy of the PK machine gun

M84 camouflage pattern, a camouflage pattern used by the Royal Danish Army

M84 stun grenade, a non-lethal grenade

152 mm field gun-howitzer M84 NORA-A, a Yugoslav 152 mm field gun-howitzer

M-84 (Michigan highway), a state highway in Michigan

M84 Mortar Carrier, a derivative of the M59 Armored Personnel Carrier

Messier 86

Messier 86 (also known as M86 or NGC 4406) is an elliptical or lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1781. M86 lies in the heart of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and forms a most conspicuous group with another large galaxy known as Messier 84. It displays the highest blue shift of all Messier objects, as it is approaching the Milky Way at 244 km/s. This is due to its falling towards the center of the Virgo cluster from the opposite side, which causes it to move in the direction of the Milky Way.Messier 86 is linked by several filaments of ionized gas to the severely disrupted spiral galaxy NGC 4438 and shows some gas and interstellar dust that may have been stripped of it like the one present in those filaments. It is also suffering ram-pressure stripping as it moves at high speed through Virgo's intracluster medium, losing its interstellar medium and leaving behind a very long trail of X ray-emitting hot gas that has been detected with the help of the Chandra space telescope.Messier 86 has a rich system of globular clusters, with a total number of around 3,800. Its halo also has a number of stellar streams interpreted as remmants of dwarf galaxies that have been disrupted and absorbed by this galaxy.

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

Virgo (constellation)

Virgo is one of the constellations of the zodiac. Its name is Latin for virgin, and its symbol is ♍. Lying between Leo to the west and Libra to the east, it is the second-largest constellation in the sky (after Hydra) and the largest constellation in the zodiac. It can be easily found through its brightest star, Spica.

Virgo Cluster

The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)

away in the constellation Virgo. Comprising approximately 1300 (and possibly up to 2000) member galaxies, the cluster forms the heart of the larger Virgo Supercluster, of which the Local Group (containing our Milky Way galaxy) is a member. The Local Group actually experiences the mass of the Virgo Supercluster as the Virgocentric flow. It is estimated that the Virgo Cluster's mass is 1.2×1015 M☉ out to 8 degrees of the cluster's center or a radius of about 2.2 Mpc.Many of the brighter galaxies in this cluster, including the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, were discovered in the late 1770s and early 1780s and subsequently included in Charles Messier's catalogue of non-cometary fuzzy objects. Described by Messier as nebulae without stars, their true nature was not recognized until the 1920s.The cluster subtends a maximum arc of approximately 8 degrees centered in the constellation Virgo. Although some of the cluster's most prominent members can be seen with smaller instruments, a 6-inch telescope will reveal about 160 of the cluster's galaxies on a clear night. Its brightest member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 49; however its most famous member is the elliptical galaxy Messier 87, which is located in the center of the cluster.

Stars (list)
Star clusters
See also

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