Messier 66

Messier 66 or M66, also known as NGC 3627, is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the equatorial constellation of Leo. It was discovered by French astronomer Charles Messier[8] on March 1, 1780, who described it as "very long and very faint".[9] This galaxy is a member of a small group of galaxies that includes M65 and NGC 3628, known as the Leo Triplet, or the M66 Group.[10] M65 and M66 make a popular pair for observers, being separated by only 20.[9]

M66 has a morphological classification of SABb,[5] indicating a spiral shape with a weak bar feature and loosely wound arms. The isophotal axis ratio is 0.32, indicating that it is being viewed at an angle.[5] M66 is receding from us with a heliocentric radial velocity of 696.3±12.7 km/s.[3] It lies 31[4] million light-years away and is about 95 thousand light-years across[11] with striking dust lanes and bright star clusters along sweeping spiral arms. As of 2018, five supernovae have been observed in M66: SN 2016cok,[12] 2009hd, 1997bs, 1989B, and 1973R.[13]

Gravitational interaction from its past encounter with neighboring NGC 3628 has resulted in an extremely high central mass concentration; a high molecular to atomic mass ratio; and a resolved non-rotating clump of H I material apparently removed from one of the spiral arms. The latter feature shows up visually as an extremely prominent and unusual spiral arm and dust lane structures as originally noted in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies.[14]

Messier 66
A colour-composite image of M66.
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 11h 20m 15.026s[1]
Declination+12° 59′ 28.64″[1]
Redshift0.002425±0.000010[2] (696.3±12.7 km/s)[3]
Distance31 Mly (9.6 Mpc)[4]
Apparent magnitude (V)8.9[2]
Apparent size (V)9.1′ × 4.2′[6]
Notable featuresGalaxy in the Leo Triplet
Other designations
Arp 16, NGC 3627, PGC 34695, UGC 6346[7]



Infrared view of M66 from the Spitzer Space Telescope


  1. ^ a b Skrutskie, M. F.; et al. (February 2006), "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)", The Astronomical Journal, 131 (2): 1163–1183, Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S, doi:10.1086/498708.
  2. ^ a b de Vaucouleurs, G.; et al. (1991), Third reference catalogue of bright galaxies, 9, New York: Springer-Verlag.
  3. ^ a b van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; et al. (May 2015), "Hunting for Supermassive Black Holes in Nearby Galaxies With the Hobby-Eberly Telescope", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 218 (1): 13, arXiv:1502.00632, Bibcode:2015ApJS..218...10V, doi:10.1088/0067-0049/218/1/10, 10.
  4. ^ a b Tully, R. Brent; et al. (August 2016), "Cosmicflows-3", The Astronomical Journal, 152 (2): 21, arXiv:1605.01765, Bibcode:2016AJ....152...50T, doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/2/50, 50.
  5. ^ a b c Ann, H. B.; et al. (2015), "A Catalog of Visually Classified Galaxies in the Local (z ∼ 0.01) Universe", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 217 (2): 27–49, arXiv:1502.03545, Bibcode:2015ApJS..217...27A, doi:10.1088/0067-0049/217/2/27.
  6. ^ "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database", Results for NGC 3627, retrieved 2006-08-31.
  7. ^ "NGC 3627". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
  8. ^ Frommert, Hartmut; Kronberg, Christine (June 15, 2016), Spiral Galaxy M66, retrieved 2018-12-03.
  9. ^ a b O'Meara, Stephen James (2014), Deep-Sky Companions: The Messier Objects, Deep-sky companions, Cambridge University Press, p. 248, ISBN 978-1107018372 It is recorded as discovered by Pierre Méchain, but apparently this is an error.
  10. ^ Adam, Len (2018), Imaging the Messier Objects Remotely from Your Laptop, The Patrick Moore Practical Astronomy Series, Springer, p. 290,, ISBN 978-3319653853
  11. ^ Per the small angle formula: 31 mly × tan( 9′.1 ) = ~82 kly. diameter
  12. ^ Sutaria, Firoza; Ray, Alak (June 2016), "No X-ray detection of SN2016cok by Swift XRT", The Astronomer's Telegram, 9189: 1, Bibcode:2016ATel.9189....1S.
  13. ^ List of Supernovae, Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, retrieved 9 September 2015
  14. ^ Zhang, Xiaolei; et al. (1993), "High-Resolution CO and H i Observations of the Interacting Galaxy NGC 3627", Astrophysical Journal, 418: 100, Bibcode:1993ApJ...418..100Z, doi:10.1086/173374.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 11h 20m 15.0s, +12° 59′ 30″

1992–93 New York Rangers season

The 1992–93 New York Rangers season was the 67th season for the team in the National Hockey League. The Rangers, coming off a season where they won the Presidents' Trophy, finished with a 34–39–11 record in the regular season. The team finished last in the Patrick Division and missed the playoffs.Roger Neilson entered his fourth season as Rangers head coach, but was fired midway through the season and replaced by Ron Smith.

False color

False color (or pseudo colour) refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visible or non-visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. A false-color image is an image that depicts an object in colors that differ from those a photograph (a true-color image) would show.

In addition, variants of false color such as pseudocolor, density slicing, and choropleths are used for information visualization of either data gathered by a single grayscale channel or data not depicting parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g. elevation in relief maps or tissue types in magnetic resonance imaging).

Intermediate spiral galaxy

An intermediate spiral galaxy is a galaxy that is in between the classifications of a barred spiral galaxy and an unbarred spiral galaxy. It is designated as SAB in the galaxy morphological classification system devised by Gerard de Vaucouleurs. Subtypes are labeled as SAB0, SABa, SABb, or SABc, following a sequence analogous to the Hubble sequence for barred and unbarred spirals. The subtype (0, a, b, or c) is based on the relative prominence of the central bulge and how tightly wound the spiral arms are.

Leo (constellation)

Leo is one of the constellations of the zodiac, lying between Cancer the crab to the west and Virgo the maiden to the east. Its name is Latin for lion, and to the ancient Greeks represented the Nemean Lion killed by the mythical Greek hero Heracles meaning 'Glory of Hera' (known to the ancient Romans as Hercules) as one of his twelve labors. Its symbol is (Unicode ♌). One of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, Leo remains one of the 88 modern constellations today, and one of the most easily recognizable due to its many bright stars and a distinctive shape that is reminiscent of the crouching lion it depicts. The lion's mane and shoulders also form an asterism known as "The Sickle," which to modern observers may resemble a backwards "question mark."

List of NGC objects (3001–4000)

This is a list of NGC objects 3001–4000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.


M66 may refer to:

M66 (New York City bus), a New York City Bus route in Manhattan

M-66 (Michigan highway), a state highway in Michigan

M66 motorway, a motorway in Greater Manchester England

Black Magic M66, the classification of a fictional android

Messier 66, a spiral galaxy in the constellation Leo

Soltam M-66, a 160 mm mortar manufactured in Israel

Smith & Wesson Model 66 (S&W M66), a variant of Smith & Wesson Model 19 (S&W M19) revolver

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

Seyfert galaxy

Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars. They have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.Seyfert galaxies account for about 10% of all galaxies and are some of the most intensely studied objects in astronomy, as they are thought to be powered by the same phenomena that occur in quasars, although they are closer and less luminous than quasars. These galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centers which are surrounded by accretion discs of in-falling material. The accretion discs are believed to be the source of the observed ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet emission and absorption lines provide the best diagnostics for the composition of the surrounding material.Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, it becomes clear that the luminosity of their cores is of comparable intensity to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.Seyfert galaxies are named after Carl Seyfert, who first described this class in 1943.

See also

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