Messier 35

Messier 35 or M35, also known as NGC 2168, is an open cluster of stars in the northern constellation of Gemini. It was discovered by Philippe Loys de Chéseaux around 1745 and independently discovered by John Bevis before 1750.[2] The cluster is scattered over an area of the sky almost the size of the full moon and is located 3,870 light-years (1,186 parsecs) from Earth.[1] The compact open cluster NGC 2158 lies directly southwest of M35.

Leonard & Merritt (1989) computed the mass of M35 using a statistical technique based on proper motion velocities of its stars. The mass within the central 3.75 parsecs was found to be between 1600 and 3200 solar masses (95 percent confidence), consistent with the mass of a realistic stellar population within the same radius.[6] Bouy et al. (2015) found a mass of around 1,600 M within the central 27.5′ × 27.5′. There are 305 candidate members with a probability of 95% or higher, and up to 4,349 with a 50% membership probability. The cluster metallicity is given by [Fe/H] = −0.21±0.10.[3]

Of 418 probable cluster members, Leiner et al. (2015) found 64 that have variable radial velocities and thus are binary star systems.[7] Four probable cluster members are chemically peculiar stars, while HD 41995, which lies within the cluster area, shows emission lines.[8] Hu et al. (2005) found 13 variable stars in the cluster field, although at least three are suspect as cluster members.[9]

Messier 35
Credit: 2MASS/NASA.
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 06h 08m 54.0s[1]
Declination+24° 20′ 00″[1]
Distance3,870 ly (1,186 pc)[1]
Apparent magnitude (V)5.1[2]
Apparent dimensions (V)28[2] arcmins
Physical characteristics
Mass1,600[3] M
Radius11 ly[4]
Estimated age175 Myr[3]
Other designationsC 0605+243, M35, NGC 2168[5]


  1. ^ a b c d Wu, Zhen-Yu; et al. (November 2009). "The orbits of open clusters in the Galaxy". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 399 (4): 2146–2164. arXiv:0909.3737. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.399.2146W. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15416.x.
  2. ^ a b c Thompson, Robert; Thompson, Barbara (2007). Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders: From Novice to Master Observer. DIY science. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 252. ISBN 978-0596526856.
  3. ^ a b c Bouy, H.; et al. (March 2015). "Messier 35 (NGC 2168) DANCe. I. Membership, proper motions, and multiwavelength photometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 575: 6. arXiv:1501.04416. Bibcode:2015A&A...575A.120B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425505. A120.
  4. ^ Stoyan, Ronald; et al. (2008). Atlas of the Messier Objects: Highlights of the Deep Sky. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN 9780521895545.
  5. ^ "M 35". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  6. ^ Leonard, P. J. T.; Merritt, D. (1989). "The mass of the open star cluster M35 as derived from proper motions". Astrophysical Journal. 339 (1): 195–208. Bibcode:1989ApJ...339..195L. doi:10.1086/167287.
  7. ^ Leiner, E. M.; Mathieu, R. D.; Gosnell, N. M.; Geller, A. M. (July 2015). "WIYN Open Cluster Study. LXVI. Spectroscopic Binary Orbits in the Young Open Cluster M35 (NGC 2168)". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (1): 18. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...10L. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/1/10. 10.
  8. ^ Paunzen, E.; et al. (April 2014), "Photoelectric search for peculiar stars in open clusters. XV. Feinstein 1, NGC 2168, NGC 2323, NGC 2437, NGC 2547, NGC 4103, NGC 6025, NGC 6633, Stock 2, and Trumpler 2", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 564: 8, arXiv:1403.3538, Bibcode:2014A&A...564A..42P, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423521, A42
  9. ^ Hu, Juei-Hwa; et al. (August 2005). "Discovery of 13 New Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster NGC 2168 (M35)". Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 5 (4): 356–362. Bibcode:2005ChJAA...5..356H. doi:10.1088/1009-9271/5/4/003.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 06h 09.1m 00s, 24° 21′ 00″

1745 in science

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Gemini (constellation)

Gemini is one of the constellations of the zodiac. It was one of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd century AD astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations today. Its name is Latin for "twins," and it is associated with the twins Castor and Pollux in Greek mythology. Its symbol is (Unicode ♊).

List of NGC objects (2001–3000)

This is a list of NGC objects 2001–3000 from the New General Catalogue (NGC). The astronomical catalogue is composed mainly of star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. Other objects in the catalogue can be found in the other subpages of the list of NGC objects.

The constellation information in these tables is taken from The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer, which was accessed using the "VizieR Service". Galaxy types are identified using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The other data of these tables are from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database unless otherwise stated.

List of open clusters

This is a list of open clusters located in the Milky Way. An open cluster is a gravitationally bound association of up to a few thousand stars that all formed from the same giant molecular cloud. There are over 1,000 known open clusters in the Milky Way galaxy, but the actual total may be up to ten times higher. The estimated half lives of clusters, after which half the original cluster members will have been lost, range from 150 million to 800 million years, depending on the original density.

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

NGC 2158

NGC 2158 is an open cluster in the constellation of Gemini. It is located southwest of open cluster Messier 35, and is believed to be about 2 billion years old. The two clusters are unrelated, as NGC 2158 is around 9,000 light years further away than M35.

Once thought to be a globular cluster, NGC 2158 is now known to be an intermediate-age, metal-poor open cluster that is a member of the old thin disk population.

See also

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