Messiah

In Abrahamic religions, a messiah or messias (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ‎, romanizedmāšîaḥ; Greek: μεσσίας, romanizedmessías, Arabic: مسيح‎, romanizedmasîḥ) is a saviour or liberator of a group of people. The concepts of moshiach, messianism, and of a Messianic Age originated in Judaism,[1][2] and in the Hebrew Bible; a moshiach (messiah) is a king or High Priest traditionally anointed with holy anointing oil.[3] Messiahs were not exclusively Jewish: the Book of Isaiah refers to Cyrus the Great, king of the Achaemenid Empire, as a messiah[4] for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple.

Ha mashiach (המשיח, 'the Messiah', 'the anointed one'),[5][a] often referred to as melekh mashiach (מלך המשיח 'King Messiah'),[7] is to be a human leader, physically descended from the paternal Davidic line through King David and King Solomon. He is thought to accomplish predetermined things in only one future arrival, including the unification of the tribes of Israel,[8] the gathering of all Jews to Eretz Israel, the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem, the ushering in of a Messianic Age[9] of global universal peace, and the annunciation of the world to come.[1][2]

In Christianity, the Messiah is called the Christ, from Greek: χριστός, romanizedkhristós, translating the Hebrew word of the same meaning.[10] The concept of the Messiah in Christianity originated from the Messiah in Judaism. However, unlike the concept of the Messiah in Judaism, the Messiah in Christianity is the Son of God. Christ became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth,[11] because Christians believe that the messianic prophecies in the Old Testament were fulfilled in his mission, death, and resurrection. These specifically include the prophecies of him being descended from the Davidic line, and being declared King of the Jews which happened on the day of his crucifixion. They believe that Christ will fulfill the rest of the messianic prophecies, specifically that he will usher in a Messianic Age and the world to come at his Second Coming.

In Islam, Jesus was a prophet and the Masîḥ (مسيح), the Messiah sent to the Israelites, and he will return to Earth at the end of times, along with the Mahdi, and defeat al-Masih ad-Dajjal, the false Messiah.[12] In Ahmadiyya theology, these prophecies concerning the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908),[13] the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, and the terms 'Messiah' and 'Mahdi' are synonyms for one and the same person.[14]

In Chabad messianism,[15] Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920–1950), sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of Chabad Lubavitch, and Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902–1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah claimants.[16][17][18][19] Resembling early Christianity, the deceased Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah among some adherents of the Chabad movement; his second coming is believed to be imminent.[20][21][22][23]

Samuel e david
Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, Date: 3rd century CE.

Etymology

Messiah (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ, Modern: Mashiaẖ, Tiberian: Māšîăḥ; in modern Jewish texts in English spelled Mashiach; Aramaic: משיחא‎, Greek: Μεσσίας, Classical Syriac: ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ‎, Məšîḥā, Arabic: المسيح‎, al-Masīḥ, Latin: Messias) literally means "anointed one".[24] In Hebrew, the Messiah is often referred to as מלך המשיח (Meleḵ ha-Mašīaḥ in the Tiberian vocalization, pronounced [ˈmeleχ hamaˈʃiaħ], literally meaning "the Anointed King".)

The Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament renders all thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for "anointed" (Mašíaḥ) as Χριστός (Khristós).[10] The New Testament records the Greek transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John.[Jn. 1:41][4:25]

al-Masīḥ (proper name, pronounced [maˈsiːħ]) is the Arabic word for messiah. In modern Arabic, it is used as one of the many titles of Jesus. Masīḥ is used by Arab Christians as well as Muslims, and is written as Yasūʿ al-Masih (يسوع المسيح) by Arab Christians or ʿĪsā al-Masīḥ (عيسى المسيح) by Muslims. The word al-Masīḥ literally means "the anointed", "the traveller", or the "one who cures by caressing".[25]

Judaism

The literal translation of the Hebrew word mashiach (messiah) is "anointed", which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or something by putting holy oil upon it. It is used throughout the Hebrew Bible in reference to a wide variety of individuals and objects; for example, kings, priests and prophets, the altar in the Temple, vessels, unleavened bread, and even a non-Jewish king (Cyrus the Great).[26]

In Jewish eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line, who will be "anointed" with holy anointing oil, to be king of God's kingdom, and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. In Judaism, the Messiah is not considered to be God or a pre-existent divine Son of God. He is considered to be a great political leader that has descended from King David. That is why he is referred to as Messiah ben David, which means "Messiah, son of David". The messiah, in Judaism, is considered to be a great, charismatic leader that is well oriented with the laws that are followed in Judaism.[27] He will be the one who will not "judge by what his eyes see" or "decide by what his ears hear".[28]

Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental part of Judaism, and is one of Maimonides' 13 Principles of Faith.[29]

Maimonides describes the identity of the Messiah in the following terms:

And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according to the written and oral Torah, and he will impel all of Israel to follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, and will fight God's wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one. If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord together, as it is stated: "For then I shall turn for the nations a clear tongue, so that they will all proclaim the Name of the Lord, and to worship Him with a united resolve (Zephaniah 3:9)."[30]

Even though the eventual coming of the messiah is a strongly upheld belief in Judaism, trying to predict the actual time when the messiah will come is an act that is frowned upon. These kinds of actions are thought to weaken the faith the people have in the religion. So in Judaism, there is no specific time when the messiah comes. Rather, it is the acts of the people that determines when the messiah comes. It is said that the messiah would come either when the world needs his coming the most (when the world is so sinful and in desperate need of saving by the messiah) or deserves it the most (when genuine goodness prevails in the world).[29]

A common modern rabbinic interpretation is that there is a potential messiah in every generation. The Talmud, which often uses stories to make a moral point (aggadah), tells of a highly respected rabbi who found the Messiah at the gates of Rome and asked him, "When will you finally come?" He was quite surprised when he was told, "Today." Overjoyed and full of anticipation, the man waited all day. The next day he returned, disappointed and puzzled, and asked, "You said messiah would come 'today' but he didn't come! What happened?" The Messiah replied, "Scripture says, 'Today, if you will but hearken to his voice.'"[31]

A Kabbalistic tradition within Judaism is that the commonly discussed messiah who will usher in a period of freedom and peace, Messiah ben David, will be preceded by Messiah ben Joseph, who will gather the children of Israel around him, lead them to Jerusalem. After overcoming the hostile powers in Jerusalem, Messiah ben Joseph, will reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion. Then Armilus, according to one group of sources, or Gog and Magog, according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem, wage war against Messiah ben Joseph, and slay him. His corpse, according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem; according to the other, it will be hidden by the angels with the bodies of the Patriarchs, until Messiah ben David comes and brings him back to life.[32]

Chabad

Psak din messiah
Chabad Halachic ruling declaring "every single Jew" had to believe in the imminent second coming of the deceased 7th Lubavitcher Rebbe as the Messiah[20]

Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn (r. 1920 - 1950), sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of Chabad Lubavitch,[22][23] and Menachem Mendel Schneerson (1902 - 1994), seventh Rebbe of Chabad,[16][17][18][19][33] are messiah claimants.[34][35][36][37][22][23][38]

As per Chabad-Lubavitch messianism,[15] Menachem Mendel Schneerson openly declared his deceased father-in-law, the former 6th Rebbe of Chabad Lubavitch, to be the Messiah.[22][23] He published about Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn to be "Atzmus u'mehus alein vi er hat zich areingeshtalt in a guf" (Yiddish and English for: "Essence and Existence [of God] which has placed itself in a body").[39][40][41] The gravesite of his deceased father-in-law Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, known as "the Ohel", became a central point of focus for Menachem Mendel Schneerson's prayers and supplications.

Regarding the deceased Menachem Mendel Schneerson, a later Chabad Halachic ruling claims that it was "incumbent on every single Jew to heed the Rebbe's words and believe that he is indeed King Moshiach, who will be revealed imminently".[20][42] Outside of Chabad messianism, in Judaism, there is no basis to these claims.[22][23] If anything, this resembles the faith in the resurrection of Jesus and his second coming in early Christianity.[21]

Still today, the deceased rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah among adherents of the Chabad movement,[17][18][19][35][37] and his second coming is believed to be imminent.[20] He is venerated and invocated to by thousands of visitors and letters each year at two bamot-tombs (Ohel), especially in a pilgrimage each year on the anniversary of his death.[43][44]

Christianity

The Last Judgement. Jean Cousin.
The Last Judgment, by Jean Cousin the Younger (c. late 16th century)

The Greek translation of Messiah is khristos (χριστός), anglicized as Christ, and Christians commonly refer to Jesus as either the "Christ" or the "Messiah". Christians believe that messianic prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of Jesus and that he will return to fulfill the rest of messianic prophecies.

The majority of historical and mainline Christian theologies consider Jesus to be the Son of God and God the Son, a concept of the Messiah fundamentally different from the Jewish and Islamic concepts. In each of the four New Testament Gospels, the only literal anointing of Jesus is conducted by a woman. In the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and John, this anointing occurs in Bethany, outside Jerusalem. In the Gospel of Luke, the anointing scene takes place at an indeterminate location, but context suggests it to be in Galilee, or even a separate anointing altogether.

Islam

While the term "messiah" does appear in Islam, the meaning is different from that found in Christianity and Judaism. "Though Islam shares many of the beliefs and characteristics of the two Semitic/Abrahamic/monotheistic religions which preceded it, the idea of messianism, which is of central importance in Judaism and Christianity, is alien to Islam as represented by the Qur'an."[45]

The Quran identifies Jesus (Isa)[46] as the messiah (Masih), who will one day return to earth. At the time of the second coming, "according to Islamic tradition, Jesus will come again and exercise his power of healing. He will forever destroy falsehood, as embodied in the Daj-jal, the great falsifier, the anti-Christ. Then God will reign forever."[47]

Jesus is one of the most important prophets in the Islamic tradition, along with Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad.[Quran 33:7][Quran 42:13-14][Quran 57:26][46] Unlike Christians, Muslims see Jesus as a prophet, but not as God himself or the son of God. Like all other prophets, Jesus is an ordinary man, who receives revelations from God.[48] According to religious scholar Mona Siddiqui, in Islam, "Prophecy allows God to remain veiled and there is no suggestion in the Qur'an that God wishes to reveal of himself just yet. Prophets guarantee interpretation of revelation and that God's message will be understood."[49] Prophecy in human form does not represent the true powers of God, contrary to the way Jesus is depicted in mainstream Christianity.[49]

The Quran states that Isa, the Son of Maryam (Arabic: Isa ibn Maryam), is the messiah and prophet sent to the Children of Israel.[Quran 3:45] The birth of Isa is described in Quran sura 19 verses 1–33,[Quran 19:1-33] and sura 4 verse 171 explicitly states Isa as the Son of Maryam.[Quran 4:171] Sunni Muslims believe Isa is alive in Heaven and did not die in the crucifixion, as depicted in mainstream Christianity. According to religious scholar Mahmoud Ayoub, "Jesus' close proximity or nearness (qurb) to God is affirmed in the Qur'anic insistence that Jesus did not die, but was taken up to God and remains with God[50]" [47] The Quran in sura 4 verse 157-158 states that: "They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they thought they did" since the messiah was "made to resemble him to them."[51]

It is believed that Isa will return to Earth to defeat the Masih ad-Dajjal (false Messiah),[12] a figure similar to the Antichrist in Christianity, who will emerge shortly before Yawm al-Qiyāmah ("the Day of Resurrection"). The Mahdi will come shortly before the second coming of Jesus.[52] After he has destroyed ad-Dajjal, his final task will be to become leader of the Muslims. Isa will unify the Muslim Ummah (the followers of Islam) under the common purpose of worshipping Allah alone in pure Islam, thereby ending divisions and deviations by adherents. Mainstream Muslims believe that at that time Isa will dispel Christian and Jewish claims about him.

A hadith in Abu Dawud (37:4310) says:

The Prophet said: There is no prophet between me and him, that is, Isa. He will descend (to the earth). When you see him, recognise him: a man of medium height, reddish fair, wearing two light yellow garments, looking as if drops were falling down from his head though it will not be wet. He will fight the people for the cause of Islam. He will break the cross, kill swine, and abolish jizyah. Allah will perish all religions except Islam. He will destroy the Antichrist and will live on the earth for forty years and then he will die. The Muslims will pray over him.

Both Sunni[46] and Shia Muslims agree[53] that al-Mahdi will arrive first, and after him, Isa. Isa will proclaim al-Mahdi as the Islamic community leader. A war will be fought—the Dajjal against al-Mahdi and Isa. This war will mark the approach of the coming of the Last Day. After Isa slays al-Dajjāl at the Gate of Lud, he will bear witness and reveal that Islam is indeed the true and last word from God to humanity as Yusuf Ali's translation reads: "And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them."[Quran 4:159] A hadith in Sahih Bukhari[54] says: "Allah's Apostle said "How will you be when the son of Mariam descends among you and your Imam is from among you?" "

The Quran denies the crucifixion of Jesus,[46] claiming that he was neither killed nor crucified.[Quran 4:157] The Quran also emphasizes the difference between Allah (God in Arabic) and the Messiah: "Those who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary, are unbelievers. The Messiah said: "O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord... unbelievers too are those who have said that Allah is the third of three... the Messiah, son of Mary, was only a Messenger before whom other Messengers had gone."[Quran 5:72-77]

Shia Islam

Shi'i Islam, which significantly values and revolves around the 12 spiritual leaders called Imams, differs significantly from the beliefs of Sunni Islam. Unlike Sunni Islam, "Messianism is an essential part of religious belief and practice for almost all Shi'a Muslims." [45] Shi'i Islam believes that the last Imam will return again, with the return of Jesus. According to religious scholar Mona Sidique, "Shi'is are acutely aware of the existence everywhere of the twelfth Imam, who disappeared in 874. Shi'i piety teaches that the hidden Imam will return with Jesus Christ to set up the messianic kingdom before the final Judgement Day, when all humanity will stand before God. There is some controversy as to the identity of this imam. There are sources that underscore how the Shia sect agrees with the Jews and Christians that Imam Mehdi (al-Mahdi) is another name for Elijah, whose return prior to the arrival of the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament.[55] On the other hand, there is also belief from among Shia and Sunni adherents that the imam will be Muhammad.[55]

The Imams and Fatima will have a direct impact on the judgements rendered that day. This will represent the ultimate intercession." [56] There is debate on whether Shi'i Muslims should accept the death of Jesus. Religious scholar Mahmou Ayoub argues "Modern Shi'i thinkers have allowed the possibility that Jesus died and only his spirit was taken up to heaven."[47] Conversely, religious scholar Mona Siddiqui argues that Shi'i thinkers believe Jesus was "neither crucified nor slain."[49] She also argues that Shi'i Muslims believe that the twelfth imam did not die, but "was taken to God to return in God's time," [49] and "will return at the end of history to establish the kingdom of God on earth as the expected Mahdi."[49]

Other sects

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (c. 1897)
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam, considered by Ahmadis to be the Promised Messiah of the latter days
  • In Ahmadiyya theology, the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonymous terms for one and the same person.[14] The term "Mahdi" means guided by God, thus implying a direct ordainment by God of a divinely chosen individual.[57]

According to Ahmadiyya thought, Messiahship is a phenomenon through which a special emphasis is given on the transformation of a people by way of offering suffering for the sake of God instead of giving suffering (i.e. refraining from revenge). Ahmadis believe that this special emphasis was given through the person of Jesus and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908)[13] among others.

Ahmadis hold that the prophesied eschatological figures of Christianity and Islam, the Messiah and Mahdi, were in fact to be fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous prophets.[50]

Numerous hadith are presented by the Ahmadis in support of their view, such as one from Sunan Ibn Majah, which says, "There is No Mahdi other than Jesus son of Mary."[58]

Ahmadis believe that the prophecies concerning the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. Unlike mainstream Muslims, the Ahmadis do not believe that Jesus is alive in heaven, but that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised Messiah and Mahdi.[59] He also claimed to have appeared in the likeness of Krishna and that his advent fulfilled certain prophecies found in Hindu scriptures.[60] He stated that the founder of Sikhism was a Muslim saint, who was a reflection of the religious challenges he perceived to be occurring.[61] Ghulam Ahmad wrote Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya, in 1880, which incorporated Indian, Sufi, Islamic and Western aspects in order to give life to Islam in the face of the British Raj, Protestant Christianity, and rising Hinduism. He later declared himself the Promised Messiah and the Mahdi following Divine revelations in 1891. Ghulam Ahmad argued that Jesus had appeared 1300 years after the formation of the Muslim community and stressed the need for a current Messiah, in turn claiming that he himself embodied both the Mahdi and the Messiah. Ghulam Ahmad was supported by Muslims who especially felt oppressed by Christian and Hindu missionaries.[61]

  • In Buddhism, Maitreya is considered to the next Buddha (awakened one) that is promised to come. He is expected to come to renew the laws of Buddhism once the teaching of Gautama Buddha has completely decayed.[62]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, claimed to be the figure prophesied in the scriptures of the world's religions.[63] His name, when translated literally, means "The Glory of God" in Arabic. According to the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh addressed not only those timeless theological and philosophical questions that have stayed with humanity since old times such as: Who is God? What is goodness? and Why are we here? but also the questions that have preoccupied philosophers of the 20th century: What motivates human nature? Is real peace indeed possible? Does God still care for humanity? and the like.[64] He taught that there is only one God, that all of the world's religions are from God, and that now is the time for humanity to recognize its oneness and unite.[65]
  • Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is believed to be the Messiah by followers of the Rastafari movement.[66] This idea further supports the belief that God himself is black, which they (followers of the Rastafarian movement) try to further strengthen by a verse from the Bible. [Jeremiah 8:21]. Even if the Emperor denied being the messiah, the followers of the Rastafari movement believe that he is a messenger from God. To justify this, Rastafarians used reasons such as Emperor Haile Selassie's bloodline, which is assumed to come from King Solomon of Israel, and the various titles given to him, which include Lord of Lords, King of Kings and Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah.[67]
  • In Kebatinan (Javanese religious tradition), Satrio Piningit is a character in Jayabaya's prophecies who is destined to become a great leader of Nusantara and to rule the world from Java. In Serat Pararaton,[68] King Jayabaya of Kediri foretold that before Satrio Piningit's coming, there would be flash floods and that volcanoes would erupt without warning. Satrio Piningit is a Krishna-like figure known as "Ratu Adil" (Indonesian King of Justice) and his weapon is a trishula.[69]

Popular culture

  • The Messiah, a 2007 Persian film depicting the life of Jesus from an Islamic perspective[70]
  • The Young Messiah, a 2016 American film depicting the childhood life of Jesus from a Christian perspective[71]
  • Dune Messiah, a 1969 novel by Frank Herbert, second in his Dune trilogy, also part of a miniseries, one of the widest-selling works of fiction in the 1960s
  • Messiah is the final persona of Persona 3's protagonist, obtained after he understands the meaning of his journey

The following works include the concept of a messiah as a leader of a cause or liberator of a people:

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ The specific expression ha mashiach does not occur in the Tanakh.[6]

Citations

  1. ^ a b Schochet, Jacob Immanuel. "Moshiach ben Yossef". Tutorial. moshiach.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2002. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  2. ^ a b Blidstein, Prof. Dr. Gerald J. "Messiah in Rabbinic Thought". Messiah. Jewish Virtual Library and Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  3. ^ For a biblical recipe for holy anointing oil, see Exodus 30:22-25
  4. ^ "Cyrus". Jewish Encyclopedia (1906). "This prophet, Cyrus, through whom were to be redeemed His chosen people, whom he would glorify before all the world, was the promised Messiah, 'the shepherd of Yhwh' (xliv. 28, xlv. 1)."
  5. ^ Telushkin, Joseph. "The Messiah". The Jewish Virtual Library Jewish Literacy. NY: William Morrow and Co., 1991. Reprinted by permission of the author. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  6. ^ "The Jewish Concept of Messiah and the Jewish Response to Christian Claims - Jews For Judaism". jewsforjudaism.org. Jews For Judaism. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  7. ^ Flusser, David. "Second Temple Period". Messiah. Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008. The Gale Group. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  8. ^ Megillah 17b–18a, Taanit 8b
  9. ^ Sotah 9a
  10. ^ a b Etymology Online
  11. ^ Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity, born c. 4 BC.
  12. ^ a b "Muttaqun OnLine - Dajjal (The Anti-Christ): According to the Qur'an and Sunnah". Muttaqun.com. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  13. ^ a b Ask Islam: What is the different between a messiah and a prophet? (audio)
  14. ^ a b Messiah and Mahdi - Review of Religions
  15. ^ a b also: Habad messianism, Lubavitcher messianism, mishichism, meshichism.
  16. ^ a b Susan Handelman, The Lubavitcher Rebbe Died 20 Years Ago Today. Who Was He?, Tablet Magazine
  17. ^ a b c Adin Steinsaltz, My Rebbe. Maggid Books, page 24
  18. ^ a b c Dara Horn, June 13, 2014 "Rebbe of Rebbe's". The Wall Street Journal.
  19. ^ a b c Aharon Lichtenstein, Euligy for the Rebbe. June 16, 1994.
  20. ^ a b c d Berger, Rabbi Prof. Dr. David. "On the Spectrum of Messianic Belief in Contemporary Lubavitch Chassidism". Shema Yisrael Torah Network. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  21. ^ a b Freeman, Charles. The Closing of the Western Mind, p. 133. Vintage. 2002.
  22. ^ a b c d e Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "The False Mashiah of Lubavitch-Habad". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d e Bar-Hayim, HaRav David. "Habad and Jewish Messianism (audio)". Machon Shilo (Shilo Institute). Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  24. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  25. ^ Badawi, Elsaid; Haleem, Muhammad Abdel (2008). Arabic–English Dictionary of Qur'anic Usage. Koninklijke Brill. p. 881.
  26. ^ Tanakh verses:
  27. ^ "Judaism 101: Mashiach: The Messiah". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  28. ^ Isaiah 11:3-4
  29. ^ a b "Judaism 101: Mashiach: The Messiah". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  30. ^ Mishneh Torah, Laws of Kings 11:4
  31. ^ Psalms 95:7
  32. ^ "Messiah". Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  33. ^ The New York Times, Statement From Agudas Chasidei Chabad, Feb 9, 1996.
  34. ^ Famed Posek Rabbi Menashe Klein: Messianic Group Within Chabad Are Apikorsim
  35. ^ a b On Chabad Archived 19 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Public Responsa from Rabbi Aharon Feldman on the matter of Chabad messiansim (Hebrew), 23 Sivan, 5763 - http://moshiachtalk.tripod.com/feldman.pdf. See also Rabbi Feldman's letter to David Beger: http://www.stevens.edu/golem/llevine/feldman_berger_sm_2.jpg
  37. ^ a b Berger, David (1 April 2008). The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference. Littman Library Of Jewish Civilization. ISBN 978-1904113751. for further information see the article: The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference
  38. ^ William Horbury, Markus Bockmuehl, James Carleton Paget: Redemption and resistance: the messianic hopes of Jews and Christians in antiquity Page 294 : (2007) ISBN 978-0567030443
  39. ^ Likutei Sichos, Vol 2, pp. 510-511.
  40. ^ Identifying Chabad : what they teach and how they influence the Torah world (Revised ed.). Illinois: Center for Torah Demographics. 2007. p. 13. ISBN 978-1411642416. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  41. ^ Singer, HaRav Tovia. "Why did some expect the Lubavitcher Rebbe to Resurrect as the Messiah? Rabbi Tovia Singer Responds (video-lecture)". Tovia Singer Youtube.com. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  42. ^ "Halachic Ruling". Psak Din. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  43. ^ Gryvatz Copquin, Claudia (2007). The Neighborhoods of Queens. Yale University Press. pp. 20–23. ISBN 0-300-11299-8.
  44. ^ The New York Observer, "Rebbe to the city and Rebbe to the world". Editorial, 07/08/14.
  45. ^ a b Hassan, Riffat (Spring 1985). "Messianism and Islam" (PDF). Journal of Ecumenical Studies. 22:2: 263.
  46. ^ a b c d Albert, Alexander. "Orientating, Developing, and Promoting an Islamic Christology". FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  47. ^ a b c Ayoub, Mahmoud (2007). A Muslim View of Christianity: Essays on Dialogue. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-57075-690-0.
  48. ^ Wensick, A.J. (2012). "al- Masih". Encyclopedia of Islam.
  49. ^ a b c d e Siddiqui, Mona (2013). Christians, Muslims, and Jesus. Yale University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-300-16970-6.
  50. ^ a b "The Holy Quran". Alislam.org. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  51. ^ Kendal, Elizabeth (2016). After Saturday Comes Sunday: Understanding the Christian Crisis in the Middle East. Eugene, OR: Resource Publications. p. 29. ISBN 9781498239882.
  52. ^ Khalidi, Tarif (2001). Muslim Jesus. President and Fellows of Harvard College. p. 25. ISBN 0-674-00477-9.
  53. ^ "Sunni and Shi'a". BBC. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  54. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:55:658
  55. ^ a b Abbas, Muhammad (2007). Israel: The History and How Jews, Christians and Muslims Can Achieve Peace. New York: iUniverse. ISBN 9780595426195.
  56. ^ Bill, James; Williams, John Alden (2002). Roman Catholics and Shi'i Muslims. The University of North Carolina Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-8078-2689-8.
  57. ^ ""Mahdi" in a Special Meaning and Technical Usage". Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  58. ^ Ibn Majah, Bab, Shahadatu-Zaman
  59. ^ "Jesus: A humble prophet of God". Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
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  70. ^ The Messiah (2007 film)
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Further reading

  • Aryeh Kaplan, From Messiah to Christ, New York: Orthodox Union, 2004.
  • Joseph Klausner, The Messianic Idea in Israel from Its Beginning to the Completion of the Mishnah, London: George Allen & Unwin, 1956.
  • Jacob Neusner, William S. Green, Ernst Frerichs, Judaisms and their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

External links

Al-Masih ad-Dajjal

Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: المسيح الدجّال‎ Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, "the false messiah, liar, the deceiver") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear, pretending to be al-Masih (i.e. the Messiah), before Yawm al-Qiyamah (the Day of Resurrection). He is an anti-messianic figure, comparable to the Antichrist in Christian eschatology and to Armilus in medieval Jewish eschatology.

Christ (title)

In Christianity, Christ (Greek: Χριστός, Christós, meaning "the anointed one") is a title for the saviour and redeemer who would bring salvation to the whole House of Israel. Christians believe Jesus is the Israelite messiah foretold in both the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. Christ, used by Christians as both a name and a title, is synonymous with Jesus.The role of the Christ in Christianity originated from the concept of the messiah in Judaism. Although the conceptions of the messiah in each religion are similar, for the most part they are distinct from one another due to the split of early Christianity and Judaism in the 1st century.

Though the original followers of Jesus believed Jesus to be the Jewish messiah, e.g. in the Confession of Peter, Jesus was usually referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth" or "Jesus, son of Joseph". Jesus came to be called "Jesus Christ" (meaning "Jesus the Khristós", i.e. "Jesus the Messiah" or "Jesus the Anointed") by later Christians, who believe that his crucifixion and resurrection fulfill the messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Pauline epistles, the earliest texts of the New Testament, often refer to Jesus as "Christ Jesus" or "Christ". The word Christ was originally a title, but later became part of the name "Jesus Christ". It is also used as a title, in the reciprocal use "Christ Jesus", meaning "the Messiah Jesus", and independently as "the Christ".The followers of Jesus became known as Christians (as in Acts 11:26) because they believed Jesus to be the Khristós or Mashiach prophesied in the Hebrew Bible. Religious Jews still await their messiah's first coming and the messianic prophecies of Jewish tradition to be accomplished. Religious Christians believe in the Second Coming of Christ, and they await the rest of Christian messianic prophecies to be fulfilled. One of those prophecies, distinctive in both the Jewish and Christian concept of the messiah, is that a Jewish king from the Davidic line, who will be "anointed" with holy anointing oil, will be king of God's kingdom on earth, and rule the Jewish people and mankind during the Messianic Age and World to come. Jesus is not accepted as the Jewish messiah in modern Judaism. Muslims accept Jesus (Arabic: عيسى‎, romanized: ʿĪsā) as al-Masih, the messiah in Islam, and believe he will come again, but don't believe that the messiah is divine or the Son of God.

The area of Christian theology called Christology is primarily concerned with the nature and person of Jesus Christ as recorded in the canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament.

Dune Messiah

Dune Messiah is a science fiction novel by American writer Frank Herbert, the second in his Dune series of six novels. It was originally serialized in Galaxy magazine in 1969. The American and British editions have different prologues summarizing events in the previous novel. Dune Messiah and its sequel Children of Dune were collectively adapted by the Sci-Fi Channel in 2003 into a miniseries entitled Frank Herbert's Children of Dune. In 2002, the Science Fiction Book Club also published the two novels in one volume.

Jesus

Jesus (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, and is widely described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically, although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry. He preached orally and was often referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers. He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, and crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the early Church.Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe Jesus enables people to be reconciled to God. The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural. The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25 (or various dates in January by some eastern churches) as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on Good Friday and his resurrection on Easter. The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("in the year of the Lord"), and the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus.Jesus also figures in non-Christian religions. In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God. The Quran states that Jesus never claimed divinity. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, and was neither divine nor resurrected.

Judaism's view of Jesus

Among followers of Judaism, Jesus is viewed as having been the most influential and, consequently, the most damaging of all false messiahs. However, since the traditional Jewish belief is that the messiah has not yet come and the Messianic Age is not yet present, the total rejection of Jesus as either messiah or deity has never been a central issue for Judaism.

Judaism has never accepted any of the claimed fulfilments of prophecy that Christianity attributes to Jesus. Judaism also forbids the worship of a person as a form of idolatry, since the central belief of Judaism is the absolute unity and singularity of God. Jewish eschatology holds that the coming of the Messiah will be associated with a specific series of events that have not yet occurred, including the return of Jews to their homeland and the rebuilding of The Temple, a Messianic Age of peace and understanding during which "the knowledge of God" fills the earth." And since Jews believe that none of these events occurred during the lifetime of Jesus (nor have they occurred afterwards), he was not the Messiah.

Traditional views of Jesus have been mostly negative (see: Toledot Yeshu), an account that portrays Jesus as an impostor, although in the Middle Ages Judah Halevi and Maimonides viewed Jesus as an important preparatory figure for a future universal ethical monotheism of the Messianic Age. Some modern Jewish thinkers have sympathetically speculated that the historical Jesus may have been closer to Judaism than either the Gospels or traditional Jewish accounts would indicate, starting in the 18th century with the Orthodox Jacob Emden and the reformer Moses Mendelssohn. This view is still espoused by some.

List of messiah claimants

This is a list of notable people who have been said to be a messiah, either by themselves or by their followers. The list is divided into categories, which are sorted according to date of birth (where known).

List of people claimed to be Jesus

This is a partial list of notable people who have been claimed, either by themselves or by their followers, in some way to be the reincarnation or incarnation of Jesus, or the Second Coming of Christ.

Master of Puppets

Master of Puppets is the third studio album by American heavy metal band Metallica. It was released on March 3, 1986 by Elektra Records. Recorded at the Sweet Silence Studios with producer Flemming Rasmussen, it was the first Metallica album released on a major record label. Master of Puppets was the band's last album to feature bassist Cliff Burton, who died in a bus accident in Sweden during the album's promotional tour. The album peaked at number 29 on the Billboard 200 and became the first thrash metal album to be certified platinum. It was certified 6× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in 2003 for shipping six million copies in the United States. The album was eventually certified 6× platinum by Music Canada and gold by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI).

The album is critically praised, widely considered one of the best heavy metal albums of all time. Its music and political lyrics drew praise from critics outside the metal community. Critics credit it for consolidating the American thrash metal scene. Bands from various genres of heavy metal have covered the album's songs, including tribute albums. Master of Puppets was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" enough for preservation in the National Recording Registry by the United States Library of Congress in 2015, the first metal recording to do so.

The cover was designed by Metallica and Peter Mensch and painted by Don Brautigam. It depicts a cemetery field of white crosses tethered to strings, manipulated by a pair of hands in a blood-red sky. Instead of releasing a single or video in advance of the album's release, Metallica embarked on a five-month American tour in support of Ozzy Osbourne. The European leg was canceled after Burton's death in September 1986, and the band returned home to audition a new bassist. Metallica honored the album's 20th anniversary on the Escape from the Studio '06 tour, by playing it in its entirety. A remastered version was released in November 2017.

Messiah (Handel)

Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the Coverdale Psalter, the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer. It was first performed in Dublin on 13 April 1742 and received its London premiere nearly a year later. After an initially modest public reception, the oratorio gained in popularity, eventually becoming one of the best-known and most frequently performed choral works in Western music.

Handel's reputation in England, where he had lived since 1712, had been established through his compositions of Italian opera. He turned to English oratorio in the 1730s in response to changes in public taste; Messiah was his sixth work in this genre. Although its structure resembles that of opera, it is not in dramatic form; there are no impersonations of characters and no direct speech. Instead, Jennens's text is an extended reflection on Jesus as the Messiah called Christ. The text begins in Part I with prophecies by Isaiah and others, and moves to the annunciation to the shepherds, the only "scene" taken from the Gospels. In Part II, Handel concentrates on the Passion and ends with the "Hallelujah" chorus. In Part III he covers the resurrection of the dead and Christ's glorification in heaven.

Handel wrote Messiah for modest vocal and instrumental forces, with optional settings for many of the individual numbers. In the years after his death, the work was adapted for performance on a much larger scale, with giant orchestras and choirs. In other efforts to update it, its orchestration was revised and amplified by (among others) Mozart (Der Messias). In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the trend has been towards reproducing a greater fidelity to Handel's original intentions, although "big Messiah" productions continue to be mounted. A near-complete version was issued on 78 rpm discs in 1928; since then the work has been recorded many times.

Messiah College

Messiah College is a private Christian college in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.

Messiah Part II

Messiah (HWV 56), the English-language oratorio composed by George Frideric Handel in 1741, is structured in three parts. This listing covers Part II in a table and comments on individual movements, reflecting the relation of the musical setting to the text. Part I begins with the prophecy of the Messiah and his birth, shows the annunciation to the shepherds and reflects the Messiah's deeds on earth. Part II covers the Passion in nine movements including the oratorio's longest movement, an air for alto He was despised, then mentions death, resurrection, ascension, and reflects the spreading of the Gospel and its rejection. The part is concluded by a scene called "God's Triumph" that culminates in the Hallelujah Chorus. Part III of the oratorio concentrates on Paul's teaching of the resurrection of the dead and Christ's glorification in heaven.

Messiah complex

A messiah complex (also known as the Christ complex or savior complex) is a state of mind in which an individual holds a belief that they are destined to become a savior. The term can also refer to a state of mind in which an individual believes that he or she is responsible for saving or assisting others.

The term "messiah complex" is not addressed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), as it is not a clinical term nor diagnosable disorder. However, the symptoms of the disorder closely resemble those found in individuals suffering from delusions of grandeur. An account specifically identified it as a category of religious delusion, which pertains to strong fixed beliefs that cause distress or disability. This form of delusional belief is most often reported in patients suffering from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. When a messiah complex is manifested within a religious individual after a visit to Jerusalem, it may be identified as a psychosis known as Jerusalem syndrome.Adolf Hitler is considered to have had an acute case of the messiah complex. This was evident in his preoccupation with himself as a political actor, his meticulous concern for his self-presentation, and his identification with himself as the savior of the German people. Hitler believed that he was fated to lead Germany to a thousand-year-long period of European domination and that he was chosen to rid Europe of undesirable people. This example shows how the messiah complex in such rare individuals can cause unimaginable destruction when combined with narcissistic and paranoid traits.

Messiah in Judaism

A messiah in Judaism (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ‎, romanized: māšîaḥ; Greek: χριστός, romanized: khristós, lit. 'anointed, covered in oil') is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people. The concept of messianism originated in Judaism, and in the Hebrew Bible, a messiah is a king or High Priest traditionally anointed with holy anointing oil. However, messiahs were not exclusively Jewish, as the Hebrew Bible refers to Cyrus the Great, king of Persia, as a messiah for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple.

In Jewish eschatology, the Messiah is a future Jewish king from the Davidic line, who is expected to be anointed with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age and world to come. The Messiah is often referred to as "King Messiah" (Hebrew: מלך משיח‎, romanized: melekh mashiach) or malka meshiḥa in Aramaic.Jewish messianism gave birth to Christianity, which started as a messianic Jewish sect.

Messianic Judaism

Messianic Judaism is a modern syncretic religious movement that combines Christianity—most importantly, the belief that Jesus is the Messiah—with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition. It emerged in the 1960s and 1970s.Messianic Jews believe that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah and "God the Son" (one person of the Trinity), and that the Tanakh and New Testament are the authoritative scriptures. Salvation in Messianic Judaism is achieved only through acceptance of Jesus as one's savior, and Jewish laws or customs which are followed do not contribute to salvation. Belief in the messiahship of Jesus, his power to save, and his divinity are considered by Jewish authorities to be the defining distinctions between Christianity and Judaism. Other Christian groups usually accept Messianic Judaism as a form of Christianity.Many adherents of Messianic Judaism are ethnically Jewish and argue that the movement is a sect of Judaism. Many refer to themselves in Hebrew as maaminim (believers), not converts, and yehudim (Jews), not notzrim (Christians). Jewish organizations and the Supreme Court of Israel have rejected this claim in cases related to the Law of Return, and instead consider Messianic Judaism to be a form of Christianity.From 2003 to 2007, the movement grew from 150 Messianic houses of worship in the United States to as many as 438, with over 100 in Israel and more worldwide; congregations are often affiliated with larger Messianic organizations or alliances. As of 2012, population estimates for the United States were between 175,000 and 250,000 members, between 10,000 and 20,000 members for Israel, and an estimated total worldwide membership of 350,000.

Messianism

Messianism is the belief in the advent of a messiah who acts as the savior or liberator of a group of people. Religions with a messiah concept include Zoroastrianism (Saoshyant), Judaism (the Mashiach), Buddhism (Maitreya), Hinduism (Kalki), Taoism (Li Hong), and Bábism (He whom God shall make manifest).

In Judaism, the messiah will be a future Jewish king from the line of David and redeemer of the Jewish people and humanity. In Christianity Jesus is the messiah, the savior and redeemer. In Islam, Jesus was a prophet and the messiah of the Jewish people.

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Mirzā Ghulām Ahmad (13 February 1835 – 26 May 1908) was an Indian religious leader and the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam. He claimed to have been divinely appointed as the promised Messiah and Mahdi—which is the metaphorical second-coming of Jesus (mathīl-iʿIsā), in fulfillment of Islam's latter day prophecies, as well as the Mujaddid (centennial reviver) of the 14th Islamic century.Born in 1835 to a prominent family in Qadian, Ghulam Ahmad emerged as a writer and debater for Islam. When he was just over forty years of age, his father died and around that time he believed that God began to communicate with him. In 1889, he took a pledge of allegiance from forty of his supporters at Ludhiana and formed a community of followers upon what he claimed was divine instruction, stipulating ten conditions of initiation, an event that marks the establishment of the Ahmadiyya movement. The mission of the movement, according to him, was the reinstatement of the absolute oneness of God, the revival of Islam through the moral reformation of society along Islamic ideals, and the global propagation of Islam in its pristine form. As opposed to the Christian and mainstream Islamic view of Jesus (or Isa), being alive in heaven to return towards the end of time, Ghulam Ahmad asserted that he had in fact survived crucifixion and died a natural death. He traveled extensively across the Punjab preaching his religious ideas and rallied support by combining a reformist programme with his personal revelations which he claimed to receive from God, attracting thereby substantial following within his lifetime as well as considerable hostility particularly from the Muslim Ulema. He is known to have engaged in numerous public debates and dialogues with Christian missionaries, Muslim scholars and Hindu revivalists.

Ghulam Ahmad was a prolific author and wrote more than ninety books on various religious, theological and moral subjects between the publication of the first volume of Barahin-i-Ahmadiyya (The Proofs of Islam, his first major work) in 1880 and his death in May 1908. Many of his writings bear a polemical and apologetic tone in favour of Islam, seeking to establish its superiority as a religion through rational argumentation, often by articulating his own interpretations of Islamic teachings. He advocated a peaceful propagation of Islam and emphatically argued against the permissibility of military Jihad under circumstances prevailing in the present age. By the time of his death, he had gathered an estimated 400,000 followers, especially within the United Provinces, the Punjab and Sindh and had built a dynamic religious organisation with an executive body and its own printing press. After his death he was succeeded by his close companion Hakīm Noor-ud-Dīn who assumed the title of Khalīfatul Masīh (successor of the Messiah).

Although Ghulam Ahmad is revered by Ahmadi Muslims as the promised Messiah and Imām Mahdi, Muhammad nevertheless remains the central figure in Ahmadiyya Islam. Ghulam Ahmad's claim to be a subordinate (ummati) prophet within Islam has remained a central point of controversy between his followers and mainstream Muslims, who believe Muhammad to be the last prophet.

NCAA Division III Men's Soccer Championship

The NCAA Division III Men's Soccer Championship is an annual single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III collegiate men's soccer in the United States.

Messiah is the most successful team, with 11 titles. Tufts is the reigning champion, having won their third title in 2018.

Second Coming

The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus after his ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago. The idea is based on messianic prophecies and is part of most Christian eschatologies.

Views about the nature of Jesus's Second Coming vary among Christian denominations and among individual Christians.

Sources
Death
Messiah
End-times
Movements

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