Mesopelagic zone

The mesopelagic zone (Greek μέσον, middle), also known as the middle pelagic or twilight zone, is the part of the pelagic zone that lies between the photic epipelagic and the aphotic bathypelagic zones.[1] It is defined by light, and begins at the depth where only 1% of incident light reaches and ends where there is no light; the depths of this zone are between approximately 200 to 1000 meters (~660 to 3300 feet) below the ocean surface.[1] It hosts a diverse biological community that includes bristlemouths, blobfish, bioluminescent jellyfish, giant squid, and a myriad of other unique organisms adapted to live in a low-light environment.[2] It has long captivated the imagination of scientists, artists and writers; deep sea creatures are prominent in popular culture, particularly as horror movie villains.[3]

FMIB 35304 Luminous Fish of the Deep Sea.jpeg
Illustration by Charles Frederick Holder of various bioluminescent fish that live in the mesopelagic zone.

Physical conditions

Pelagiczone
Pelagic zones

The mesopelagic zone includes the region of sharp changes in temperature, salinity and density called the thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline.[1] The temperature variations are large; from over 20 °C (68 °F) at the upper layers to around 4 °C (39 °F) at the boundary with the bathyal zone.[4] The variation in salinity is smaller, typically between 34.5 and 35 psu.[4] The density ranges from 1023 to 1027 g/kg of seawater.[4] These changes in temperature, salinity, and density induce stratification which create ocean layers. These different water masses affect gradients and mixing of nutrients and dissolved gasses. This makes this a dynamic zone.

The mesopelagic zone has some unique acoustic features. The Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel, where sound travels the slowest due to salinity and temperature variations, is located at the base of the mesopelagic zone at about 600-1200m.[5] It is a wave-guided zone where sound waves refract within the layer and propagate long distances.[4] The channel got its name during World War II when the US Navy proposed using it as a life saving tool. Shipwreck survivors could drop a small explosive timed to explode in the SOFAR channel and then listening stations could determine the position of the life raft.[6] During the 1950s, the US Navy tried to use this zone to detect Soviet submarines by creating an array of hydrophones called the Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS.)[6] Oceanographers later used this underwater surveillance system to figure out the speed and direction of deep ocean currents by dropping SOFAR floats that could be detected with the SOSUS array.[6]

The mesopelagic zone is important for water mass formation, such as mode water. Mode water is a water mass that is typically defined by its vertically mixed properties.[4] It often forms as deep mixed layers at the depth of the thermocline.[4] The mode water in the mesopelagic has residency times on decadal or century scales.[4] The longer overturning times contrast with the daily and shorter scales that a variety of animals move vertically through the zone and sinking of various debris.

Biogeochemistry

Carbon

The mesopelagic zone plays a key role in the ocean's biological pump, which contributes to the oceanic carbon cycle. In the biological pump, organic carbon is produced in the surface euphotic zone where light promotes photosynthesis. A fraction of this production is exported out of the surface mixed layer and into the mesopelagic zone. One pathway for carbon export from the euphotic layer is through sinking of particles, which can be accelerated through repackaging of organic matter in zooplankton fecal pellets, ballasted particles, and aggregates.[7]

In the mesopelagic zone, the biological pump is key to carbon cycling, as this zone is largely dominated by remineralization of particulate organic carbon (POC). When a fraction of POC is exported from the euphotic zone, an estimated 90% of that POC is respired in the mesopelagic zone.[7] This is due to the microbial organisms that respire organic matter and remineralize the nutrients, while mesopelagic fish also package organic matter into quick-sinking parcels for deeper export.[8]

Another key process occurring in this zone is the diel vertical migration of certain species, which move between the euphotic zone and mesopelagic zone and actively transport particulate organic matter to the deep.[7] In one study in the Equatorial Pacific, myctophids in the mesopelagic zone were estimated to actively transport 15-28% of the passive POC sinking to the deep,[9] while a study near the Canary Islands estimated 53% of vertical carbon flux was due to active transport from a combination of zooplankton and micronekton.[10] When primary productivity is high, the contribution of active transport by vertical migration has been estimated to be comparable to sinking particle export.[7]

Sediment trap sample 63micron size fraction
Sediment trap sample, Thermaikos Gulf, Greece, 2000. Stereoscopic image of the collected material above 63-μm pore size net. Calcareous shells and skeletons of planktonic organisms can be identified.

Particle Packaging and sinking

Mean particle sinking rates are 10 to 100 m/day.[11] Sinking rates have been measured in the project VERTIGO (Vertical Transport in the Global Ocean) using neutrally buoyant sediment traps.[12] The variability in sinking rates is due to differences in ballast, water temperature, food web structure and the types of phyto and zooplankton in different areas of the ocean.[12] If the material sinks faster, then it gets respired less by bacteria, transporting more carbon from the surface layer to the deep ocean. Larger fecal pellets sink faster due to gravity. More viscous waters could slow the sinking rate of particles.[12]

Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen is a requirement for aerobic respiration, and while the surface ocean is usually oxygen-rich due to atmospheric gas exchange and photosynthesis, the mesopelagic zone is not in direct contact with the atmosphere, due to stratification at the base of the surface mixed layer. Organic matter is exported to the mesopelagic zone from the overlying euphotic layer, while the minimal light in the mesopelagic zone limits photosynthesis. The oxygen consumption due to respiration of most of the sinking organic matter and lack of gas exchange, often creates an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the mesopelagic. The mesopelagic OMZ is particularly severe in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and tropical Indian Ocean due to poor ventilation and high rates of organic carbon export to the mesopelagic.[7] Oxygen concentrations in the mesopelagic are occasionally result in suboxic concentrations, making aerobic respiration difficult for organisms.[7] In these anoxic regions, chemosynthesis may occur in which CO2 and reduced compounds such as sulfide or ammonia are taken up to form organic carbon, contributing to the organic carbon reservoir in the mesopelagic.[13] This pathway of carbon fixation has been estimated to be comparable in rate to the contribution by heterotrophic production in this ocean realm.[14]

Nitrogen

The mesopelagic zone, an area of significant respiration and remineralization of organic particles, is generally nutrient-rich. This is in contrast to the overlying euphotic zone, which is often nutrient-limited. Areas of low oxygen such as OMZ's are a key area of denitrification by prokaryotes, a heterotrophic pathways in which nitrate is converted into nitrogen gas, resutlng in a loss to the ocean reservoir of reactive nitrogen.[7] At the suboxic interface that occurs at the edge of the OMZ, nitrite and ammonium can be coupled to produce nitrogen gas through anammox, also removing nitrogen from the biologically available pool.

Biology

Static image of sonar data scan
Sonar data. The green layer in the water column is the deep scattering layer of diel vertically migrating mesopelagic zooplankton and fish.

Although some light penetrates the mesopelagic zone, it is insufficient for photosynthesis. The biological community of the mesopelagic zone has adapted to a low-light, low-food.[15] This is a very efficient ecosystem with many organisms recycling the organic matter sinking from the epipelagic zone [16] resulting in very little organic carbon making it to deeper ocean waters The general types of life forms found are daytime-visiting herbivores, detritivores feeding on dead organisms and fecal pellets, and carnivores feeding on those detritivores.[15] Many organisms in the mesopelagic zone move up into the epipelagic zone at night, and retreat to the mesopelagic zone during the day, which is known as diel vertical migration.[7] These migrators can therefore avoid visual predators during the day and feed at night, while some of their predators also migrate up at night to follow the prey. There is so much biomass in this migration that sonar operators in World War II would regularly misinterpret the signal returned by this thick layer of plankton as a false sea floor.[17]

Virus and microbial ecology

Very little is known about the microbial community of the mesopelagic zone because it is a difficult part of the ocean to study. Recent work using DNA from seawater samples emphasized the importance of viruses and microbes role in recycling organic matter from the surface ocean, known as the microbial loop. These many microbes can get their energy from different metabolic pathways.[18] Some are autotrophs, heterotrophs, and a 2006 study even discovered chemoautotrophs.[18] This chemoautotrophic Archaea crenarchaeon Candidatus can oxidize ammonium as their energy source without oxygen, which could significantly impact the nitrogen and carbon cycles.[18] One study estimates these ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, which are only 5% of the microbial population, can annually capture 1.1 Gt of organic carbon.[19]

Microbial biomass and diversity typically decline exponentially with depth in the mesopelagic zone, tracking the general decline of food from above.[7] The community composition varies with depths in the mesopelagic as different organisms are evolved for varying light conditions.[7] Microbial biomass in the mesopelagic is greater at higher latitudes and decreases towards the tropics, which is likely linked to the differing productivity levels in the surface waters.[7] Viruses however are very abundant in the mesopelagic, with around 1010 - 1012 every cubic meter, which is fairly uniform throughout the mesopelagic zone.[7]

Periphylla periphylla00
Helmet jellyfish, Periphylla periphylla

Zooplankton ecology

The mesopelagic zone hosts a diverse zooplankton community. Common zooplankton include copepods, krill, jellyfish, siphonophores, larvaceans, cephalopods, and pteropods.[7] Food is generally scarce in the mesopelagic, so predators have to be efficient in capturing food. Gelatinous organisms are thought to play an important role in the ecology of the mesopelagic and are common predators.[20] Though previously thought to be passive predators just drifting through the water column, jellyfish could be more active predators. One study found that the helmet jellyfish Periphylla periphylla exhibit social behavior and can find each other at depth and form groups.[20] Such behavior was previously attributed to mating, but scientists speculate this could be a feeding strategy to allow a group of jellyfish to hunt together.[20]

FMIB 46273 Gnathophausia millemoesii, one of the deep-sea mysidacea.jpeg
Deep sea mysid, Gnathophausia spp.

Mesopelagic zooplankton have unique adaptations for the low light. Bioluminescence is a very common strategy in many zooplankton. This light production is thought to function as a form of communication between conspecifics, prey attraction, prey deterrence, and/or reproduction strategy.[7] Another common adaption are enhanced light organs, or eyes, which is common in krill and shrimp, so they can take advantage of the limited light.[15] Some octopus and krill even have tubular eyes that look upwards in the water column.[17]

Most life processes, like growth rates and reproductive rates, are slower in the mesopelagic.[15] Metabolic activity has been shown to decrease with increasing depth and decreasing temperature in colder-water environments.[21] For example, the mesopelagic shrimp-like mysid, Gnathophausia ingens, lives for 6.4 to 8 years, while similar benthic shrimp only live for 2 years.[15]

Fish ecology

Mesopelagic fish have a global distribution, with exceptions in the Arctic Ocean.[8] The mesopelagic is home to a significant portion of the world's total fish biomass; one study estimated mesopelagic fish could be 95% of the total fish biomass.[22] Another estimate puts mesopelagic fish biomass at 1 billion tons.[23] This ocean realm could contain the largest fishery in the world and there is active development for this zone to become a commercial fishery.[8]

Lanternfish by NOAA
Myctophids (lanternfish)

There are currently thirty families of known mesopelagic fish.[24] One dominant fish in the mesopelagic zone are lanternfish (Myctophidae), which include 245 species distributed among 33 different genera.[23] They have prominent photophores along their ventral side. The Gonostomatidae, or bristlemouth, are also common mesopelagic fish. The bristlemouth could be the Earth's most abundant vertebrate, with numbers in the hundreds of trillions to quadrillions.[25]

Mesopelagic fish are difficult to study due to their unique anatomy. Many of these fish have swim bladders to help them control their buoyancy, which makes them hard to sample because those gas-filled chambers typically burst as the fish come up in nets and the fish die.[26] Scientists in California have made progress on mesopelagic fish sampling by developing a submersible chamber that can keep fish alive on the way up to the surface under a controlled atmosphere and pressure.[26] A passive method to estimate mesopelagic fish abundance is by echosounding to locate the 'deep scattering layer' through the backscatter received from these acoustic sounders.[16] Some areas have shown a recent decline in abundance of mesopelagic fish, including in Southern California over a long-term study dating back to the 1970s.[27] Cold water species were especially vulnerable to decline.[27]

Tassled Angler Fish
Tasselled anglerfish (Rhycherus filamentosus)

Mesopelagic fish are adapted to a low-light environment. Many fish are black or red, because these colors appear dark due to the limited light penetration at depth.[15] Some fish have rows of photophores, small light-producing organs, on their underside to mimic the surrounding environment.[15] Other fish have mirrored bodies which are angled to reflect the surrounding ocean low-light colors and protect the fish from being seen, while another adaptation is countershading where fish have light colors on the ventral side and dark colors on the dorsal side.[15]

Food is often limited and patchy in the mesopelagic, leading to dietary adaptions. Common adaptations fish may have include sensitive eyes and huge jaws for enhanced and opportunistic feeding.[25] Fish are also generally small to reduce the energy requirement for growth and muscle formation.[15] Other feeding adaptations include jaws that can unhinge, elastic throats, and massive, long teeth.[15] Some predators develop bioluminescent lures, like the tasselled anglerfish, which can attract prey, while others respond to pressure or chemical cues instead of relying on vision.[15]

Human Impacts

Pollution

Marine Debris

Pre-production plastic pellets (7656726070)
Plastic pellets are a common form of marine debris

Marine debris, specifically in the plastic form, have been found in every ocean basin and have a wide range of impacts on the marine world.[28]

One of the most critical issues is ingestion of plastic debris, specifically microplastics.[29] Many mesopelagic fish species migrate to the surface waters to feast on their main prey species, zooplankton and phytoplankton, which are mixed with microplastics in the surface waters. Additionally, research has shown that even zooplankton are consuming the microplastics themselves.[30] Mesopelagic fish play a key role in energy dynamics, meaning they provide food to a number of predators including birds, larger fish and marine mammals. The concentration of these plastics has the potential to increase, so more economically important species could become contaminated as well.[31] Concentration of plastic debris in mesopelagic populations can vary depending on geographic location and the concentration of marine debris located there. In 2018, approximately 73% of approximately 200 fish sampled in the North Atlantic had consumed plastic.[32]

Bioaccumulation

Bioaccumulation (a buildup of a certain substance in the adipose tissue) and biomagnification (the process in which the concentration of the substance grows higher as you rise through the food chain) are growing issues in the mesopelagic zone.[33] Mercury in fish, which can be traced back to a combination of anthropological factors (such as coal mining) in addition to natural factors. Mercury is a particularly important bioaccumulation contaminant because its concentration in the mesopelagic zone is increasing faster than in surface waters.[34] Inorganic mercury occurs in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions in its gaseous elemental form, which then oxidizes and can be deposited in the ocean.[35] Once there, the oxidized form can be converted to methylmercury, which is its organic form.[35] Research suggests that current levels anthropogenic emissions will not equilibrate between the atmosphere and ocean for a period of decades to centuries,[36] which means we can expect current mercury concentrations in the ocean to keep rising. Mercury is a potent neurotoxin, and poses health risks to the whole food web, beyond the mesopelagic species that consume it. Many of the mesopelagic species, such as myctophids, that make their diel vertical migration to the surface waters, can transfer the neurotoxin when they are consumed by pelagic fish, birds and mammals.[37]

Fishing

Fishmeal powder
Fishmeal Powder

Historically, there have been few examples of efforts to commercialize the mesopelagic zone due to low economic value, technical feasibility and environmental impacts.[23] While the biomass may be abundant, fish species at depth are generally smaller in size and slower to reproduce.[23] Fishing with large trawl nets poses threats to a high percentage of bycatch as well as potential impacts to the carbon cycling processes.[23] Additionally, ships trying to reach productive mesopelagic regions requires fairly long journeys offshore.[38] In 1977, a Soviet fishery opened but closed less than 20 years later due to low commercial profits, while a South African purse seine fishery closed in the mid-1980s due to processing difficulties from the high oil content of fish.[39]

As the biomass in the mesopelagic is so abundant, there has been an increased interest to determine whether these populations could be of economic use in sectors other than direct human consumption. For example, it has been suggested that the high abundance of fish in this zone could potentially satisfy a demand for fishmeal and nutraceuticals.[23] With a growing global population, the demand for fishmeal in support of a growing aquaculture industry is high. There is potential for an economically viable harvest. For example, 5 billion tons of mesopelagic biomass could result in the production of circa 1.25 billion tons of food for human consumption.[23] Additionally, the demand for nutraceuticals is also rapidly growing, stemming from the popular human consumption of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in addition to the aquaculture industry that requires a specific marine oil for feed material.[23] Lanternfish are of much interest to the aquaculture market, as they are especially high in fatty acids.[40]

Climate Change

The mesopelagic region plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, as it is the area where most of the surface organic matter is respired.[7] Mesopelagic species also acquire carbon during their diel vertical migration to feed in surface waters, and they transport that carbon to the deep sea when they die.[7] It is estimated that the mesopelagic cycles between 5 and 12 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere per year, and until recently, this estimate was not included in many climate models.[2] It is difficult to quantify the effects of climate change on the mesopelagic zone as a whole, as climate change does not have uniform impacts geographically. Research suggests that in warming waters, as long as there are adequate nutrients and food for fish, then mesopelagic biomass could actually increase due to higher trophic efficiency and increased temperature-driven metabolism.[41] However, because ocean warming will not be uniform throughout the global mesopelagic zone, it is predicted that some areas may actually decrease in fish biomass, while others increase.[41]

Water column stratification will also likely increase with ocean warming and climate change.[2] Increased ocean stratification reduces the introduction of nutrients from the deep ocean into the euphotic zone resulting in decreases in both net primary production and sinking particulate matter.[2] Additional research suggests shifts in the geographical range of many species could also occur with warming, with many of them shifting poleward.[42] The combination of these factors could potentially mean that as global ocean basins continue to warm, there could be areas in the mesopelagic that increase in biodiversity and species richness, while declines in other areas, especially moving farther from the equator.[42]

Research and Exploration

ROV Hercules 2005
The science ROV 'Hercules' (IFE/URI/NOAA) during a launch in 2005. Note the array of sampling devices and robotic arms that are used to conduct deep-sea research.

There is a dearth of knowledge about the mesopelagic zone so researchers have begun to develop new technology to explore and sample this area. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), NASA, and the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research are all working on projects to gain a better understanding of this zone in the ocean and its influence on the global carbon cycle. Traditional sampling methods like nets have proved to be inadequate because they scare off creatures due to the pressure wave formed by the towed net and the light produced by the bioluminescent species caught in the net. Mesopelagic activity was first investigated by use of sonar because the return bounces off of plankton and fish in the water. However, there are many challenges with acoustic survey methods and previous research has estimated errors in measured amounts of biomass of up to three orders of magnitude.[8] This is due to inaccurate incorporation of depth, species size distribution, and acoustic properties of the species. Norway's Institute of Marine Research has launched a research vessel named Dr. Fridtjof Nansen to investigate mesopelagic activity using sonar with their focus being on the sustainability of fishing operations.[43] To overcome the challenges faced with acoustic sampling, WHOI is developing remote operated vehicles (ROVs) and robots (Deep-See, Mesobot, and Snowclops) that are capable of studying this zone more precisely in a dedicated effort called the Ocean Twilight Zone project that launched in August 2018.[25]

Discovery and Detection

The deep scattering layer often characterizes the mesopelagic due to the high amount of biomass that exists in the region.[41] Acoustic sound sent into the ocean bounces off particles and organisms in the water column and return a strong signal. The region was initially discovered by American researchers during World War II in 1942 during anti-submarine research with sonar. Sonar at the time could not penetrate below this depth due to the large number of creatures obstructing sound waves.[2] It is uncommon to detect deep scattering layers below 1000m. Until recently, sonar has been the predominate method for studying the mesopelagic.[41]

The Malaspina Circumnavigation Expedition was a Spanish-led scientific quest in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the state of the ocean and the diversity in the deep oceans.[44] The data collected, particularly through sonar observations showed that the biomass estimation in the mesopelagic was lower than previously thought.[45]

Deep-See

WHOI is currently working on a project to characterize and document the mesopelagic ecosystem. They have developed a device named Deep-See weighing approximately 700 kg, which is designed to be towed behind a research vessel.[2] The Deep-See is capable of reaching depths up to 2000 m and can estimate the amount of biomass and biodiversity in this mesopelagic ecosystem. Deep-See is equipped with cameras, sonars, sensors, water sample collection devices, and a real-time data transmission system.[43]

Mesobot

WHOI is collaborating with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), Stanford University, and the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley to develop a small autonomous robot, Mesobot, weighing approximately 75 kg.[2][46] Mesobot is equipped with high-definition cameras to track and record mesopelagic species on their daily migration over extended periods of time. The robot's thrusters were designed so that they do not disturb the life in the mesopelagic that it is observing.[2] Traditional sample collection devices fail to preserve organisms captured in the mesopelagic due to the large pressure change associated with surfacing. The mesobot also has a unique sampling mechanism that is capable of keeping the organisms alive during their ascent. The first sea trial of this device is expected to be in 2019.

Snowclops

Another mesopelagic robot developed by WHOI is the Snowclops. This device descends down the water column and measures the amount of marine snow at various depths. These tiny particles are a food source for other organisms so it is important to monitor the different levels of marine snow to characterize the carbon exchange between the surface ocean and the mesopelagic.[2]

SPLAT cam

The Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute has developed the Spatial PLankton Analysis Technique (SPLAT) to identify and map distribution patterns of bioluminescent plankton. The various bioluminescent species produce a unique flash that allows the SPLAT to distinguish each specie's flash characteristic and then map their 3-dimensional distribution patterns.[47] Its intended use was not for investigating the mesopelagic zone, although it is capable of tracking movement patterns of bioluminescent species during their vertical migrations. It would be interesting to apply this mapping technique in the mesopelagic to obtain more information about the diurnal vertical migrations that occur in this zone of the ocean.

References

  1. ^ a b c del Giorgio, Paul A.; Duarte, Carlos M. (28 November 2002). "Respiration in the open ocean". Nature. 420 (6914): 379–384. doi:10.1038/nature01165. hdl:10261/89751. PMID 12459775.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The mesopelagic: Cinderella of the oceans". The Economist. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  3. ^ Hackett, Jon; Harrington, Seán, eds. (2018-02-02). Beasts of the Deep. John Libbey Publishing. doi:10.2307/j.ctt20krz85. ISBN 9780861969395.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g L., Talley, Lynne D. Emery, William J. Pickard, George (2012). Descriptive physical oceanography : an introduction. Academic Press. ISBN 9780750645522. OCLC 842833260.
  5. ^ "NOAA Ocean Explorer: Sounds in the Sea 2001: diagram of how sound travels underwater". oceanexplorer.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  6. ^ a b c "History of the SOFAR Channel – Discovery of Sound in the Sea". dosits.org. 2016-07-12. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Robinson, Carol; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Arístegui, Javier; Carlson, Craig A.; Frost, Jessica R.; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Hernández-León, Santiago; Jackson, George A.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Quéguiner, Bernard; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rassoulzadegan, Fereidoun; Robison, Bruce H.; Tamburini, Christian; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Wishner, Karen F.; Zhang, Jing (August 2010). "Mesopelagic zone ecology and biogeochemistry – a synthesis" (PDF). Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 57 (16): 1504–1518. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.02.018.
  8. ^ a b c d Davison, Peter C.; Koslow, J. Anthony; Kloser, Rudy J. (2015-02-19). "Acoustic biomass estimation of mesopelagic fish: backscattering from individuals, populations, and communities". ICES Journal of Marine Science. 72 (5): 1413–1424. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv023. ISSN 1095-9289.
  9. ^ Hidaka, Kiyotaka; Kawaguchi, Kouichi; Murakami, Masahiro; Takahashi, Mio (August 2001). "Downward transport of organic carbon by diel migratory micronekton in the western equatorial Pacific". Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 48 (8): 1923–1939. doi:10.1016/s0967-0637(01)00003-6. ISSN 0967-0637.
  10. ^ Ariza, A.; Garijo, J.C.; Landeira, J.M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S. (2015). "Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)". Progress in Oceanography. 134: 330–342. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.03.003. ISSN 0079-6611.
  11. ^ Fowler, Scott W; Knauer, George A (January 1986). "Role of large particles in the transport of elements and organic compounds through the oceanic water column". Progress in Oceanography. 16 (3): 147–194. doi:10.1016/0079-6611(86)90032-7. ISSN 0079-6611.
  12. ^ a b c Buesseler, Ken O.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Boyd, Philip W.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Trull, Thomas W.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Bishop, James K. B.; Casciotti, Karen L.; Dehairs, Frank (2007-04-27). "Revisiting Carbon Flux Through the Ocean's Twilight Zone". Science. 316 (5824): 567–570. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.501.2668. doi:10.1126/science.1137959. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17463282.
  13. ^ Sanders, Richard J.; Henson, Stephanie A.; Martin, Adrian P.; Anderson, Tom R.; Bernardello, Raffaele; Enderlein, Peter; Fielding, Sophie; Giering, Sarah L. C.; Hartmann, Manuela (2016). "Controls over Ocean Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage (COMICS): Fieldwork, Synthesis, and Modeling Efforts". Frontiers in Marine Science. 3. doi:10.3389/fmars.2016.00136. ISSN 2296-7745.
  14. ^ Reinthaler, Thomas; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Herndl, Gerhard J. (2010-08-15). "Major contribution of autotrophy to microbial carbon cycling in the deep North Atlantic's interior". Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 57 (16): 1572–1580. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.02.023. ISSN 0967-0645.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Miller, Charles B. (2004). Biological Oceanography. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 232–245. ISBN 978-0-632-05536-4.
  16. ^ a b Hays, Graeme C. (2003). "A review of the adaptive significance and ecosystem consequences of zooplankton diel vertical migrations". Hydrobiologia. 503 (1–3): 163–170. doi:10.1023/b:hydr.0000008476.23617.b0. ISSN 0018-8158.
  17. ^ a b Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "2. – Deep-sea creatures – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  18. ^ a b c Ingalls, Anitra E.; Shah, Sunita R.; Hansman, Roberta L.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Pearson, Ann (2006-04-25). "Quantifying archaeal community autotrophy in the mesopelagic ocean using natural radiocarbon". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (17): 6442–6447. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510157103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1564200. PMID 16614070.
  19. ^ Sciences, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean. "Dark Ocean Bacteria Discovered to Play Large Role in Carbon Capture - Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences". www.bigelow.org. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  20. ^ a b c Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid (2015-06-11). "Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish". Scientific Reports. 5 (1): 11310. doi:10.1038/srep11310. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4464149. PMID 26065904.
  21. ^ Frost, Jessica R.; Denda, Anneke; Fox, Clive J.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Youngbluth, Marsh J. (2011-10-12). "Distribution and trophic links of gelatinous zooplankton on Dogger Bank, North Sea". Marine Biology. 159 (2): 239–253. doi:10.1007/s00227-011-1803-7. ISSN 0025-3162.
  22. ^ "Ninety-five per cent of world's fish hide in mesopelagic zone". Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h John, St; A, Michael; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Heath, Michael; Grigorov, Ivo; Mariani, Patrizio; Martin, Adrian P.; Santos, Ricardo S. (2016). "A Dark Hole in Our Understanding of Marine Ecosystems and Their Services: Perspectives from the Mesopelagic Community". Frontiers in Marine Science. 3. doi:10.3389/fmars.2016.00031. ISSN 2296-7745.
  24. ^ Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences: Marine biology. Steele, John H. (2nd ed.). London: Academic Press. 2009. ISBN 9780123757241. OCLC 501069621.CS1 maint: others (link)
  25. ^ a b c "Visitors From the Ocean's Twilight Zone". Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  26. ^ a b "This Invention Helps Deep-Dwelling Fish Journey to the Surface". 2018-06-05. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  27. ^ a b Koslow, J. Anthony; Miller, Eric F.; McGowan, John A. (2015-10-28). "Dramatic declines in coastal and oceanic fish communities off California". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 538: 221–227. doi:10.3354/meps11444. ISSN 0171-8630.
  28. ^ Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan (2014-07-15). "Plastic debris in the open ocean". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (28): 10239–10244. doi:10.1073/pnas.1314705111. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 4104848. PMID 24982135.
  29. ^ Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S. (2011-12-01). "Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 62 (12): 2588–2597. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.09.025. hdl:10871/19649. ISSN 0025-326X. PMID 22001295.
  30. ^ Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Galloway, Tamara S. (2013-06-06). "Microplastic Ingestion by Zooplankton". Environmental Science & Technology. 47 (12): 6646–6655. doi:10.1021/es400663f. hdl:10871/19651. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 23692270.
  31. ^ Davison, Peter; Asch, Rebecca G. (2011-06-27). "Plastic ingestion by mesopelagic fishes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 432: 173–180. doi:10.3354/meps09142. ISSN 0171-8630.
  32. ^ Wieczorek, Alina M.; Morrison, Liam; Croot, Peter L.; Allcock, A. Louise; MacLoughlin, Eoin; Savard, Olivier; Brownlow, Hannah; Doyle, Thomas K. (2018). "Frequency of Microplastics in Mesopelagic Fishes from the Northwest Atlantic". Frontiers in Marine Science. 5. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00039. ISSN 2296-7745.
  33. ^ Monteiro, L.R.; Costa, V.; Furness, R.W.; Santos, R.S. (1997). "Mercury concentrations in prey fish indicate enhanced bioaccumulation in mesopelagic environments". Oceanographic Literature Review. 5 (44). ISSN 0967-0653.
  34. ^ Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P. (2015-07-07). "Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals". Proc. R. Soc. B. 282 (1810): 20150710. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.0710. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 4590481. PMID 26085591.
  35. ^ a b Blum, Joel D.; Popp, Brian N.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Anela Choy, C.; Johnson, Marcus W. (2013-08-25). "Methylmercury production below the mixed layer in the North Pacific Ocean". Nature Geoscience. 6 (10): 879–884. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.412.1568. doi:10.1038/ngeo1918. ISSN 1752-0894.
  36. ^ Sunderland, Elsie M.; Mason, Robert P. (2007). "Human impacts on open ocean mercury concentrations". Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 21 (4): n/a. doi:10.1029/2006gb002876. ISSN 0886-6236.
  37. ^ Neff, J. M. (2002-04-16). Bioaccumulation in Marine Organisms: Effect of Contaminants from Oil Well Produced Water. Elsevier. ISBN 9780080527840.
  38. ^ "The Ocean's 'Twilight Zone' Faces Fishing Threat". Oceans. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  39. ^ Prellezo, Raúl (2018). "Exploring the economic viability of a mesopelagic fishery in the Bay of Biscay". ICES Journal of Marine Science. 76 (3): 771–779. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsy001.
  40. ^ Koizumi, Kyoko; Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Saito, Hiroaki (2014). "Lipid and Fatty Acids of Three Edible Myctophids, Diaphus watasei, Diaphus suborbitalis, and Benthosema pterotum: High Levels of Icosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids". Journal of Oleo Science. 63 (5): 461–470. doi:10.5650/jos.ess13224. ISSN 1345-8957.
  41. ^ a b c d Proud, Roland; Cox, Martin J.; Brierley, Andrew S. (2017). "Biogeography of the Global Ocean's Mesopelagic Zone". Current Biology. 27 (1): 113–119. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.11.003. hdl:10023/12382. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 28017608.
  42. ^ a b Costello, Mark J.; Breyer, Sean (2017). "Ocean Depths: The Mesopelagic and Implications for Global Warming". Current Biology. 27 (1): R36–R38. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.11.042. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 28073022.
  43. ^ a b "What lives in the ocean's twilight zone? New technologies might finally tell us". Science | AAAS. 2018-08-22. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  44. ^ Duarte, Carlos M. (2015-01-28). "Seafaring in the 21St Century: The Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition" (PDF). Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin. 24 (1): 11–14. doi:10.1002/lob.10008. ISSN 1539-607X.
  45. ^ Irigoien, Xabier; Klevjer, T. A.; Røstad, A.; Martinez, U.; Boyra, G.; Acuña, J. L.; Bode, A.; Echevarria, F.; Gonzalez-Gordillo, J. I. (2014-02-07). "Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean". Nature Communications. 5 (1): 3271. doi:10.1038/ncomms4271. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 3926006. PMID 24509953.
  46. ^ "Mesobot". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  47. ^ Widder, E.A. (October 2002). SPLAT CAM: mapping plankton distributions with bioluminescent road-kill. Oceans '02 MTS/IEEE. 3. IEEE. pp. 1711–1715 vol.3. doi:10.1109/oceans.2002.1191891. ISBN 978-0780375345.

See also

Abralia

Abralia is a genus of squid comprising around 20 species from the family Enoploteuthidae. They are small squid which can be found in the epipelagic to mesopelagic zones while some species are found in water with shallow substrates on steep slopes on the boundary of the mesopelagic zone. They are distinguished from other members of the Enoploteuthidae by not normally having large, black photophores at the tips of arms IV, although if these are present they are not covered in black chromatophores, and having fins which extend beyond their tail. The photophores of the integument are characteristicand are found in the three types . "Lensed" photophores are a blue color with a white ring, "simple" photophores are small and violet-colored and the "complex" photophores are surrounded by small green satellite points and have a green centre. The complex photophores will frequently appear to be blue depending on their physiological state. The integument also has small black chromatophores which look like dots. They have 5-12 variably sized photophores on the eye. Either the right or left arm IV is hectocotylized.Abralia is the most speciose genus in the Enoploteuthidae and is normally divided in to six subgenera, however, recent studies suggest that these may not form natural groupings. They have worldwide distribution in tropical and subtropical seas. They spend the day at depths below 600m and at night they move to less than 200m in depth. These quid are important prey species for large fish such as tuna and billfish as well as toothed whales.

Abralia spaercki

Abralia spaercki is a species of enoploteuthid cephalopod that has been found in the waters off northern Australia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Its taxonomic relationship with A. multihamata still needs to be determined. It inhabits the mesopelagic zone of continental or island shelves.

Abralia trigonura

Abralia trigonura is a species of enoploteuthid cephalopod found in the Pacific Ocean in the mesopelagic zone. Females reach a mantle length of 31–35 mm compared to males at 23–27 mm at maturity. Females spawn in batches of 290–430 small eggs, 0.9 mm in length. The paralarvae stage lasts about 40 days before shifting to adult mode. Male spermatophores are relatively small at 7 mm in length. It migrates to the upper water column to feed at night.

Aetheliparis rossi

Aetheliparis rossi is a species of snailfish only known from the mesopelagic zone in the North Atlantic off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This species is found at depths of from 500 to 674 metres (1,640 to 2,211 ft).

Argyropelecus aculeatus

The lovely hatchetfish or Atlantic silver hatchetfish (Argyropelecus aculeatus) is a species of fish in the Sternoptychidae family. It may exceed 70 millimetres (2.8 in) standard length (SL). It lives in the mesopelagic zone of all oceans and performs diel vertical migration. A. aculeatus feeds on a large range of prey items; in the Gulf of Mexico ostracods and copepods dominated the diet of small individuals (<30 mm SL) and euphausiids, molluscs, and fish the diet of larger ones.

The silvery coloration and bioluminescence of the lovely hatchetfish allows it to hide from predators and prey in the down-welling light of the twilight zone.

Argyropelecus affinis

Argyropelecus affinis is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Sternoptychidae, found in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Common names for this fish include Pacific hatchetfish, deepsea hatchetfish and slender hatchetfish. It inhabits the mesopelagic zone and is either non-migratory or performs short daily vertical migrations.

Argyropelecus sladeni

Argyropelecus sladeni (Sladen's hatchetfish) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Sternoptychidae, found in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. This small fish lives in the mesopelagic zone by day and makes a daily vertical migration to the epipelagic zone at night.

Atolla

Atolla is a genus of crown jellyfish in the order Coronatae. The genus Atolla was originally proposed by Haeckel in 1880 and elevated to the monotypic family level, as Atollidae by Henry Bigelow in 1913. The six known species inhabit the mesopelagic zone. The medusae possess multiple lobes called lappets at the bell margin. Medusae also have eight tentacles, alternating with eight rhopalia, and twice as many lappets occur as tentacles.

Bigeye sand tiger

The bigeye sand tiger (Odontaspis noronhai) is an extremely rare species of mackerel shark in the family Odontaspididae, with a possible worldwide distribution. A large, bulky species reaching at least 3.6 m (12 ft) in length, the bigeye sand tiger has a long bulbous snout, large orange eyes without nictitating membranes, and a capacious mouth with the narrow teeth prominently exposed. It can be distinguished from the similar smalltooth sand tiger (O. ferox) by its teeth, which have only one lateral cusplet on each side, and by its uniformly dark brown color.

Inhabiting continental margins and oceanic waters at depths of 60–1,000 m (200–3,280 ft), the bigeye sand tiger may make vertical and horizontal migratory movements. It feeds on bony fishes and squid, and its sizable eyes and dark coloration suggest that it may spend most of its time in the mesopelagic zone. Reproduction is probably viviparous with oophagous embryos like in other mackerel shark species. This shark is caught incidentally by commercial fisheries, though so infrequently.

Crocodile shark

The crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) is a species of mackerel shark and the only extant member of the family Pseudocarchariidae. A specialized inhabitant of the mesopelagic zone, the crocodile shark can be found worldwide in tropical waters from the surface to a depth of 590 m (1,940 ft). It performs a diel vertical migration, staying below a depth of 200 m (660 ft) during the day and ascending into shallower water at night to feed. Typically measuring only 1 m (3.3 ft) in length, the crocodile shark is the smallest living mackerel shark. It can be distinguished by its elongated cigar-shaped body, extremely large eyes, and relatively small fins.

An active-swimming predator of pelagic bony fishes, squid and shrimp, the crocodile shark has a sizable oily liver that allows it to maintain its position in the water column with minimal effort. The size and structure of its eyes suggests that it is adapted for hunting at night. The crocodile shark is aplacental viviparous, with females typically giving birth to litters of four. The fetuses are oophagous, meaning that they feed on undeveloped eggs ovulated for this purpose by their mother. Due to its small size, the crocodile shark poses little danger to humans and is of little commercial importance. However, substantial numbers are caught as bycatch, leading it to be assessed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This species was responsible for damaging deep sea fiberoptic cables when the technology was first deployed in 1985.

Deep sea fish

Deep-sea fish are fish that live in the darkness below the sunlit surface waters, that is below the epipelagic or photic zone of the sea. The lanternfish is, by far, the most common deep-sea fish. Other deep sea fishes include the flashlight fish, cookiecutter shark, bristlemouths, anglerfish, viperfish, and some species of eelpout.

Only about 2% of known marine species inhabit the pelagic environment. This means that they live in the water column as opposed to the benthic organisms that live in or on the sea floor. Deep-sea organisms generally inhabit bathypelagic (1000–4000m deep) and abyssopelagic (4000–6000m deep) zones. However, characteristics of deep-sea organisms, such as bioluminescence can be seen in the mesopelagic (200–1000m deep) zone as well. The mesopelagic zone is the disphotic zone, meaning light there is minimal but still measurable. The oxygen minimum layer exists somewhere between a depth of 700m and 1000m deep depending on the place in the ocean. This area is also where nutrients are most abundant. The bathypelagic and abyssopelagic zones are aphotic, meaning that no light penetrates this area of the ocean. These zones make up about 75% of the inhabitable ocean space.The epipelagic zone (0–200m) is the area where light penetrates the water and photosynthesis occurs. This is also known as the photic zone. Because this typically extends only a few hundred meters below the water, the deep sea, about 90% of the ocean volume, is in darkness. The deep sea is also an extremely hostile environment, with temperatures that rarely exceed 3 °C (37.4 °F) and fall as low as −1.8 °C (28.76 °F) (with the exception of hydrothermal vent ecosystems that can exceed 350 °C, or 662 °F), low oxygen levels, and pressures between 20 and 1,000 atmospheres (between 2 and 100 megapascals).

Diel vertical migration

Diel vertical migration (DVM), also known as diurnal vertical migration, is a pattern of movement used by some organisms, such as copepods, living in the ocean and in lakes. The migration occurs when organisms move up to the epipelagic zone at night and return to the mesopelagic zone of the oceans or to the hypolimnion zone of lakes during the day. The word diel comes from the Latin dies day, and means a 24-hour period. In terms of biomass, it is the greatest migration in the world. It is not restricted to any one taxa as examples are known from crustaceans (copepods), molluscs (squid), and ray-finned fishes (trout). Various stimuli are responsible for this phenomenon, the most prominent being response to changes in light intensity, though evidence suggests that biological clocks are an underlying stimulus as well. The phenomenon may arise for a number of reasons, though it is most typically to access food and avoid predators. While this mass migration is generally nocturnal, with the animals ascending from the depths at nightfall and descending at sunrise, the timing can be altered in response to the different cues and stimuli that trigger it. Some unusual events impact vertical migration: DVM is absent during the midnight sun in Arctic regions and vertical migration can occur suddenly during a solar eclipse.

Duckbill oceanic eel

The Duckbill oceanic eel (Nessorhamphus ingolfianus, also known as the Duckbilled eel or the Ingolf duckbill eel) is an eel in the family Derichthyidae (longneck eels). It was described by Johannes Schmidt in 1912. It is a marine, deep water-dwelling eel which is known from France, Morocco, the Cape of Good Hope, and South Africa in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, as well as from the western Atlantic, southwestern Indian, and southwestern Pacific. It dwells at a depth range of 0–1800 metres, inhabiting the mesopelagic zone. Males can reach a maximum total length of 58.9 centimetres.The Duckbill oceanic eel feeds primarily on crustaceans.

Echiostoma barbatum

Echiostoma barbatum, the Threadfin dragonfish, is a species of barbeled dragonfish and is the only known species in its genus. It is widespread through tropical to temperate waters in all oceans in mid to deep waters up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). This species grows to a length of 36.8 centimetres (14.5 in) SL.

Like many fish that live in the Mesopelagic zone the threadfin dragonfish uses bioluminescenct organs to attract prey.

Giant hatchetfish

The giant hatchetfish or greater silver hatchetfish (Argyropelecus gigas), a marine hatchetfish of the genus Argyropelecus, is found in every ocean except the north Pacific in the mesopelagic zone of tropical and subtropical waters. "Giant" in relative terms only, this is the largest species of marine hatchetfishes, often exceeding 110 millimetres (4.3 in) standard length.

Lycoteuthidae

The Lycoteuthidae are a family of squid comprising four known genera in two subfamilies. They are small muscular squid characterised by a lack of hooks and by photophores present on the viscera, eyeballs and tentacles. They inhabit tropical and subtropical seas where the diel migrants which stay down in the mesopelagic zone during the day and migrate to the surface to feed at night. Some species show strong sexual dimorphism.

Pelagic zone

The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth. The word "pelagic" is derived from Ancient Greek πέλαγος (pélagos), meaning 'open sea'. The pelagic zone can be thought of in terms of an imaginary cylinder or water column that goes from the surface of the sea almost to the bottom. Conditions in the water column change with distance from the surface (depth), e.g. the pressure increases; the temperature, and the amount of light decreases; the salinity, the amount of disolved oxygen, and micronutrients (e.g. Fe++, Mg++, Ca++) all change. Depending on the depth, the water column, rather like the Earth's atmosphere, may be divided into different layers.

The pelagic zone occupies 1,330 million km3 (320 million mi3) with a mean depth of 3.68 km (2.29 mi) and maximum depth of 11 km (6.8 mi). Fish that live in the pelagic zone are called pelagic fish. Pelagic life decreases with increasing depth. In addition to the above changes, life is affected by the submarine topography, which is called bathymetry. In deep water, the pelagic zone is sometimes called the open-ocean zone and can be contrasted with water that is near the coast or on the continental shelf. In other contexts, coastal water not near the bottom is still said to be in the pelagic zone.

The pelagic zone can be contrasted with the benthic and demersal zones at the bottom of the sea. The benthic zone is the ecological region at the very bottom of the sea. It includes the sediment surface and some subsurface layers. Marine organisms living in this zone, such as clams and crabs, are called benthos. The demersal zone is just above the benthic zone. It can be significantly affected by the seabed and the life that lives there. Fish that live in the demersal zone are called demersal fish, and can be divided into benthic fish, which are denser than water so they can rest on the bottom, and benthopelagic fish, which swim in the water column just above the bottom. Demersal fish are also known as bottom feeders and groundfish.

Stigmatoteuthis arcturi

Stigmatoteuthis arcturi, commonly known as the jewelled squid, is a species of cock-eyed squid from the family Histioteuthidae. It occurs throughout the subtropical and tropical Atlantic Ocean in the mesopelagic zone.

Stomias

Stomias is a genus of barbeled dragonfishes. They live in the mesopelagic zone of all oceans and show diel vertical migration and sexual dimorphism (males are smaller, have larger eyes and larger postorbital photophores than females.

Waves
Circulation
Tides
Landforms
Plate
tectonics
Ocean zones
Sea level
Acoustics
Satellites
Related

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.