Mennonites

The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands). Through his writings, Simons articulated and formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders. The early teachings of the Mennonites were founded on the belief in both the mission and ministry of Jesus, which the original Anabaptist followers held to with great conviction despite persecution by the various Roman Catholic and Protestant states. An early set of Mennonite beliefs was codified in the Dordrecht Confession of Faith in 1632,[2] but the various groups do not hold to a common confession or creed. Rather than fight, the majority of these followers survived by fleeing to neighboring states where ruling families were tolerant of their belief in believer's baptism. Over the years, Mennonites have become known as one of the historic peace churches because of their commitment to pacifism.[3]

In contemporary 21st-century society, Mennonites either are described only as a religious denomination with members of different ethnic origins[4][5] or as both an ethnic group and a religious denomination. There is controversy among Mennonites about this issue, with some insisting that they are simply a religious group while others argue that they form a distinct ethnic group.[6] Historians and sociologists have increasingly started to treat Mennonites as an ethno-religious group,[7] while others have begun to challenge that perception.[8] There is also a discussion about the term "ethnic Mennonite". Conservative Mennonite groups, who speak Pennsylvania German, Plautdietsch (Low German), or Bernese German fit well into the definition of an ethnic group, while more liberal groups and converts in developing countries do not.

There are about 2.1 million Anabaptists worldwide as of 2015 (including Mennonites, Amish, Mennonite Brethren, Hutterites and many other Anabaptist groups formally part of the Mennonite World Conference).[1] Mennonite congregations worldwide embody the full scope of Mennonite practice from "plain people" to those who are indistinguishable in dress and appearance from the general population. Mennonites can be found in communities in at least 87 countries on six continents. The largest populations of Mennonites are to be found in Canada, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India and the United States.[9] There are Mennonite colonies in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia,[10] Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay,[11] and Paraguay,[12] mostly Plautdietsch-speaking, who originated in the Netherlands, and formed as a distinct ethnic group in Prussia and later Ukraine, and are commonly called, somewhat inaccurately, Russian Mennonites. Today, fewer than 500 Mennonites remain in Ukraine.[13] A relatively small Mennonite presence, known as the Algemene Doopsgezinde Societeit, still continues in the Netherlands, where Simons was born.[14]

Mennonite
Total population
2,100,000[1]
Founder
Peaceful Anabaptists
Regions with significant populations
Africa735,000
North America672,000
Asia and Pacific420,000
Latin America and Caribbean270,000
Europe63,000
Religions
Anabaptist
Scriptures
The Bible

Radical Reformation

Spread of the Anabaptists 1525-1550
Spread of the early Anabaptists, 1525–1550

The early history of the Mennonites starts with the Anabaptists in the German and Dutch-speaking parts of central Europe. The German term is "Täufer" or "Wiedertäufer" ("Again-Baptists" or "Anabaptists" using the Greek ana ["again"]). These forerunners of modern Mennonites were part of the Protestant Reformation, a broad reaction against the practices and theology of the Roman Catholic Church. Its most distinguishing feature is the rejection of infant baptism, an act that had both religious and political meaning since almost every infant born in western Europe was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church. Other significant theological views of the Mennonites developed in opposition to Roman Catholic views or to the views of other Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli.

Some of the followers of Zwingli's Reformed church thought that requiring church membership beginning at birth was inconsistent with the New Testament example. They believed that the church should be completely removed from government (the proto–free church tradition), and that individuals should join only when willing to publicly acknowledge belief in Jesus and the desire to live in accordance with his teachings. At a small meeting in Zurich on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, and George Blaurock, along with twelve others, baptized each other.[15] This meeting marks the beginning of the Anabaptist movement. In the spirit of the times, other groups came to be, preaching about reducing hierarchy, relations with the state, eschatology, and sexual license, running from utter abandon to extreme chastity. These movements are together referred to as the "Radical Reformation".

Many government and religious leaders, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, considered voluntary church membership to be dangerous—the concern of some deepened by reports of the Münster Rebellion, led by a violent sect of Anabaptists. They joined forces to fight the movement, using methods such as banishment, torture, burning, drowning or beheading.[16]:142

Despite strong repressive efforts of the state churches, the movement spread slowly around western Europe, primarily along the Rhine. Officials killed many of the earliest Anabaptist leaders in an attempt to purge Europe of the new sect.[16]:142 By 1530, most of the founding leaders had been killed for refusing to renounce their beliefs. Many believed that God did not condone killing or the use of force for any reason and were, therefore, unwilling to fight for their lives. The non-resistant branches often survived by seeking refuge in neutral cities or nations, such as Strasbourg. Their safety was often tenuous, as a shift in alliances or an invasion could mean resumed persecution. Other groups of Anabaptists, such as the Batenburgers, were eventually destroyed by their willingness to fight. This played a large part in the evolution of Anabaptist theology. They believed that Jesus taught that any use of force to get back at anyone was wrong, and taught to forgive.

Menno Simons
Menno Simons

In the early days of the Anabaptist movement, Menno Simons, a Catholic priest in the Low Countries, heard of the movement and started to rethink his Catholic faith. He questioned the doctrine of transubstantiation but was reluctant to leave the Roman Catholic Church. His brother, a member of an Anabaptist group, was killed when he and his companions were attacked and refused to defend themselves.[17] In 1536, at the age of 40, Simons left the Roman Catholic Church. He soon became a leader within the Anabaptist movement and was wanted by authorities for the rest of his life. His name became associated with scattered groups of nonviolent Anabaptists whom he helped to organize and consolidate.[18]

Fragmentation and variation

During the 16th century, the Mennonites and other Anabaptists were relentlessly persecuted. This period of persecution has had a significant impact on Mennonite identity. Martyrs Mirror, published in 1660, documents much of the persecution of Anabaptists and their predecessors. Today, the book is still the most important book besides the Bible for many Mennonites and Amish, in particular for the Swiss-South German branch of the Mennonites. Persecution was still going on until 1710 in various parts of Switzerland.[19]

Disagreements within the church over the years led to other splits; sometimes the reasons were theological, sometimes practical, sometimes geographical. For instance, near the beginning of the 20th century, some members in the Amish church wanted to begin having Sunday Schools and participate in progressive Protestant-style para-church evangelism. Unable to persuade the rest of the Amish, they separated and formed a number of separate groups including the Conservative Mennonite Conference. Mennonites in Canada and other countries typically have independent denominations because of the practical considerations of distance and, in some cases, language. Many times these divisions took place along family lines, with each extended family supporting its own branch.

The first recorded account of this group is in a written order by Countess Anne, who ruled a small province in Central Europe, East Frisia. The presence of some small groups of violent Anabaptists was causing political and religious turmoil in her state, so she decreed that all Anabaptists were to be driven out. The order made an exception for the non-violent branch known at that time as the Menists.

Political rulers often admitted the Menists or Mennonites into their states because they were honest, hardworking and peaceful. When their practices upset the powerful state churches, princes would renege on exemptions for military service, or a new monarch would take power, and the Mennonites would be forced to flee again, usually leaving everything but their families behind. Often, another monarch in another state would grant them welcome, at least for a while.

Doopsgezinde-Gemeente-exterior
Mennonite churches blended into city architecture to avoid offending the religious sensibilities of the majority. Doopsgezinde Gemeente, Amsterdam.

While Mennonites in Colonial America were enjoying considerable religious freedom, their counterparts in Europe continued to struggle with persecution and temporary refuge under certain ruling monarchs. They were sometimes invited to settle in areas of poor soil that no one else could farm. By contrast, in The Netherlands, the Mennonites (nl: Doopsgezinden) enjoyed a relatively high degree of tolerance. The Mennonites often farmed and reclaimed land in exchange for exemption from mandatory military service. However, once the land was arable again, this arrangement would often change, and the persecution would begin again. Because the land still needed to be tended, the ruler would not drive out the Mennonites but would pass laws to force them to stay, while at the same time severely limiting their freedom. Mennonites had to build their churches facing onto back streets or alleys, and they were forbidden from announcing the beginning of services with the sound of a bell.

In addition, high taxes were enacted in exchange for both continuing the military service exemption, and to keep the states' best farmers from leaving. In some cases, the entire congregation would give up their belongings to pay the tax to be allowed to leave. If a member or family could not afford the tax, it was often paid by others in the group.

A strong emphasis on "community" was developed under these circumstances. It continues to be typical of Mennonite churches. As a result of frequently being required to give up possessions in order to retain individual freedoms, Mennonites learned to live very simply. This was reflected both in the home and at church, where their dress and their buildings were plain. The music at church, usually simple German chorales, was performed a cappella. This style of music serves as a reminder to many Mennonites of their simple lives, as well as their history as a persecuted people. Some branches of Mennonites have retained this "plain" lifestyle into modern times.

Russian Mennonites

The "Russian Mennonites" (German: "Russlandmennoniten")[20] today are of German language, tradition and ethnicity. They are descended from Dutch Anabaptists, who came from the Netherlands and started around 1530 to settle around Danzig and in West Prussia, where they lived for about 250 years. During that time they mixed with German Mennonites from different regions. Starting 1791 they established colonies in the south-west of the Russian Empire (present-day Ukraine). Their ethno-language is Plautdietsch, a German dialect of the East Low German group, with some Dutch admixture. Today the majority of traditional Russian Mennonites uses Standard German in church and for reading and writing.

In the 1770s Catherine the Great of the Russian Empire acquired a great deal of land north of the Black Sea (in present-day Ukraine) following the Russo-Turkish War and the takeover of the Ottoman vassal, the Crimean Khanate. Russian government officials invited Mennonites living in the Kingdom of Prussia to farm the Ukrainian steppes depopulated by Tatar raids in exchange for religious freedom and military exemption. Over the years the Mennonite farmers were very successful.

Between 1874 and 1880 some 16,000 Mennonites of approximately 45,000 left Russia. About nine thousand departed for the United States (mainly Kansas and Nebraska) and seven thousand for Canada (mainly Manitoba). In the 1920s Russian Mennonites from Canada started to migrate to Latin America (Mexico and Paraguay), soon followed by Mennonite refugees from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Further migrations of these Mennonites led to settlements in Brazil, Uruguay, Belize, Bolivia and Argentina.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the Mennonites in Russia owned large agricultural estates and some had become successful as industrial entrepreneurs in the cities, employing wage labor. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War (1917–1921), all of these farms (whose owners were called Kulaks) and enterprises were expropriated by local peasants or the Soviet government. Beyond expropriation, Mennonites suffered severe persecution during the course of the Civil War, at the hands of workers, the Bolsheviks and, particularly, the Anarcho-Communists of Nestor Makhno, who considered the Mennonites to be privileged foreigners of the upper class and targeted them. During expropriation, hundreds of Mennonite men, women and children were murdered in these attacks.[21] After the Ukrainian–Soviet War and the takeover of Ukraine by the Soviet Bolsheviks, people who openly practiced religion were in many cases imprisoned by the Soviet government. This led to a wave of Mennonite emigration to the Americas (U.S., Canada and Paraguay).

When the German army invaded the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941 during World War II, many in the Mennonite community perceived them as liberators from the communist regime under which they had suffered. When the tide of war turned, many of the Mennonites fled with the German army back to Germany where they were accepted as Volksdeutsche. The Soviet government believed that the Mennonites had "collectively collaborated" with the Germans. After the war, many of the Mennonites in the Soviet Union were forcibly relocated to Siberia and Kazakhstan and many were sent to gulags, as part of the Soviet program of mass internal deportations of various ethnic groups whose loyalty was seen as questionable. Many German-Russian Mennonites who lived to the east (not in Ukraine) were deported to Siberia before the German army's invasion and were also often placed in labor camps. In the decades that followed, as the Soviet regime became less brutal, a number of Mennonites returned to Ukraine and Western Russia where they had formerly lived. In the 1990s the governments of Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine gave these people the opportunity to emigrate, and the vast majority emigrated to Germany. The Russian Mennonite immigrants in Germany from the 1990s outnumber the pre-1989 community of Mennonites by three to one.

By 2015 the majority of Russian Mennonites live in Latin America, while tens of thousands live in Germany and Canada.

The world's most conservative Mennonites (in terms of culture and technology) are the Mennonites affiliated with the Lower and Upper Barton Creek Colonies in Belize. Lower Barton is inhabited by Plautdietsch speaking Russian Mennonites, whereas Upper Barton Creek is mainly inhabited by Pennsylvania German speaking Mennonites from North America. Both groups do not use motors and paint.[22]

Jakob Ammann and the Amish schisms

In 1693 Jakob Ammann led an effort to reform the Mennonite church in Switzerland and South Germany to include shunning, to hold communion more often, and other differences. When the discussions fell through, Ammann and his followers split from the other Mennonite congregations. Ammann's followers became known as the Amish Mennonites or just Amish. In later years, other schisms among Amish resulted in such groups as the Old Order Amish, New Order Amish, Kauffman Amish Mennonites, Conservative Mennonite Conference and Biblical Mennonite Alliance.

North America

Germantown Mennonite Meeting
Germantown Mennonite Meetinghouse, built 1770
Ten Thousand Villages store in New Hamburg, Ontario
Ten Thousand Villages Store in New Hamburg, Ontario

Persecution and the search for employment forced Mennonites out of the Netherlands eastward to Germany in the 17th century. As Quaker Evangelists moved into Germany they received a sympathetic audience among the larger of these German-Mennonite congregations around Krefeld, Altona-Hamburg, Gronau and Emden.[23] It was among this group of Quakers and Mennonites, living under ongoing discrimination, that William Penn solicited settlers for his new colony. The first permanent settlement of Mennonites in the American colonies consisted of one Mennonite family and twelve Mennonite-Quaker[24] families of German extraction who arrived from Krefeld, Germany, in 1683 and settled in Germantown, Pennsylvania. Among these early settlers was William Rittenhouse, a lay minister and owner of the first American paper mill. Jacob Gottschalk was the first bishop of this Germantown congregation. This early group of Mennonites and Mennonite-Quakers wrote the first formal protest against slavery in the United States. The treatise was addressed to slave-holding Quakers in an effort to persuade them to change their ways.[25]

In the early 18th century, 100,000 Germans from the Palatinate emigrated to Pennsylvania, where they became known collectively as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from the Anglicization of Deutsch or German.) The Palatinate region had been repeatedly overrun by the French in religious wars, and Queen Anne had invited the Germans to go to the British colonies. Of these immigrants, around 2,500 were Mennonites and 500 were Amish.[26] This group settled farther west than the first group, choosing less expensive land in the Lancaster area. The oldest Mennonite meetinghouse in the United States is the Hans Herr House in West Lampeter Township.[27] A member of this second group, Christopher Dock, authored Pedagogy, the first American monograph on education. Today, Mennonites also reside in Kishacoquillas Valley (also known as Big Valley), a valley in Huntingdon and Mifflin counties in Pennsylvania.

During the Colonial period, Mennonites were distinguished from other Pennsylvania Germans in three ways:[28] their opposition to the American Revolutionary War, which other German settlers participated in on both sides; resistance to public education; and disapproval of religious revivalism. Contributions of Mennonites during this period include the idea of separation of church and state and opposition to slavery.

From 1812 to 1860, another wave of Mennonite immigrants settled farther west in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. These Swiss-German speaking Mennonites, along with Amish, came from Switzerland and the Alsace-Lorraine area. These immigrants, along with the Amish of northern New York State, formed the nucleus of the Apostolic Christian Church in the United States.

There were also Mennonite settlements in Canada, who emigrated there chiefly from the United States (Upstate New York and Pennsylvania):

During the 1880s, smaller Mennonite groups settled as far west as California, especially around the Paso Robles area.[29][30]

Moderate to progressive Mennonites

"Old" Mennonite Church (MC)

MC-logo
Mennonite Church logo

The Swiss-German Mennonites who emigrated to North America in the 18th and 19th centuries and settled first in Pennsylvania, then across the midwestern states (initially Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas), are the root of the former Mennonite Church denomination (MC), colloquially called the "Old Mennonite Church". This denomination had offices in Elkhart, Indiana, and was the most populous progressive Mennonite denomination before merging with the General Conference Mennonite Church (GCMC) in 2002.

Mennonite Church USA

The Mennonite Church USA (MCUSA) and the Mennonite Church Canada are the resulting denominations of the 2002 merger of the (General Assembly) Mennonite Church and the General Conference Mennonite Church. Total membership in Mennonite Church USA denominations decreased from about 133,000, before the merger in 1998, to a total membership of 120,381 in the Mennonite Church USA in 2001.[31] In 2013 membership had fallen to 97,737 members in 839 congregations.[32] In 2016 it had fallen to 78,892 members after the withdrawal of the Lancaster Mennonite Conference.[33]

Pennsylvania remains the hub of the denomination but there are also large numbers of members in Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, and Illinois.[34]

In 1983 the General Assembly of the Mennonite Church met jointly with the General Conference Mennonite Church in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in celebration of 300 years of Mennonite witness in the Americas. Beginning in 1989, a series of consultations, discussions, proposals, and sessions (and a vote in 1995 in favor of merger) led to the unification of these two major North American Mennonite bodies into one denomination organized on two fronts – the Mennonite Church USA and the Mennonite Church Canada. The merger was "finalized" at a joint session in St. Louis, Missouri in 1999, and the Canadian branch moved quickly ahead. The United States branch did not complete their organization until the meeting in Nashville, Tennessee in 2001, which became effective February 1, 2002.

The merger of 1999–2002 at least partially fulfilled the desire of the founders of the General Conference Mennonite Church to create an organization under which all Mennonites could unite. Yet not all Mennonites favored the merger. The Alliance of Mennonite Evangelical Congregations represents one expression of the disappointment with the merger and the events that led up to it.

Mennonite Church Canada

Mennonite Church Canada is a conference of Mennonites in Canada, with head offices in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Currently (2003) the body has about 35,000 members in 235 churches. Beginning in 1989, a series of consultations, discussions, proposals, and sessions led to the unification of two North American bodies (the Mennonite Church & General Conference Mennonite Church) and the related Canadian Conference of Mennonites in Canada into the Mennonite Church USA and the Mennonite Church Canada in 2000.

The organizational structure is divided into five regional conferences. Denominational work is administered through a board elected by the delegates to the annual assembly. The MCC participates in the Canadian Council of Churches, the Evangelical Fellowship of Canada, and the Mennonite World Conference.

Conservative Mennonites

Conservative Mennonites include numerous groups that identify with the more conservative or traditional element among Mennonite or Anabaptist groups but not necessarily Old Order groups. The majority of Conservative Mennonite churches historically has an Amish and not a Mennonite background. They emerged mostly from the middle group between the Old Order Amish and Amish Mennonites. For more, see Amish Mennonite: Division 1850–1878.[35]

Those identifying with this group drive automobiles, have telephones and use electricity, and some may have personal computers. They also have Sunday school, hold revival meetings, and operate their own Christian schools/parochial schools.

Old Order Mennonites

The Old Order Mennonite are living a lifestyle similar or a bit more liberal than the Old Order Amish. There were more than 27,000 adult, baptized members of Old Order Mennonites in North America and Belize in 2008/9. The total population of Old Order Mennonites groups including children and adults not yet baptized normally is two to three times larger than the number of baptized, adult members, which indicates that the population of Old Order Mennonites was roughly between 60,000 and 80,000 in 2008/9.

Alternative service

Mennonites in Canada were automatically exempt from any type of military service during World War I by provisions of the Order in Council of 1873, yet initially many were imprisoned for their beliefs until this was affirmed by the government of the time.

During World War II, Mennonite conscientious objectors were given the options of noncombatant military service, serving in the medical or dental corps under military control, or working in parks and on roads under civilian supervision. Over 95% chose the latter and were placed in Alternative Service camps.[36] Initially the men worked on road building, forestry and firefighting projects. After May 1943, as a labour shortage developed within the nation, men were shifted into agriculture, education and industry. The 10,700 Canadian objectors were mostly Mennonites (63%) and Doukhobors (20%).[37]

CPS141ratpoison
Mennonite conscientious objector Harry Lantz distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport, Mississippi (1946).

In the United States, Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947, 4,665 Mennonites, Amish and Brethren in Christ[38] were among nearly 12,000 conscientious objectors who performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. The draftees worked in areas such as soil conservation, forestry, fire fighting, agriculture, social services and mental health.

The CPS men served without wages and with minimal support from the federal government. The cost of maintaining the CPS camps and providing for the needs of the men was the responsibility of their congregations and families. Mennonite Central Committee coordinated the operation of the Mennonite camps. CPS men served longer than regular draftees, not being released until well past the end of the war. Initially skeptical of the program, government agencies learned to appreciate the men's service and requested more workers from the program. CPS made significant contributions to forest fire prevention, erosion and flood control, medical science and reform of the mental health system.

Schisms

Prior to emigration to America, Anabaptists in Europe were divided between those of Dutch/North German and Swiss/South German background. At first, the Dutch/North German group took their name from Menno Simons, who led them in their early years. Later the Swiss/South German group also adopted the name "Mennonites". A third group of early Anabaptists, mainly from south-east Germany and Austria were organized by Jakob Hutter and became the Hutterites. The vast majority of Anabaptists of Swiss/South German ancestry today lives in the US and Canada, while the largest group of Dutch/North German Anabaptists are the Russian Mennonites, who live today mostly in Latin America.

A trickle of North German Mennonites began the migration to America in 1683, followed by a much larger migration of Swiss/South German Mennonites beginning in 1707.[39] The Amish are an early split from the Swiss/South German, that occurred in 1693. Over the centuries many Amish individuals and whole churches left the Amish and became Mennonites again.

After immigration to America, many of the early Mennonites split from the main body of North American Mennonites and formed their own separate and distinct churches. The first schism in America occurred in 1778 when Bishop Christian Funk's support of the American Revolution led to his excommunication and the formation of a separate Mennonite group known as Funkites. In 1785 the Orthodox Reformed Mennonite Church was formed, and other schisms occurred into the 21st century. Many of these churches were formed as a response to deep disagreements about theology, doctrine, and church discipline as evolution both inside and outside the Mennonite faith occurred. Many of the modern churches are descended from those groups that abandoned traditional Mennonite practices.

Larger groups of Dutch/North German Mennonites came to North America from the Russian Empire after 1873, especially to Kansas and Manitoba. While the more progressive element of these Mennonites assimilated into mainstream society, the more conservative element emigrated to Latin America. Since then there has been a steady flow of Mennonite emigrants from Latin America to North America.

These historical schisms have had an influence on creating the distinct Mennonite denominations, sometimes using mild or severe shunning to show its disapproval of other Mennonite groups.

Some expelled congregations were affiliated both with the Mennonite Church and the General Conference Mennonite Church. The latter did not expel the same congregations. When these two Mennonite denominations formally completed their merger in 2002 to become the new Mennonite Church USA and Mennonite Church Canada denominations, it was still not clear, whether the congregations that were expelled from one denomination, yet included in the other, are considered to be "inside" or "outside" of the new merged denomination. Some Mennonite conferences have chosen to maintain such "disciplined" congregations as "associate" or "affiliate" congregations in the conferences, rather than to expel such congregations. In virtually every case, a dialogue continues between the disciplined congregations and the denomination, as well as their current or former conferences.[40]

Schools

Several Mennonite groups have their own private or parochial schools. Conservative groups, like the Holdeman, have not only their own schools, but their own curriculum and teaching staff (usually, but not exclusively, young unmarried women).

Secondary schools

This list of secondary Mennonite Schools is not an exhaustive list. Most are members of the Mennonite Schools Council, endorsed by the Mennonite Education Agency.[41]

Mennonite Classroom Pennsylvania 1942
Mennonite teacher holding class in a one-room, eight-grade school house, Hinkletown, Pennsylvania, March 1942

Controversy in Quebec

Quebec does not allow these parochial schools, in the sense of allowing them to have an independent curriculum. As of 2007, the Quebec government imposed a standard curriculum on all schools (public and private). While private schools may add optional material to the compulsory curriculum, they may not replace it. The Quebec curriculum is unacceptable to the parents of the only Mennonite school in the province.[42] They said they would leave Quebec after the Education Ministry threatened legal actions. The Province threatened to invoke Youth Protection services if the Mennonite children were not registered with the Education Ministry; they either had to be home-schooled using the government approved material, or attend a "sanctioned" school. The local population and its mayor supported[43] the local Mennonites. The Evangelical Fellowship of Canada wrote that year to the Quebec government to express its concerns[44] about this situation. By September 2007, some Mennonite families had already left Quebec.[45]

Post-secondary schools

Bethel-administration
Bethel College, North Newton Kansas

Sexuality, marriage, and family mores

The Mennonite church has no formal celibate religious order similar to monasticism, but recognizes the legitimacy of and honours both the single state and the sanctity of marriage of its members. Single persons are expected to be chaste, and marriage is held to be a lifelong, monogamous and faithful covenant between a man and a woman. In conservative groups, divorce is discouraged, and it is believed that the "hardness of the heart" of people is the ultimate cause of divorce. Some conservative churches have disciplined members who have unilaterally divorced their spouses outside of cases of sexual unfaithfulness or acute abuse. Until approximately the 1960s or 1970s, before the more widespread urbanization of the Mennonite demographic, divorce was quite rare. In recent times, divorce is more common, and also carries less stigma, particularly in cases where abuse was known.

Mennonite Church USA continues to discuss homosexuality,[46] and member churches hold many stances; a 2015 denominational resolution calls for "grace and forbearance among churches with different views on same-sex unions."[47] Outside of the US, Mennonites in the Netherlands are fully inclusive of gay individuals, while other Mennonites around the world condemn homosexuality outright.[48] Many North American Mennonite churches identify as LGBT-affirming churches.[49] Congregations have been disciplined by or expelled from their regional conferences for taking such a stance,[50] while other congregations have been allowed to remain "at variance" with official Mennonite Church USA policy.[51] Some pastors who performed same-sex unions have had their credentials revoked by their conference,[52] and some within the Mennonite Church USA have had their credentials reviewed without any disciplinary actions taken.[53][54] Most recently, the Mountain States Mennonite Conference ordained openly gay pastors in December 2016[55] and February 2019,[56] and has called into ministerial service and credentialed two openly LGBTQ pastors.[57][58][59]

Theology

Mennonite theology emphasizes the primacy of the teachings of Jesus as recorded in New Testament scripture. They hold in common the ideal of a religious community based on New Testament models and imbued with the spirit of the Sermon on the Mount. Their core beliefs deriving from Anabaptist traditions are:

  • Salvation through faith in Jesus Christ.
  • The authority of scripture and the Holy Spirit.
  • Believer's baptism understood as threefold: Baptism by the spirit (internal change of heart), baptism by water (public demonstration of witness), and baptism by blood (martyrdom and asceticism or the practice of strict self-denial as a measure of personal and especially spiritual discipline).
  • Discipleship understood as an outward sign of an inward change.
  • Discipline in the church, informed by New Testament teachings, particularly of Jesus (for example Matthew 18:15–18). Some Mennonite churches practice the Meidung (shunning).
  • The Lord's Supper understood as a memorial rather than as a sacrament or Christian rite, ideally shared by baptized believers within the unity and discipline of the church.[60]

One of the earliest expressions of Mennonite faith was the Schleitheim Confession, adopted on February 24, 1527. Its seven articles covered:

  • The Ban (excommunication)
  • Breaking of bread (Communion)
  • Separation from and shunning of the abomination (the Roman Catholic Church and other "worldly" groups and practices)
  • Believer's baptism
  • Pastors in the church
  • Renunciation of the sword (Christian pacifism)
  • Renunciation of the oath (swearing as proof of truth)

The Dordrecht Confession of Faith was adopted on April 21, 1632, by Dutch Mennonites, by Alsatian Mennonites in 1660, and by North American Mennonites in 1725. There is no official creed or catechism of which acceptance is required by congregations or members. However, there are structures and traditions taught as in the Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective[61] of Mennonite Church Canada and Mennonite Church USA.

In 1911 the Mennonite church in the Netherlands (Doopsgezinde Kerk) was the first Dutch church to have a female pastor authorized; she was Anna Zernike.[62]

Service projects

The Mennonite Disaster Service, based in North America, is a volunteer network of Anabaptist churches which provide both immediate and long-term responses to hurricanes, floods, and other disasters in the U.S. and Canada.[63]

Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), founded on September 27, 1920, in Chicago, Illinois,[64] provides disaster relief around the world alongside their long-term international development programs. Other programs offer a variety of relief efforts and services throughout the world. In 1972, Mennonites in Altona, Manitoba, established the MCC Thrift Shops[65] which has grown to become a worldwide source of assistance to the needy.[66]

Since the latter part of the 20th century, some Mennonite groups have become more actively involved with peace and social justice issues, helping to found Christian Peacemaker Teams and Mennonite Conciliation Service.[67]

Worship, doctrine, and tradition

Mennonitenkirche Friedelsheim Innen
Interior of the Mennonite Church Friedelsheim, Germany
Giethoorn Zuidervermaning-1
Interior of the Mennonite Church Giethoorn, Netherlands
Mennonite Women Dressmaking Pennsylvania 1942
Mennonite farmer's wife dressmaking, Pennsylvania, 1942

There is a wide scope of worship, doctrine and traditions among Mennonites today. This section shows the main types of Mennonites as seen from North America. It is far from a specific study of all Mennonite classifications worldwide but it does show a somewhat representative sample of the complicated classifications within the Mennonite faith worldwide.

Moderate Mennonites include the largest denominations, the Mennonite Brethren and the Mennonite Church. In most forms of worship and practice, they differ very little from other Protestant congregations. There is no special form of dress and no restrictions on use of technology. Worship styles vary greatly between different congregations. There is no formal liturgy; services typically consist of singing, scripture reading, prayer and a sermon. Some churches prefer hymns and choirs; others make use of contemporary Christian music with electronic instruments. Mennonite congregations are self-supporting and appoint their own ministers. There is no requirement for ministers to be approved by the denomination, and sometimes ministers from other denominations will be appointed. A small sum, based on membership numbers, is paid to the denomination, which is used to support central functions such as publication of newsletters and interactions with other denominations and other countries. The distinguishing characteristics of moderate Mennonite churches tend to be ones of emphasis rather than rule. There is an emphasis on peace, community and service. However, members do not live in a separate community—they participate in the general community as "salt and light" to the world (Matt 5:13,14). The main elements of Menno Simons' doctrine are retained but in a moderated form. Banning is rarely practiced and would, in any event, have much less effect than those denominations where the community is more tight-knit. Excommunication can occur and was notably applied by the Mennonite Brethren to members who joined the military during the Second World War. Service in the military is generally not permitted, but service in the legal profession or law enforcement is acceptable. Outreach and help to the wider community at home and abroad is encouraged. The Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) is a leader in foreign aid provision.

Traditionally, very modest dress was expected, particularly in conservative Mennonite circles. As the Mennonite population has become urbanized and more integrated into the wider culture, this visible difference has disappeared outside of conservative Mennonite groups.

The Reformed Mennonite Church, with members in the United States and Canada, represents the first division in the original North American Mennonite body. Called the "First Keepers of the Old Way" by author Stephen Scott, the Reformed Mennonite Church formed in the very early 19th century. Reformed Mennonites see themselves as true followers of Menno Simons' teachings and of the teachings of the New Testament. They have no church rules, but they rely solely on the Bible as their guide. They insist on strict separation from all other forms of worship and dress in conservative plain garb that preserves 18th century Mennonite details. However, they refrain from forcing their Mennonite faith on their children, allow their children to attend public schools, and have permitted the use of automobiles. They are notable for being the church of Milton S. Hershey's mother and famous for the long and bitter ban of Robert Bear, a Pennsylvania farmer who rebelled against what he saw as dishonesty and disunity in the leadership.

The Church of God in Christ, Mennonite, a group often called Holdeman Mennonites after their founder John Holdeman, was founded from a schism in 1859.[68] They emphasize Evangelical conversion and strict church discipline. They stay separate from other Mennonite groups because of their emphasis on the one-true-church doctrine and their use of avoidance toward their own excommunicated members. The Holdeman Mennonites do not believe that the use of modern technology is a sin in itself, but they discourage too intensive a use of the Internet and avoid television, cameras and radio. The group had 24,400 baptized members in 2013.[69]

Mennonite and carriage publ
Mennonite horse and carriage

Old Order Mennonites cover several distinct groups. Some groups use horse and buggy for transportation and speak German while others drive cars and speak English. What most Old Orders share in common is conservative doctrine, dress, and traditions, common roots in 19th-century and early 20th-century schisms, and a refusal to participate in politics and other so-called "sins of the world". Most Old Order groups also school their children in Mennonite-operated schools.

  • Horse and Buggy Old Order Mennonites came from the main series of Old Order schisms that began in 1872 and ended in 1901 in Ontario, Pennsylvania, and the U.S. Midwest, as conservative Mennonites fought the radical changes that the influence of 19th century American Revivalism had on Mennonite worship. Most Horse and Buggy Old Order Mennonites allow the use of tractors for farming, although some groups insist on steel-wheeled tractors to prevent tractors from being used for road transportation. Like the Stauffer or Pike Mennonites (origin 1845 in Lancaster, Pennsylvania), the Groffdale Conference, and the Old Order Mennonite Conference of Ontario, they stress separation from the world, excommunication, and the wearing of plain clothes. Some Old Order Mennonite groups are unlike the Stauffer or Pike Mennonites in that their form of the ban is less severe because the ex-communicant is not shunned, and is therefore not excluded from the family table, shunned by their spouse, or cut off from business dealings.
  • Automobile Old Order Mennonites, also known as Weaverland Conference Mennonites (having their origins in the Weaverland District of the Lancaster Conference—also calling "Horning"), or Wisler Mennonites in the U.S. Midwest, or the Markham-Waterloo Mennonite Conference having its origins from the Old Order Mennonites of Ontario, Canada, also evolved from the main series of Old Order schisms from 1872 to 1901. They often share the same meeting houses with, and adhere to almost identical forms of Old Order worship as their Horse and Buggy Old Order brethren with whom they parted ways in the early 20th century. Although this group began using cars in 1927, the cars were required to be plain and painted black. The largest group of Automobile Old Orders are still known today as "Black Bumper" Mennonites because some members still paint their chrome bumpers black.

Stauffer Mennonites, or Pike Mennonites, represent one of the first and most conservative forms of North American Horse and Buggy Mennonites. They were founded in 1845, following conflicts about how to discipline children and spousal abuse by a few Mennonite Church members. They almost immediately began to split into separate churches themselves. Today these groups are among the most conservative of all Swiss Mennonites outside the Amish. They stress strict separation from "the world", adhere to "strict withdrawal from and shunning of apostate and separated members", forbid and limit cars and technology and wear plain clothing.

Conservative Mennonites are generally considered those Mennonites who maintain somewhat conservative dress, although carefully accepting other technology. They are not a unified group and are divided into various independent conferences and fellowships such as the Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church Conference. Despite the rapid changes that precipitated the Old Order schisms in the last quarter of the 19th century, most Mennonites in the United States and Canada retained a core of traditional beliefs based on a literal interpretation of the New Testament scriptures as well as more external "plain" practices into the beginning of the 20th century. However, disagreements in the United States and Canada between conservative and progressive (i.e. less emphasis on literal interpretation of scriptures) leaders began in the first half of the 20th century and continue to some extent today. Following WWII, a conservative movement emerged from scattered separatist groups as a reaction to the Mennonite churches drifting away from their historical traditions. "Plain" became passé as open criticisms of traditional beliefs and practices broke out in the 1950s and 1960s. The first conservative withdrawals from the progressive group began in the 1950s. These withdrawals continue to the present day in what is now the growing Conservative Movement formed from Mennonite schisms and from combinations with progressive Amish groups. While moderate and progressive Mennonite congregations have dwindled in size, the Conservative Movement congregations continue to exhibit considerable growth. Other conservative Mennonite groups descended from the former Amish-Mennonite churches which split, like the Wisler Mennonites, from the Old Order Amish in the latter part of the 19th century. (The Wisler Mennonites are a grouping descended from the Old Mennonite Church.) There are also other Conservative Mennonite churches that descended from more recent groups that have left the Amish like the Beachy Amish or the Tennessee Brotherhood Churches.

Progressive Mennonite churches allow LGBT members to worship as church members and have been banned from membership in some cases in the moderate groups as result. The Germantown Mennonite Church in Germantown, Pennsylvania is one example of such a progressive Mennonite church.[70]

Some progressive Mennonite Churches place a great emphasis on the Mennonite tradition's teachings on peace and non-violence.[71] Some progressive Mennonite Churches are part of moderate Mennonite denominations (such as the Mennonite Church USA) while others are independent congregations.

Membership

Menonite Children
Children in an Old Order Mennonite community selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize

In 2009, there were 1,616,126 Mennonites in 82 countries. The United States had the highest number of Mennonites with 387,103 members, followed by the Democratic Republic of the Congo with 220,444 members. The third largest concentration of Mennonites was in Ethiopia with 172,306 members, while the fourth largest population was in India with 156,922 members. Europe, the birthplace of Mennonites, had 64,740 members.[1]

Africa has the highest membership growth rate by far, with an increase of 10% to 12% every year, particularly in Ethiopia due to new conversions. African Mennonite churches underwent a dramatic 228% increase in membership during the 1980s and 1990s, attracting thousands of new converts in Tanzania, Kenya, and the Congo.[72] Programs were also founded in Botswana and Swaziland during the 1960s.[73] Mennonite organizations in South Africa, initially stifled under apartheid due to the Afrikaner government's distrust of foreign pacifist churches, have expanded substantially since 1994.[73] In recognition of the dramatic increase in the proportion of African adherents, the Mennonite World Conference held its assembly in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, in 2003.[72]

In Latin America growth is not a high as in Africa, but strong because of the high birth rates of traditional Mennonites of German ancestry. Growth in Mennonite membership is slow but steady in North America, the Asia/Pacific region and Caribbean region. Europe has seen a slow and accelerating decline in Mennonite membership since about 1980.[74]

Organization worldwide

Henderson, Nebraska Bethesda Mennonite from SW 1
Bethesda Mennonite Church in Henderson, Nebraska, U.S.
San Ignacio
Old Order Mennonite children from San Ignacio, Paraguay.

The most basic unit of organization among Mennonites is the church. There are hundreds or thousands of Mennonite churches and groups, many of which are separate from all others. Some churches are members of regional or area conferences. And some regional or area conferences are affiliated with larger national or international conferences. Thus, there is no single authorized organization that includes all Mennonite peoples worldwide.

For the most part, there is a host of independent Mennonite churches along with a myriad of separate conferences with no particular responsibility to any other group. Independent churches can contain as few as fifty members or as many as 20,000 members. Similar size differences occur among separate conferences. Worship, church discipline and lifestyles vary widely between progressive, moderate, conservative, Old Order and orthodox Mennonites in a vast panoply of distinct, independent, and widely dispersed classifications. For these reasons, no single group of Mennonites anywhere can credibly claim to represent, speak for, or lead all Mennonites worldwide.

The twelve largest Mennonite/Anabaptist groups are:

  1. Mennonite Brethren (426,581 members on six continents worldwide)[75]
  2. Old Order Amish (300,000 in North America)
  3. Meserete Kristos Church in Ethiopia (120,600 members; 126,000 more followers attending alike churches)[76]
  4. Old Colony Mennonite Church (120,000 in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Bolivia, Paraguay, Belize and Argentina)
  5. Communauté Mennonite au Congo 87,000 members
  6. Mennonite Church USA with 78,892 members in the United States[33]
  7. Old Order Mennonites with 60,000 to 80,000 members in the U.S., Canada and Belize
  8. Kanisa La Mennonite Tanzania with 50,000 members in 240 congregations
  9. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Mennonitischer Gemeinden in Deutschland or Deutsche Mennonitengemeinden with 40,000 members in Germany[77]
  10. Mennonite Church Canada with 31,000 members in 225 congregations across Canada[78]
  11. Conservative Mennonites with 30,000 members in over 500 U.S. churches[79]
  12. Church of God in Christ, Mennonite with 24,400 members, of whom 14,804 (2013 data) were in United States, 5,081 in Canada, and the remainder being found in various countries of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Europe.[69]

The Mennonite World Conference is a global community of 95 Mennonite and Brethren in Christ Mennonite national churches from 51 countries on six continents. It exists to "facilitate community between Anabaptist-related churches worldwide, and relate to other Christian world communions and organizations", but it is not a governing body of any kind. It is a voluntary community of faith whose decisions are not binding on member churches. The member churches of Mennonite World Conference include the Mennonite Brethren, the Mennonite Church USA, and the Mennonite Church Canada, with a combined total membership of at least 400,000, or about 30% of Mennonites worldwide.

Organization: North America

In 2015, there were 538,839 baptized members organized into 41 bodies in United States, according to the Mennonite World Conference.[9] The largest group of that number is the Old Order Amish, perhaps numbering as high as 300,000. The U.S. Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches comprises 34,500 members.[75] 27,000 are part of a larger group known collectively as Old Order Mennonites.[80][81] Another 78,892 of that number are from the Mennonite Church USA.[33]

Total membership in Mennonite Church USA denominations decreased from about 133,000, before the MC-GC merger in 1998, to about 114,000 after the merger in 2003. In 2016 it had fallen to under 79,000. Membership of the Mennonite Church USA is on the decline.[33][74]

Canada had 143,720 Mennonites in 16 organized bodies as of 2015.[9] Of that number, the Canadian Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches had 37,508 baptized members[75] and the Mennonite Church Canada had 31,000 members.[78]

As of 2012, there were an estimated 100,000 Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico.[82][83] These Mennonites descend from a mass migration in the 1920s of roughly 6,000 Old Colony Mennonites from the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In 1921, a Canadian Mennonite delegation arriving in Mexico received a privilegium, a promise of non-interference, from the Mexican government. This guarantee of many freedoms was the impetus that created the two original Old Colony settlements near Patos Nuevo Ideal, Durango, Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua and La Honda, Zacatecas as well as many communities in Aguascalientes.[84]

On the other hand, the Mennonite World Conference cites only 33,881 Mennonites organized into 14 bodies in Mexico.[9]

Organization: Europe

Mennonitenkirche zu Hamburg und Altona
Mennonite Church in Hamburg-Altona, Germany

Germany has the largest contingent of Mennonites in Europe. The Mennonite World Conference counts 47,202 baptized members within 7 organized bodies in 2015.[9] The largest group is the Bruderschaft der Christengemeinde in Deutschland (Mennonite Brethren), which had 20,000 members in 2010.[75] Another such body is the Union of German Mennonite Congregations or Vereinigung der Deutschen Mennonitengemeinden. Founded in 1886, it has 27 Congregations with 5,724 members and is part of the larger "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Mennonitischer Gemeinden in Deutschland" or AMG (Assembly/Council of Mennonite Churches in Germany),[85] which claims 40,000 overall members from various groups. Other AMG member groups include: Rußland-Deutschen Mennoniten, Mennoniten-Brüdergemeinden(Independent Mennonite Brethren congregations), WEBB-Gemeinden, and the Mennonitischen Heimatmission.[77] However, not all German Mennonites belong to this larger AMG body. Upwards of 40,000 Mennonites emigrated from Russia to Germany starting in the 1970s.[85]

The Mennonite presence remaining in the Netherlands, Algemene Doopsgezinde Societeit or ADS (translated as General Mennonite Society), maintains a seminary, as well as organizing relief, peace, and mission work, the latter primarily in Central Java and New Guinea. They have 121 congregations with 10,200 members according to the World Council of Churches,[14] although the Mennonite World Conference cites only 7680 members.[9]

Switzerland had 2350 Mennonites belonging to 14 Congregations which are part of the Konferenz der Mennoniten der Schweiz (Alttäufer), Conférence mennonite suisse (Anabaptiste) (Swiss Mennonite Conference).[86]

In 2015, there were 2078 Mennonites in France. The country's 32 autonomous Mennonite congregations have formed the Association des Églises Évangéliques Mennonites de France.[87]

Once home to tens of thousands of Mennonites, the number of Mennonites in Ukraine in 2015 totaled just 499. They are organized among three denominations: Association of Mennonite Brethren Churches of Ukraine, Church of God in Christ, Mennonite (Ukraine), and Evangelical Mennonite Churches of Ukraine (Beachy Amish Church – Ukraine).[13]

The U.K. had but 326 members within two organized bodies as of 2015.[9] There is the Nationwide Fellowship Churches (UK) and the larger Brethren in Christ Church United Kingdom.[88] Additionally, there is the registered charity, The Mennonite Trust (formerly known as "London Mennonite Centre"), which seeks to promote understanding of Mennonite and Anabaptist practices and values.[89]

In popular culture

Mennonites have been portrayed in many areas of popular culture, especially literature, film, and television.[90] Notable novels about or written by Mennonites include A Complicated Kindness by Miriam Toews, Peace Shall Destroy Many by Rudy Wiebe and A Year of Lesser by David Bergen.[91] Rhoda Janzen's memoire Mennonite in a Little Black Dress was a best-seller.[92] In 2007, Mexican director Carlos Reygadas directed Silent Light, the first ever feature film in the Russian Mennonite dialect of Plautdietsch.[93] Mennonites have also been depicted on television, notably on The Simpsons, which was created by Matt Groening, himself of Russian Mennonite descent.[94] Satire site The Daily Bonnet pokes fun at Mennonite culture and religion.[95][96]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Global Statistics – 2015 Directory; Mennonite World Conference". Mwc-cmm.org. July 14, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
  2. ^ Kraybill, Donald B. (September 12, 2017). Eastern Mennonite University. Penn State University Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780271080581.
  3. ^ "Historic Peace Churches". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  4. ^ "Who are the Mennonites?". Third Way Cafe. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  5. ^ "Did you know..." Mennonite Historical Society of Canada. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  6. ^ "The Mennonite Game". Mennonite Historical Society of Canada. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  7. ^ "Multicultural Canada: Mennonites". Multiculturalcanada.ca. Archived from the original on May 16, 2007. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
  8. ^ "Ethnicity". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "Statistics" (PDF). Mennonite World Conference. MWC-CMM.org. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  10. ^ "Bolivian Reforms Raise Anxiety on Mennonite Frontier". The New York Times. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  11. ^ Aus Montevideo: Galizische Mennoniten in Uruguay (November 1, 2012). "Mennonites from Galitzia in Uruguay". Galizien.org. Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  12. ^ Antonio De La Cova (December 28, 1999). "Paraguay's Mennonites resent 'fast buck' outsiders". Latinamericanstudies.org. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  13. ^ a b "Ukraine". MWC-CMM.org. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Member Churches – Mennonite Church in the Netherlands". World Council of Churches. World Council of Churches. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  15. ^ Strasser, Rolf Christoph (2006). "Die Zürcher Täufer 1525" [The Zurich Anabaptists 1525] (PDF) (in German). EFB Verlag Wetzikon. p. 30. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
  16. ^ a b Murray, Stuart (2010). The Naked Anabaptist: The Bare Essentials of a Radical Faith. Herald Press. ISBN 978-0-8361-9517-0.
  17. ^ Carey, Patrick W (2000). "Menno Simons". Biography Reference Bank.
  18. ^ "Menno Simons | Dutch priest". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  19. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Mennonites" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  20. ^ "Ukrainian Mennonite General Conference – GAMEO". Gameo.org. October 8, 1926. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  21. ^ Rempel, John G. (1957). "Makhno, Nestor (1888–1934)". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved November 1, 2010. Two hundred forty names appear on a list of November 1919 of those murdered in Zagradovka. In Borzenkovo in the village of Ebenfeld alone 63 persons were murdered, and in Steinbach of the same settlement 58 persons.
  22. ^ "Altkolonier-Mennoniten in Belize". Taeufergeschichte.net. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  23. ^ Smith p.139
  24. ^ Smith p.360. Smith uses Mennonite-Quaker to refer to Quakers who were formerly Mennonite and retained distinctive Mennonite beliefs and practices.
  25. ^ "First Protest Against Slavery, 1688". Qhpress.org. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  26. ^ Pannabecker p. 7.
  27. ^ "National Historic Landmarks & National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania" (Searchable database). CRGIS: Cultural Resources Geographic Information System. Note: This includes J. Michael Sausman (August 1970). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Hans Herr House" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 14, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  28. ^ Pannabecker p. 12.
  29. ^ http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Paso_Robles_First_Mennonite_Church_(Paso_Robles,_California,_USA)
  30. ^ http://gameo.org/index.php?title=San_Marcos_Mennonite_Church_(Paso_Robles,_California,_USA)
  31. ^ "North America" (PDF). Mennonite World Conference. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  32. ^ Bender, Harold S.; Stauffer Hostetler, Beulah (January 2013). Mennonite Church (MC). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  33. ^ a b c d Huber, Tim (January 26, 2016). "Lancaster's distancing shrinks roll: A few churches want to stay with MC USA; others are dropped from denomination's membership number". Mennonite World Review. Retrieved August 31, 2016. "MC USA's new, lower membership total is based on only 1,091 members from LMC"(Lancaster Mennonite Conference)
  34. ^ "2000 Religious Congregations and Membership Study". Glenmary Research Center. Retrieved December 16, 2009.
  35. ^ "An Introduction to Old Order and Conservative Mennonite Groups", Intercourse PA 1996, pages 122–123.
  36. ^ Gingerich p. 420.
  37. ^ Krahn, pp. 76–78.
  38. ^ Gingerich p. 452.
  39. ^ Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975, I, 292–293.
  40. ^ "Homosexual and bisexual orientation among Mennonites". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  41. ^ "Mennonite Education Agency > Home". Mennoniteeducation.org. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  42. ^ Westen, John-Henry; Elizabeth O'Brien (September 14, 2007). "Forced Education in Homosexuality and Evolution Leads to Exodus of Mennonites from Quebec". LifeSiteNews.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  43. ^ "Townsfolk sad to see Mennonites move away". The Gazette. Canada.com. August 16, 2007. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  44. ^ Hutchinson, Don (September 8, 2007). "Faith-Based Education May Result in Loss of House and Home in Quebec". christianity.ca. Archived from the original on September 8, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ "LGBTQ advocates make the most of greater acceptance". Mennonite World Review. July 17, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  47. ^ "LGBT advocates pursue acceptance at Kansas City". Mennonite World Review. July 8, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  48. ^ Johns, Loren L. "Homosexuality and the Mennonite Church". AMBS.edu. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  49. ^ "BMC | Current SCN Directory". Brethren Mennonite Council for LGBT Interests. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  50. ^ Huber, Tim. "MWR : Eastern District cuts ties with Germantown church". Mennoworld.org. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  51. ^ "Western District amends one resolution, tables another". The Mennonite. July 1, 2012. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  52. ^ "Southeast Conference removes ministerial credential". Themennonite.org. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  53. ^ "Central District takes 2-part action on pastor's credentials". Mennoworld.org. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  54. ^ "Decision not to discipline pastor stands at WDC". Themennonite.org. Archived from the original on June 18, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  55. ^ "Theda Good ordained at First Mennonite Church of Denver". The Mennonite: A Publication of Mennonite Church USA Providing Anabaptist Content. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  56. ^ "Ordination Service of Pastor Randy Spaulding".
  57. ^ "Albuquerque Mennonite calls Erica Lea, first openly LGBTQ solo pastor in MC USA". The Mennonite: A Publication of Mennonite Church USA Providing Anabaptist Content. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  58. ^ "Western Plains District » Ministry Updates". westernplainschurchofthebrethren.org. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  59. ^ "Randy Spaulding | Boulder Mennonite Church". bouldermennonite.org. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  60. ^ In connection with the Lord's Supper, some Mennonites practice feet washing as a continuing outer sign of humility within the church. Feet washing was not originally an Anabaptist practice. Pilgram Marpeck before 1556 included it, and it became widespread in the late 1500s and the 1600s. Today it is practiced by some as a memorial sacrament, in memory of Christ washing the feet of his disciples as recorded in the thirteenth chapter of the Gospel of John.
  61. ^ "Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective". Archived from the original on May 29, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  62. ^ "Mankes-Zernike, Anna (1887–1972)". gameo.org. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  63. ^ "Mennonite Disaster Service". Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  64. ^ Gingerich, Melvin, Service for Peace, A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service, Mennonite Central Committee (1949) p. 16.
  65. ^ "MCC Thrift Shops". Thrift.mcc.org. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
  66. ^ CBC, The World at Six, March 17, 2012
  67. ^ "Mennonite Conciliation Service". Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  68. ^ Hiebert, P. G. (1955). "Church of God in Christ, Mennonite (CGC)". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. GAMEO. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  69. ^ a b "Where we are". Church of God in Christ, Mennonite. Church of God in Christ, Mennonite. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  70. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  72. ^ a b Donald B. Kraybill (2010). Concise Encyclopedia of Amish, Brethren, Hutterites and Mennonites. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 3–4.
  73. ^ a b Robert Herr and Judy Zimmermann Herr, "Building peace in South Africa: A case study in the Mennonite program” in From the Ground Up – Mennonite Contributions to International Peacebuilding (Oxford U. Press, 2000), edited by Cynthia Sampson and John Paul Lederach, pp. 59–69.
  74. ^ a b "Mennonite Church Membership Statistics". Mcusa-archives.org. Archived from the original on January 8, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  75. ^ a b c d Lohrenz, John H. (April 2011). "Mennonite Brethren Church". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. GAMEO. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
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  77. ^ a b "Mennoniten in Deutschland". Mennoniten.de. Archived from the original on April 28, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  78. ^ a b "About Mennonite Church Canada". Mennonite Church Canada. Mennonite Church Canada. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  79. ^ 2008 CLP church directory
  80. ^ Stephen Scott: An Introduction to Old Order: and Conservative Mennonite Groups, Intercourse, PA 1996.
  81. ^ Donald B. Kraybill (2010). Concise Encyclopedia of Amish, Brethren, Hutterites and Mennonites. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 251–258.
  82. ^ Cascante, Manuel M. (August 8, 2012). "Los menonitas dejan México". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved February 19, 2013. Los cien mil miembros de esta comunidad anabaptista, establecida en Chihuahua desde 1922, se plantean emigrar a la república rusa de Tartaristán, que se ofrece a acogerlos
  83. ^ "The Mennonite Old Colony Vision: Under siege in Mexico and the Canadian Connection" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 4, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  84. ^ [3] Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  85. ^ a b "Member Churches – Mennonite Church in Germany". World Council of Churches. World Council of Churches. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  86. ^ "Switzerland". MWC-CMM.org. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  87. ^ "France". MWC-CMM.org. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  88. ^ "United Kingdom". MWC-CMM.org. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  89. ^ "The Mennonite Trust". Menno.org. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  90. ^ Carpenter, Steven P. (2015). Mennonites and Media: Mentioned in it, Maligned by it, and Makers of It. Wipf and Stock Publishers.
  91. ^ "Literature, North American Mennonite (1960s–2010s)". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  92. ^ "Literature, North American Mennonite (1960s–2010s)". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  93. ^ "Motion Pictures and Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  94. ^ "The Groenings, the Simpsons and the Mennonites". The Mennonites. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  95. ^ Downey Sawatzky, Beth (August 24, 2016). "Familiarity breeds good content". The Canadian Mennonite. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  96. ^ Huber, Tim (July 4, 2016). "Satire news site pokes fun at Mennonite quirks". Mennonite World Review. Retrieved November 26, 2018.

Further reading

  • Epp, Marlene Mennonites in Ontario. Mennonite Historical Society of Ontario, 2012. ISBN 0-9696-0463-7
  • Epp, Marlene Mennonite Women in Canada: A History (Winnipeg, University of Manitoba Press, 2008. xiii + 378 pp.)
  • Epp, Marlene Women without Men: Mennonite Refugees of the Second World War. University of Toronto Press, 2000. ISBN 0802082688
  • Gingerich, Melvin (1949), Service for Peace, A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service, Mennonite Central Committee.
  • Harder, Helmut and Miller, Larry, "Mennonite Engagement in International Ecumenical Conversations: Experiences, Perspectives, and Guiding Principles," Mennonite Quarterly Review 90(3) (2016), 345–71.
  • Heisey, M. J. "'Mennonite Religion was a Family Religion': A Historiography," Journal of Mennonite Studies (2005), Vol. 23 pp 9–22.
  • Hinojosa, Felipe (2014). Latino Mennonites: Civil Rights, Faith, and Evangelical Culture. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Horsch, James E. (Ed.) (1999), Mennonite Directory, Herald Press. ISBN 0-8361-9454-3
  • Klassen, Pamela E. Going by the Moon and the Stars: Stories of Two Russian Mennonite Women. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1994. ISBN 0889202443
  • Krahn, Cornelius, Gingerich, Melvin & Harms, Orlando (Eds.) (1955). The Mennonite Encyclopedia, Volume I, pp. 76–78. Mennonite Publishing House.
  • Mennonite & Brethren in Christ World Directory 2003. Available On-line at https://web.archive.org/web/20060203202348/http://www.mwc-cmm.org/Directory/index.htm
  • Pannabecker, Samuel Floyd (1975), Open Doors: A History of the General Conference Mennonite Church, Faith and Life Press. ISBN 0-87303-636-0
  • Shearer, Tobin Miller (2010). Daily Demonstrators: The Civil Rights Movement in Mennonite Homes and Sanctuaries. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 392. ISBN 0-8018-9700-9.
  • Scott, Stephen (1995), An Introduction to Old Order and Conservative Mennonite Groups, Good Books, ISBN 1-56148-101-7
  • Smith, C. Henry (1981), Smith's Story of the Mennonites (5th ed. Faith and Life Press). ISBN 0-87303-060-5

External links

Amish

The Amish (; Pennsylvania German: Amisch; German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins. They are closely related to, but distinct from, Mennonite churches. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology.

The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann. Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Old Order Amish and Amish Mennonites. The latter mostly drive cars as does the main society during the 20th century, whereas the Old Order Amish retained much of their traditional culture. When it is spoken of Amish today, normally only the Old Order Amish are meant.

In the early 18th century many Amish, and Mennonites, immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today the Old Order Amish, the New Order Amish, and the Old Beachy Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as "Pennsylvania Dutch", although two different Alemannic dialects are used by Old Order Amish in Adams and Allen counties in Indiana.As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish lived in the United States and about 1,500 lived in Canada. A 2008 study suggested their numbers had increased to 227,000, and in 2010, a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West. Most of the Amish continue to have six or seven children, while benefitting from the major decrease in infant and maternal mortality in the 20th century. Between 1992 and 2017, the Amish population increased by 149 percent, while the U.S. population increased by 23 percent.Amish church membership begins with baptism, usually between the ages of 16 and 23. It is a requirement for marriage within the Amish church. Once a person is baptized within the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home. The district is led by a bishop and several ministers and deacons. The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover many aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity, telephones, and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing. Most Amish do not buy commercial insurance or participate in Social Security. As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service. The Amish value rural life, manual labor, and humility, all under the auspices of living what they interpret to be God's word.

Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. Almost 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During an adolescent period of rumspringa ("running around") in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may be met with a degree of forbearance. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish world, i.e. American and Canadian society. Non-Amish people are generally referred to as "English". Generally, a heavy emphasis is placed on church and family relationships. They typically operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education after grade eight, at age 13/14. Until the children turn 16, they have vocational training under the tutelage of their parents, community, and the school teacher. Higher education is generally discouraged, as it can lead to social segregation and the unraveling of the community. However, some Amish women have used higher education to obtain a nursing certificate so that they may provide midwifery services to the community.

Anabaptism

Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", German: Täufer, earlier also Wiedertäufer) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. The movement is generally seen as an offshoot of Protestantism, although this view has been challenged by some Anabaptists.Approximately 4 million Anabaptists live in the world today with adherents scattered across all inhabited continents. In addition to a number of minor Anabaptist groups, the most numerous include the Mennonites at 2.1 million, the German Baptists at 1.5 million, the Amish at 300,000 and the Hutterites at 50,000.

In the 21st century there are large cultural differences between assimilated Anabaptists, who do not differ much from evangelicals or mainline Protestants, and traditional groups like the Amish, the Old Colony Mennonites, the Old Order Mennonites, the Hutterites and the Old German Baptist Brethren.

The early Anabaptists formulated their beliefs in the Schleitheim Confession, in 1527. Anabaptists believe that baptism is valid only when the candidate confesses his or her faith in Christ and wants to be baptized. This believer's baptism is opposed to baptism of infants, who are not able to make a conscious decision to be baptized. Anabaptists are those who are in a traditional line with the early Anabaptists of the 16th century. Other Christian groups with different roots also practice believer's baptism, such as Baptists, but these groups are not seen as Anabaptist. The Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites are direct descendants of the early Anabaptist movement. Schwarzenau Brethren, Bruderhof, and the Apostolic Christian Church are considered later developments among the Anabaptists.

The name Anabaptist means "one who baptizes again". Their persecutors named them this, referring to the practice of baptizing persons when they converted or declared their faith in Christ, even if they had been baptized as infants. Anabaptists required that baptismal candidates be able to make a confession of faith that is freely chosen and so rejected baptism of infants. The early members of this movement did not accept the name Anabaptist, claiming that infant baptism was not part of scripture and was therefore null and void. They said that baptizing self-confessed believers was their first true baptism:

I have never taught Anabaptism.... But the right baptism of Christ, which is preceded by teaching and oral confession of faith, I teach, and say that infant baptism is a robbery of the right baptism of Christ.

Anabaptists were heavily and long persecuted starting in the 16th century by both Magisterial Protestants and Roman Catholics, largely because of their interpretation of scripture which put them at odds with official state church interpretations and with government. Anabaptism was never established by any state and therefore never enjoyed any associated privileges. Most Anabaptists adhered to a literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount which precluded taking oaths, participating in military actions, and participating in civil government. Some groups who practiced rebaptism, now extinct, believed otherwise and complied with these requirements of civil society. They were thus technically Anabaptists, even though conservative Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites, and some historians consider them outside true Anabaptism. Conrad Grebel wrote in a letter to Thomas Müntzer in 1524:

True Christian believers are sheep among wolves, sheep for the slaughter... Neither do they use worldly sword or war, since all killing has ceased with them.

Brethren in Christ Church

The Brethren in Christ Church (BIC) is an Anabaptist Christian denomination with roots in the Mennonite church, Radical Pietism, and Wesleyan holiness. They have also been known as River Brethren and River Mennonites.

Ciudad Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua

Cuauhtémoc (Spanish pronunciation: [kwauˈtemok]) is a city located in the west-central part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It serves as the seat of the municipality of Cuauhtémoc. The city lies 103 km (64 mi) west of the state capital of Chihuahua. As of 2015, the city of Cuauhtémoc had a population of 168,482.The population in 1953 was just under 3,000, composed almost entirely of Mexicans with the exception of foreign-born people who have gone there as traders. The town of Cuauhtémoc developed after the coming of the Mennonites in the 1920s although very few Mennonites lived in town, for it was the Mennonite shopping center. A railroad, a highway, and a bus line connected Cuauhtémoc with Chihuahua.

Conservative Mennonites

Conservative Mennonites include numerous groups that identify with the more conservative or traditional element among Mennonite or Anabaptist groups but who are not Old Order groups. The majority of Conservative Mennonite churches historically have an Amish and not a Mennonite background.

Those identifying with this group typically drive automobiles, have telephones, and use electricity, and some may have personal computers. They also have Sunday school, hold revival meetings, and operate their own Christian schools/parochial schools.

Germans in Paraguay

The German minority in Paraguay came into existence with immigration during the industrial age. The "Nueva Germania" colony was founded in Paraguay in 1888; though regarded as a failure, still exists despite being abandoned by many of its founders in the 1890s. Paraguay was a popular place for German leaders accused of war crimes to retreat after the second World War. Also, there is a large minority of German descendants living in the department of Itapúa, mainly in the Departmental Capital, Encarnación and the German town of Hohenau. Most of the Germans who settle in this region came from the larger German colonies from neighboring Brazil and Argentina. Some recent Brazilian immigrants to Paraguay have also German ancestry (Brasiguayos). Notable Paraguayans of German descent include the former president of Paraguay Alfredo Stroessner.

Menno Simons

Menno Simons (1496 – 31 January 1561) was a former Catholic priest from the Friesland region of the Low Countries who became an influential Anabaptist religious leader. Simons was a contemporary of the Protestant Reformers and it is from his name that his followers became known as Mennonites.

"Menno Simons" (/ˈmɛnoː ˈsimɔns/) is the Dutch version of his name; the Frisian version is Minne Simens (/ˈmɪnə ˈsimn̩s/), the possessive "s" creating a patronym meaning "Minne, son of Simen" (cf. English family names like Williams and Rogers).

Mennonites in Argentina

Mennonites in Argentina belong to two quite different groups: conservative and very conservative Plautdietsch-speaking group of Russian Mennonites who are descendants of Friesian, Flemish and Prussian people, and converts to the Mennonite faith from the general Argentinian population. The Russian Mennonites are the third largest community of Mennonites in South America, with four colonies in Argentina. While Russian Mennonites have their own language and customs and live in colonies, converts to the Mennonite faith normally live in cities and speak Spanish and do not differ much from other Protestants in Argentina. Conservative ethnic Mennonites normally do not engage in missionary activities but look for a quiet and remote place where they can live according to their tradition. More liberal Mennonites are engaged in worldwide missionary work like other North American Protestant denominations. About one third of Mennonites in Argentina are conservative ethnic Mennonites who belong to the Altkolonier branch.

The Mennonites as a religious group can trace back their roots to the time of the Protestant Reformation. They belonged to the radical wing of the Reformation who tried to base its faith only on the Bible as God's word and live according to it.

Mennonites in Belize

Mennonites in Belize form different religious bodies and come from different ethnic backgrounds. There are groups of Mennonites living in Belize who are quite traditional and conservative (e. g. in Shipyard and Upper Barton Creek), while others have modernized to various degrees (e. g. in Spanish Lookout and Blue Creek).

There were 4,961 members as of 2014, but the total number including children and young unbaptized adults was around 12,000. Of these some 10,000 were ethnic Mennonites, most of them Russian Mennonites, who speak Plautdietsch, a Low German dialect. In addition to this, there were another 2,000 mostly Kriol and Mestizo Belizeans who had converted to Mennonitism.

Mennonites in Mexico

According to the 2012 estimates, there were 100,000 Mennonites living in Mexico (including 32,167 baptized adult church members), the vast majority of them, or about 90,000 are established in the state of Chihuahua, 6,500 were living in Durango, with the rest living in small colonies in the states of Campeche, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí and Quintana Roo.

Their settlements were first established in the 1920s. In 1922, 3,000 Mennonites from the Canadian province of Manitoba established in Chihuahua. By 1927, Mennonites reached 10,000 and they were established in Chihuahua, Durango and Guanajuato.In 2012, about 1,500 Mennonites left Durango and moved to Canada due to severe droughts in Durango.

Mennonites in Paraguay

Mennonites in Paraguay are either ethnic Mennonites with mostly Flemish, Frisian and German ancestry and who speak Plautdietsch or of mixed (southern European/Amerindian) or Amerindian ancestry like the vast majority of Paraguayans. Ethnic Mennonites contribute heavily to the agricultural and dairy output of Paraguay.

Mennonites in Uruguay

Mennonites in Uruguay have been present since 1948. The Mennonites of Uruguay are made up of ethnic Plautdietsch-speaking Russian Mennonites, who are descendants of Friesian, Flemish and Prussian people, as well as Spanish-speaking Uruguayans of all ethnic backgrounds, that converted responding to the missionary efforts of the immigrants.

The immigrant belong to a group that is often referred to as Russian Mennonites, because they developed into an ethnic group in the Russian Empire. At the end of the century there were about 1,000 living on Uruguayan territory.

Old Colony Mennonites

The name Old Colony Mennonites (German: Altkolonier-Mennoniten) is used to describe that part of the Russian Mennonite movement that is descended from colonists who migrated from the Chortitza Colony in Russia (itself originally of Prussian origins) to settlements in Canada.

Since Chortitza was the first Mennonite settlement in Russia, it was known as the "Old Colony". In the course of the 19th century the population of the Chortitza Colony multiplied, and daughter colonies were founded. Part of the settlement moved to Canada in the 1870s, and the Canadian community, whose church was officially known as the "Reinländer Mennoniten Gemeinde", was still informally known by the old name.

When members of the Old Colony Mennonites then moved from Canada to other places, the name was kept.

Old Colony Mennonites are typically more conservative than most other Russian Mennonites in North America.As of 1990, Old Colony Mennonite communities could be found in Mexico, Bolivia, Belize, Paraguay, Canada, the United States of America.In 2013 the vast majority of Old Colony Mennonites lived in Mexico, where about 60% of the 100,000 Mennonites are affiliated with the Altkolonier Mennonitengemeinde and Bolivia, where about 75% of about 70.000 are affiliated with the Altkolonier Mennonitengemeinde. A smaller group lived in Belize, where about 50% of the 10,000 Mennonites are affiliated with the Altkolonier Mennonitengemeinde. Smaller groups of Old Colony Mennonites also lived in Paraguay, Argentina, Canada and the US.

Old Order Mennonite

Old Order Mennonites form a branch of the Mennonite tradition. Old Order are those Mennonite groups of Swiss German and south German heritage who practice a lifestyle without some elements of modern technology, who dress plain and who have retained the old forms of worship, baptism and communion.

All Old Order Mennonite reject certain technologies (e.g. television), but the extent of this rejection depends on the group. Old Order groups generally place great emphasis on a disciplined community instead of the individual's faith beliefs. The Pennsylvania German language is spoken and vigorous among all horse-and-buggy groups, except for the Virginia Old Order Mennonites, who lost the language before becoming Old Order. There is no overall church or conference to unite all the different groups of Old Order Mennonites.

A large minority of Old Order Mennonite use cars (~10,000 members), whereas a majority (~17,000 members) have retained horse and buggy transportation. They are almost entirely of Swiss German or south German descent and the majority of them speaks Pennsylvania German. Very conservative Plautdietsch speaking "Russian" Mennonites, who may have a similar belief and lifestyle are normally not called "Old Order Mennonite".

Peace churches

Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance. The term historic peace churches refers specifically only to three church groups among pacifist churches—Church of the Brethren; Religious Society of Friends (Quakers); and Mennonites, including the Amish, Old Order Mennonite, and Conservative Mennonites—and has been used since the first conference of the peace churches in Kansas in 1935.The definition of "peace churches" is sometimes expanded to include Christadelphians (from 1863) and others who did not participate in the conference of the "historic peace churches" in Kansas in 1935. The peace churches agree that Jesus advocated nonviolence. Whether physical force can ever be justified, either in defending oneself or others, remains controversial. Many believers adhere strictly to a moral attitude of nonresistance in the face of violence. However, these churches generally do concur that violence on behalf of nations and their governments is contrary to Christian morality.

Pennsylvania Dutch

The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsche), also referred to as the Pennsylvania Germans, are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants. The word "Dutch" does not refer to the Dutch people or Dutch language, but to the German settlers, known as Deutsch (in standard German) and Deitsch (in the principal dialect they spoke, Palatine German). Most emigrated, in the 17th and 18th centuries, to the Americas from within the Holy Roman Empire, which included areas that were later to become Germany and Switzerland. Over time, the various dialects spoken by these immigrants fused into a unique dialect of German known as Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania "Dutch".

The Pennsylvania Dutch maintained numerous religious affiliations, with the greatest number being Lutheran or German Reformed, but also with many Anabaptists, including Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren. The Anabaptist religions promoted a simple lifestyle, and their adherents were known as Plain people or Plain Dutch. This was in contrast to the Fancy Dutch, who tended to assimilate more easily into the American mainstream. Other religions were also represented by the late 1700s, in smaller numbers.

Radical Reformation

The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in both the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others. Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant groups throughout Europe. The term covers radical reformers like Thomas Müntzer, Andreas Karlstadt, groups like the Zwickau prophets and Anabaptist groups like the Hutterites and Mennonites.

In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized with the Radical Reformation despite intense persecution. Although the surviving proportion of the European population that rebelled against Catholic, Lutheran and Zwinglian churches was small, Radical Reformers wrote profusely and the literature on the Radical Reformation is disproportionately large, partly as a result of the proliferation of the Radical Reformation teachings in the United States.

Russian Mennonite

The Russian Mennonites (German: Russlandmennoniten, occasionally Ukrainian Mennonites) are a group of Mennonites who are descendants of Dutch Anabaptists who settled for about 250 years in West Prussia and established colonies in the Russian Empire (present-day Ukraine and Russia's Volga region and Western Siberia) beginning in 1789. Since the late 19th century, many of them have come to countries throughout the Western Hemisphere. The rest were forcibly relocated, so that very few of their descendants now live at the location of the original colonies. Russian Mennonites are traditionally multilingual with Plautdietsch (Mennonite Low German) as their first language and lingua franca. In 2014 there are several hundred thousand Russian Mennonites: about 200,000 in Germany, 100,000 in Mexico, 70,000 in Bolivia, 40,000 in Paraguay, 10,000 in Belize and tens of thousands in Canada and the US and a few thousand in Argentina, Uruguay, Belize, and Brazil.

The term "Russian Mennonite" refers to the country where they resided before their immigration to the Americas and not to their ethnic heritage.

Swiss Brethren

The Swiss Brethren are a branch of Anabaptism that started in Zürich, spread to nearby cities and towns, and then was exported to neighboring countries. Today's Swiss Mennonite Conference can be traced to the Swiss Brethren.

In 1525, Felix Manz, Conrad Grebel, George Blaurock and other radical evangelical reformers broke from Ulrich Zwingli and formed a new group because they felt reforms were not moving fast enough.Rejection of infant baptism was a distinguishing belief of the Swiss Brethren. On the basis of Sola scriptura doctrine, the Swiss Brethren declared that since the Bible does not mention infant baptism, it should not be practiced by the church. This belief was subsequently refuted by Ulrich Zwingli. Consequently, there was a public dispute, in which the council affirmed Zwingli's position. This solidified the Swiss Brethren and resulted in their persecution by all other reformers as well as the Catholic Church.

Because of persecution by the authorities, many Swiss Brethren moved from Switzerland to neighboring countries. The Swiss Brethren became known as Mennonites after the division of 1693, a disagreement between groups led by Jacob Amman and Hans Reist. Many of the Mennonites in France, Southern Germany, the Netherlands and North America, as well as most Amish descend from the Swiss Brethren.

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Notable
Anabaptists

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