Men in Black is a 1997 American science-fiction action comedy film directed by Barry Sonnenfeld, produced by Walter F. Parkes and Laurie MacDonald, and written by Ed Solomon. Loosely adapted from The Men in Black comic book series created by Lowell Cunningham and Sandy Carruthers, the film stars Tommy Lee Jones and Will Smith as two agents of a secret organization called the Men in Black, who supervise extraterrestrial lifeforms who live on Earth and hide their existence from ordinary humans. The film featured the creature effects and makeup of Rick Baker and visual effects by Industrial Light & Magic.
The film was released on July 2, 1997 by Columbia Pictures and grossed over $589.3 million worldwide against a $90 million budget, becoming the year's third highest-grossing film, with an estimated 54,616,700 tickets sold in the US. It received worldwide acclaim, with critics highly praising its witty, sophisticated humor, plot, thematic profundity, action scenes, Jones and Smith's performances, directing, special effects and Danny Elfman's musical score. The film received three Academy Award nominations: Best Art Direction, Best Original Score, and Best Makeup, winning the latter award.
|Men in Black|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Barry Sonnenfeld|
|Produced by||Walter F. Parkes|
|Screenplay by||Ed Solomon|
|Story by||Ed Solomon|
|Based on||The Men in Black|
by Lowell Cunningham
|Music by||Danny Elfman|
|Edited by||Jim Miller|
|Distributed by||Sony Pictures Releasing|
|Box office||$589.4 million|
After a government agency makes first contact with aliens in 1961, alien refugees live in secret on Earth by disguising themselves as humans in the New York metropolitan area. Men in Black is a secret agency that polices these aliens, protects Earth from intergalactic threats and uses memory-erasing neuralyzers to keep alien activity a secret. Men in Black agents have their former identities erased and retired agents are neuralyzed and given new identities. After an operation to arrest an alien criminal near the Mexican border by Agents K and D, D decides that he is too old for his job, prompting K to neuralyze him and look for a new partner.
New York Police Department officer James Darrell Edwards III pursues a supernaturally fast and agile suspect into the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Impressed, K interviews James about his encounter, then neuralyzes him and leaves him a business card with an address. Edwards goes to the address and undergoes a series of tests, for which he finds unorthodox solutions. While the other candidates are neuralyzed, K offers Edwards a position with the Men in Black. Edwards accepts and his identity is erased, becoming Agent J.
In upstate New York, an alien illegally crash-lands on Earth and kills a farmer named Edgar to use his skin as a disguise. Tasked with finding a device called "The Galaxy", the Edgar alien goes into a New York restaurant and finds two aliens (disguised as humans) who are supposed to have it in their possession. He kills them and takes a container from them, but is angered to find only diamonds inside. After learning about the incident in a tabloid magazine, K investigates the crash landing and concludes that Edgar's skin was taken by a "bug", a species of aggressive cockroach-like aliens. He and J head to a morgue to examine the bodies the bug killed. Inside one body (which turns out to be a piloted robot) they discover a dying Arquillian alien, who says that "to prevent war, the galaxy is on Orion's belt". The alien, who used the name Rosenberg, was a member of the Arquillian royal family; K fears his death may spark a war.
Men in Black informant Frank the Pug, an alien disguised as a pug, explains that the missing galaxy is a massive energy source housed in a small jewel. J deduces that the galaxy is hanging on the collar of Rosenberg's cat Orion, which refuses to leave the body at the morgue. J and K arrive just as the bug takes the galaxy and kidnaps the coroner, Laurel Weaver. Meanwhile, an Arquillian battleship fires a warning shot in the Arctic and delivers an ultimatum to Men in Black: return the galaxy within a "galactic standard week", or an hour of Earth time, or they will destroy Earth.
The bug arrives at the observation towers of the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair New York State Pavilion at Flushing Meadows, which disguise two real flying saucers. Once there, Laurel escapes the bug's clutches when it accidentally drops her. It activates one of the saucers and tries to leave Earth, but K and J shoot it down and the ship crashes into the Unisphere. The bug sheds Edgar's skin and swallows J and K's guns. K provokes it until he too is swallowed. The bug tries to escape on the other ship, but J slows it down by taunting it and crushing cockroaches, angering it. K blows the bug apart from the inside, having found his gun inside its stomach. J and K recover the galaxy and relax, thinking the whole ordeal over, only for the still living upper half of the bug to pounce on them from behind, but Laurel kills it with J's gun.
At Men in Black headquarters, K tells J that he has not been training him as a partner, but a replacement. K bids J farewell before J neuralyzes him at his request; K returns to his civilian life and Laurel becomes J's new partner, L.
The film is based on Lowell Cunningham and Sandy Carruthers's comic book The Men in Black. Producers Walter F. Parkes and Laurie MacDonald optioned the rights to The Men in Black in 1992, and hired Ed Solomon to write a very faithful script. Parkes and MacDonald wanted Barry Sonnenfeld as director because he had helmed the darkly humorous The Addams Family and its sequel Addams Family Values. Sonnenfeld was attached to Get Shorty (1995), so they approached Les Mayfield to direct, as they had heard about the positive reception to his remake of Miracle on 34th Street. They actually saw the film later and decided he was inappropriate. Men in Black was delayed so as to allow Sonnenfeld to make it his next project after Get Shorty.
Much of the initial script drafts were set underground, with locations ranging from Kansas to Washington, D.C. and Nevada. Sonnenfeld decided to change the location to New York City, because the director felt New Yorkers would be tolerant of aliens who behaved oddly while disguised. He also felt much of the city's structures resembled flying saucers and rocket ships. One of the locations Sonnenfeld thought perfect for the movie was a giant ventilation structure for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel, which became the outside of the MIB headquarters.
Filming began in March 1996. Many last-minute changes ensued during production. First, James Edwards chasing a disguised alien was to occur at the Lincoln Center. But once the New York Philharmonic decided to charge the filmmakers for using their buildings, Sonnenfeld and Welch went for the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Then, five months into the shoot, Sonnenfeld decided that the original ending, with a humorous existential debate between Agent J and the Bug, was unexciting and lacking the action that the rest of the film had. Five potential replacements were discussed. One of these had Laurel Weaver being neuralyzed and K remaining an agent. Eventually it boiled down to the Bug eating K and fighting J, replacing the animatronic Bug Rick Baker's crew had developed with a computer-generated Bug with an appearance closer to a cockroach. The whole action sequence cost an extra $4.5 million to the filmmakers.
Further changes were made during post-production to simplify the plotline involving the possession of the tiny galaxy. The Arquillians would hand over the galaxy to the Baltians, ending a long war. The Bugs need to feed on the casualties and steal the galaxy in order to continue the war. Through changing of subtitles, the images on M.I.B.'s main computer and Frank the Pug's dialogue, the Baltians were eliminated from the plot. Earth goes from being potentially destroyed in the crossfire between the two races into being possibly destroyed by the Arquillians themselves to prevent the Bugs from getting the galaxy. These changes to the plot were carried out when only two weeks remained in the film's post-production, but the film's novelization still contains the Baltians.
Production designer Bo Welch designed the M.I.B. headquarters with a 1960s tone in mind, because that was when their organization is formed. He cited influences from Finnish architect Eero Saarinen, who designed a terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport. As the arrival point of aliens on Earth, Welch felt M.I.B. HQ had to resemble an airport.
Rick Baker was approached to provide the prostethic and animatronic aliens, many of whom would have more otherworldly designs instead of looking humanoid. For example, the reveal of Gentle Rosenberg's Arquillian nature went from a man with a light under his neck's skin to a small alien hidden inside a human head. Baker would describe Men in Black as the most complex production in his career, "requiring more sketches than all my previous movies together". Baker had to have approval from both Sonnenfeld and Spielberg: "It was like, 'Steven likes the head on this one and Barry really likes the body on this one, so why don't you do a mix and match?' And I'd say, because it wouldn't make any sense." Sonnenfeld also changed a lot of the film's aesthetic during pre-production: "I started out saying aliens shouldn't be what humans perceive them to be. Why do they need eyes? So Rick did these great designs, and I'd say, 'That's great — but how do we know where he's looking?' I ended up where everyone else did, only I took three months." The maquettes built by Baker's team would later be digitized by Industrial Light and Magic, who was responsible for the visual effects and computer-generated imagery, for more mobile digital versions of the aliens.
Danny Elfman composed the film's score, making use of his usual combination of orchestra and electronics. Will Smith recorded a song based on the film's plot, also called "Men in Black". Elvis Presley's cover of "Promised Land" is featured in the scene where the MIB's car runs on the ceiling of Queens–Midtown Tunnel.
Two different soundtracks were released in the U.S.: a score soundtrack and an album, featuring various songs. In the U.K., only the album was released.
Galoob released various action figures of the film's characters and aliens. An official comic adaptation was released by Marvel Comics. The official Men in Black game is a third-person shooter developed by Gigawatt Studios and published by Gremlin Interactive and released to lackluster reviews in October '97 for the PC and the following year for the PlayStation. Also a very rare promotional PlayStation video game system was released in 1997 with the Men in Black logo on the CD lid. Men in Black: The Animated Series was created by Sony Pictures Television, and also inspired several games. Men in Black was the inspiration behind the Men in Black: Alien Attack ride at Universal Studios Orlando, in which Will Smith and Rip Torn reprised their roles. A Men in Black role-playing game was also released in 1997 by West End Games.
Men in Black won the Academy Award for Best Makeup, and was also nominated for Best Original Score and Best Art Direction. It was also nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy.
On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 92% based on 85 reviews, and an average score of 7.4/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Thanks to a smart script, spectacular set pieces, and charismatic performances from its leads, Men in Black is an entirely satisfying summer blockbuster hit." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 71 out of 100, based on 22 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B+" on an A+ to F scale. Will Smith wins the Grammy and MTV Video Award for the title song Men In Black in 1998
|Academy Awards||Best Makeup||Rick Baker and David LeRoy Anderson||Won|
|Best Art Direction||Bo Welch and Cheryl Carasik||Nominated|
|Best Original Musical or Comedy Score||Danny Elfman||Nominated|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Comedy or Musical||Nominated|
|BAFTA Awards||Best Special Effects||Nominated|
|Saturn Awards||Best Science Fiction Film||Won|
|Best Director||Barry Sonnenfeld||Nominated|
|Best Writing||Ed Solomon||Nominated|
|Best Actor||Will Smith||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor||Vincent D'Onofrio||Won|
|Best Music||Danny Elfman||Won|
|Best Special Effects||Nominated|
On Empire magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Movies of All Time, "Men in Black" placed 409th. Following the film's release, Ray-Ban stated sales of their Predator 2 sunglasses (worn by the organization to deflect neuralyzers) tripled to $5 million.
American Film Institute Lists
Men In Black was released on the VHS & DVD in 1997. The Collector's Series was released on DVD in 2000, The Deluxe Edition was released on January 1, 2002 for DVD. The Blu-Ray & DVD was released on June 17, 2008. The entire Men In Black trilogy was released on 4K UHD Blu-Ray on December 5 2017.
Alicia Augello Cook (born January 25, 1981), known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American singer-songwriter, musician, record producer, actress and philanthropist.
A classically-trained pianist, Keys was composing songs by age 12 and was signed at 15 years old by Columbia Records. After disputes with the label, she signed with Arista Records, and later released her debut album, Songs in A Minor, with J Records in 2001. The album was critically and commercially successful, producing her first Billboard Hot 100 number-one single "Fallin'" and selling over 12 million copies worldwide. The album earned Keys five Grammy Awards in 2002. Her second album, The Diary of Alicia Keys (2003), was also a critical and commercial success, spawning successful singles "You Don't Know My Name", "If I Ain't Got You", and "Diary", and selling eight million copies worldwide. The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards. Her duet "My Boo" with Usher became her second number-one single in 2004. Keys released her first live album, Unplugged (2005), and became the first woman to have an MTV Unplugged album debut at number one.
Her third album, As I Am (2007), produced the Hot 100 number-one single "No One", selling 7 million copies worldwide and earning an additional three Grammy Awards. In 2007, Keys made her film debut in the action-thriller film Smokin' Aces. She, along with Jack White, recorded "Another Way to Die" (the title song to the 22nd official James Bond film, Quantum of Solace). Her fourth album, The Element of Freedom (2009), became her first chart-topping album in the UK, and sold 4 million copies worldwide. In 2009, Keys also collaborated with Jay Z on "Empire State of Mind", which became her fourth number-one single and won the Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration. Girl on Fire (2012) was her fifth Billboard 200 topping album, spawning the successful title track, and won the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album. In 2013, VH1 Storytellers was released as her second live album. Her sixth studio album, Here (2016), became her seventh US R&B/Hip-Hop chart topping album.
Keys has received numerous accolades throughout her career, including 15 competitive Grammy Awards, 17 NAACP Image Awards, 12 ASCAP Awards, and an award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame and National Music Publishers Association. She has sold over 65 million records worldwide. Considered a musical icon, Keys was named by Billboard the top R&B artist of the 2000s decade and placed number 10 on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years. VH1 also included her on their 100 Greatest Artists of All Time and 100 Greatest Women in Music lists, while Time has named her in their 100 list of most influential people in 2005 and 2017. Keys is also acclaimed for her humanitarian work, philanthropy and activism. She co-founded and is the Global Ambassador of the nonprofit HIV/AIDS-fighting organization Keep a Child Alive.List of baseball parks used in film and television
List of baseball parks probably used in film and television includes baseball parks that may have been used as settings in filmmaking and television productions. Footage of actual sports events is most likely not included unless it was potentially used as stock footage or otherwise woven into a fictional storyline of a film or TV show. References are typically within the individual articles. This is not necessarily an exhaustive list.
Anaheim Stadium, Anaheim, CaliforniaAngels in the Outfield, 1994 film (exterior and sky shots)
Deuce Bigalow: Male Gigolo, 1999 filmAstrodome, HoustonBrewster McCloud, 1970 film (many scenes)
The Bad News Bears in Breaking Training, 1977 film (many scenes)
Murder at the World Series, 1977 made-for-TV film (several scenes)
Night Game, 1989 film (many scenes)Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, AtlantaThe Slugger's Wife, 1985 film (many scenes)Bosse Field, Evansville, IndianaA League of Their Own, 1992 (secondary setting, as home of the Racine Belles)Bush Stadium, Indianapolis, IndianaEight Men Out, 1988 film (standing in for both Comiskey Park and Redland Field)Candlestick Park, San Francisco, CaliforniaExperiment in Terror, 1962 film (closing scenes)
The Fan, 1996 film (many scenes)Citi Field, Queens, New YorkSharknado 2: The Second One, 2014 film
Cleveland Stadium, Cleveland, OhioMajor League, 1989 film (primary setting, but only a few scenes were actually shot there)College Park, Charleston, South CarolinaMajor League: Back to the Minors, 1998 film (primary setting)Comiskey Park, ChicagoThe Pride of the Yankees, 1942 film (some scenes)
The Stratton Story, 1949 film (many scenes)
Only the Lonely, 1991 film (one scene)Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles, California
Mr. Ed episode, "Leo Durocher Meets Mr. Ed", first aired Sep 29, 1963
Hickey & Boggs, 1972 film (a few scenes)
Better Off Dead, 1985 film (closing scenes)
The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad!, 1988 film (closing scenes)
The Sandlot, 1993 film (cameo)
The Fast and the Furious, 2001 film (opening scene driving in the parking lot)
Clubhouse, 2004 TV series (standing in for a fictional New York stadium)
Superman Returns 2006 film (one scene, with CGI alterations)
Transformers, 2007 film (one scene)Doubleday Field, Cooperstown, New YorkA League of Their Own, 1992 film (closing scenes)Durham Athletic Park, Durham, North CarolinaBull Durham, 1988 film (many scenes)Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New YorkRoogie's Bump , Ernie Shore Field, Winston-Salem, North CarolinaMr. Destiny, 1990 (several scenes)
Fenway Park, Boston, MassachusettsField of Dreams, 1989 film (cameo)
Fever Pitch, 2005 film
The Town, 2010 film (lengthy scene depicting a robbery)
"Moneyball (film), 2011 film (one scene)
"Ted (film), 2012 film (one scene)
"Patriots Day (film), 2016 film (one scene)Forbes Field, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaAngels in the Outfield, 1951 filmGilmore Field, Los Angeles, CaliforniaThe Stratton Story, 1949 filmGrayson Stadium, Savannah, GeorgiaThe Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings, 1976 film (some scenes)Griffith Stadium, Washington, D.C.Damn Yankees, 1958 film (crowd scenes)John O'Donnell Stadium, Davenport, IowaSugar, 2008 film (many scenes)League Stadium, Huntingburg, IndianaA League of Their Own, 1992 (primary setting, as home of the Rockford Peaches)
Soul of the Game, 1996 film (primary baseball setting)Luther Williams Field, Macon, GeorgiaThe Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings, 1976 film (many scenes)
Memorial Stadium, Baltimore, MarylandTin Men, 1987 film (exteriors, background)
Homicide: Life on the Street, 1993–99 TV series (occasional scenes)
Major League II, 1994 film (some scenes)Metrodome, Minneapolis, MinnesotaLittle Big League, 1994 film (primary setting)
Major League: Back to the Minors, 1998 film (secondary setting)Miller Park, Milwaukee, WisconsinMr. 3000, 2004 film (several scenes)Milwaukee County Stadium, Milwaukee, WisconsinMajor League, 1989 film (standing in for the primary setting of Cleveland Stadium)Minute Maid Park, Houston, TexasBoyhood, 2014 film (one scene)Nationals Park, Washington, District of ColumbiaHow Do You Know, 2010 film (one scene)Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, Oakland, CaliforniaAngels in the Outfield, 1994 film (primary setting)
"Moneyball (film), 2011 film (primary scene)
Oriole Park at Camden Yards, Baltimore, MarylandDave, 1993 film (cameo)
Homicide: Life on the Street, 1993–99 TV series (occasional scenes)
Major League II, 1994 film (primary setting)PNC Park, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaChasing 3000, 2008 film
Abduction, 2011 filmRangers Ballpark in Arlington, Arlington, TexasThe Rookie, 2002 film (primary setting)Safeco Field, SeattleLife, or Something Like It, 2002 film (some scenes)
Shea Stadium, Queens, New YorkThe Odd Couple, 1968 (cameo)
Bang the Drum Slowly, 1973 film (many scenes)
Seven Minutes in Heaven (film), 1985 film (one scene)
Seinfeld, TV series, 1992 episode "The Boyfriend" (cameo)
Men in Black, 1997 film (one scene)
Two Weeks Notice, 2002 film (one scene)Sportsman's Park, St. Louis, MissouriThe Pride of St. Louis, 1952 film
The Winning Team, another 1952 film
The Pride of the Yankees, 1942 film (cameo)
Tiger Stadium, Detroit, MichiganThe Pride of the Yankees, 1942 film (some scenes)
One in a Million: The Ron LeFlore Story, 1978, made-for-TV film (many scenes)
Tiger Town, 1983, made-for-TV film (many scenes)
61*, 2001, made-for-TV film (primary setting and Tiger Stadium)
Hardball, 2001, (one scene as 'Chicago Field')
Hung, 2009, pilot episode of HBO TV show
Kill the Irishman, 2011Turner Field, Atlanta, GeorgiaThe Change-Up, 2011 film
Trouble with the Curve, 2012 film
Flight, 2012 filmU. S. Cellular Field, ChicagoRookie of the Year, 1993 film (some scenes)
Little Big League, 1994 film (all games played by the featured Minnesota Twins on the road)
Major League II, 1994 film (some scenes)
My Best Friend's Wedding, 1997 film (cameo)War Memorial Stadium, Buffalo, New YorkThe Natural, 1984 film
Wrigley Field, ChicagoWrigley scenes in 1984 film The Natural were actually filmed at All-High Stadium in Buffalo, New York
The Blues Brothers, 1980 film (cameo)
Ferris Bueller's Day Off, 1986 film (one scene)
About Last Night..., 1986 film (one scene)
The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad!, 1988 film (cameo)
A League of Their Own, 1992 film (early scenes, as fictional Harvey Field)
Rookie of the Year, 1993 film (primary setting)
I Want Someone to Eat Cheese With, 2006 filmWrigley Field, Los Angeles, CaliforniaThe Stratton Story, 1949 film (a few scenes)
Angels in the Outfield, 1951 film (a few scenes)
The Kid from Left Field, 1953 film (many scenes)
Damn Yankees, 1958 film (primary setting – standing in for Griffith Stadium)
The Geisha Boy, 1948 film
Home Run Derby, 1959 TV series
The Twilight Zone, 1960 episode "The Mighty Casey"
Yankee Stadium I, Bronx, New YorkThe Pride of the Yankees, 1942 film (many scenes)
Woman of the Year, 1942 film (one scene)
Angels in the Outfield, 1951 film (setting for cameo by Joe DiMaggio)The FBI Story (1959)(Interior and exterior shots seen while FBI agents are keeping communist suspect under surveillance.)
West Side Story, 1961 film (cameo – overhead shot during opening credits)
Bang the Drum Slowly, 1973 film (several scenes standing in for Shea Stadium)
Seinfeld, TV series, cameos in various episodes 1994–98 starting with "The Opposite" (George Costanza's workplace)
For Love of the Game, 1999 film (many scenes)
Anger Management, 2003 film (closing scene)Yankee Stadium II, Bronx, New YorkThe Adjustment Bureau, 2011 film (one scene)Zephyr Field, Metairie, LouisianaMr. 3000, 2004 film (several scenes)Mark McKenzie
Mark McKenzie is an American film composer and orchestratorMibi
Mibi, MIBI, or variation, may refer to:
Mibi- (prefix), a value of 220 or 10242 (1,048,576), abbreviated as "Mi-"; see List of numbers
methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI), a chemical used in nuclear medicine
Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI), a type of mass spectrometry imaging
Men in Black: International (2019 film) "Men in Black 4" aka MiB:I or MiBiSteve Amerson
Stephen "Steve" Amerson (born March 28, 1954) is a singer, songwriter, and recording artist with 19 albums.During his 30-plus-year career, Amerson has been heard on over 175 films, countless commercials, and television shows. Additionally, Amerson has had approximately 100 compositions published by WORD Music and other publishing companies. In 1988, Amerson established Amerson Music Ministries (AMM) as a non-profit organization. He has produced and sung on 18 inspirational albums under the AMM label. Amerson has been a featured soloist with major symphonies in the United States and abroad including performances at the Hollywood Bowl and Carnegie Hall.The Monkey Suit
"The Monkey Suit" is the twenty-first episode of the seventeenth season of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 14, 2006. In the episode, Ned Flanders is shocked after seeing a new display at the museum about evolution. Together with Reverend Lovejoy, he spreads the religious belief of creationism in Springfield, and at a later town meeting, teaching evolution is made illegal. As a result, Lisa decides to hold secret classes for people interested in evolution. However, she is quickly arrested and a trial against her is initiated.
J. Stewart Burns wrote "The Monkey Suit", for which he received inspiration from the 1925 Scopes Monkey Trial. The episode features a few references to this legal case, as well as several references to popular culture. Many analysts have commented on the episode's treatment of the creation–evolution controversy, a dispute about the origin of humanity between those who support a creationist view based upon their religious beliefs, versus those who accept evolution, as supported by scientific evidence.
Critics have given the episode generally positive reviews, praising it for its satire of the creation-evolution debate. "The Monkey Suit" has won an award from the Independent Investigations Group (IIG) for being "one of those rare shows in the media that encourage science, critical thinking, and ridicule those shows that peddle pseudoscience and superstition." In 2007, a scene from the episode was highlighted in the scientific journal Nature.
Films directed by Barry Sonnenfeld