The United Nations member states are the 193 sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly. The UN is the world's largest intergovernmental organization.
A recommendation for admission from the Security Council requires affirmative votes from at least nine of the council's fifteen members, with none of the five permanent members using their veto power. The Security Council's recommendation must then be approved in the General Assembly by a two-thirds majority vote.
In principle, only sovereign states can become UN members, and currently all UN members are sovereign states. Although five members were not sovereign when they joined the UN, all subsequently became fully independent between 1946 and 1991. Because a state can only be admitted to membership in the UN by the approval of the Security Council and the General Assembly, a number of states that are considered sovereign according to the Montevideo Convention are not members of the UN. This is because the UN does not consider them to possess sovereignty, mainly due to the lack of international recognition or due to opposition from one of the permanent members.
In addition to the member states, the UN also invites non-member states to become observers at the UN General Assembly (currently two: the Holy See and Palestine), allowing them to participate and speak in General Assembly meetings, but not vote. Observers are generally intergovernmental organizations and international organizations and entities whose statehood or sovereignty is not precisely defined.
The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, after ratification of the United Nations Charter by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and a majority of the other signatories. A total of 51 original members (or founding members) joined that year; 50 of them signed the Charter at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco on 26 June 1945, while Poland, which was not represented at the conference, signed it on 15 October 1945.
The original members of the United Nations were: France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia.
Among the original members, 49 are either still UN members or had their memberships in the UN continued by a successor state (see table below); for example, the membership of the Soviet Union was continued by the Russian Federation after its dissolution (see the section Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The other two original members, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia (i.e., the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), had been dissolved and their memberships in the UN not continued from 1992 by any one successor state (see the sections Former members: Czechoslovakia and Former members: Yugoslavia).
At the time of UN's founding, the seat of China in the UN was held by the Republic of China, but as a result of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 in 1971, it is now held by the People's Republic of China (see the section Former members: Republic of China (Taiwan)).
A number of the original members were not sovereign when they joined the UN, and only gained full independence later:
The alphabetical order by the member states' official designations is used to determine the seating arrangement of the General Assembly sessions, where a draw is held each year to select a member state as the starting point. Several members use their full official names in their official designations and thus are sorted out of order from their common names: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Moldova, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Until 2019, North Macedonia was listed as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (a provisional reference used for all purposes within the UN, and listed under T).
The member states can be sorted by their official designations and dates of admission by clicking on the buttons in the header of the columns. See related sections on former members by clicking on the links in the column See also.
Original members are listed with.
|Flag||Member state||Date of admission||See also|
|Afghanistan||19 November 1946||United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan|
|Albania||14 December 1955|
|Algeria||8 October 1962|
|Andorra||28 July 1993|
|Angola||1 December 1976|
|Antigua and Barbuda||11 November 1981|
|Argentina||24 October 1945|
|Armenia||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Australia||1 November 1945||Australia and the United Nations|
|Austria||14 December 1955|
|Azerbaijan||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Bahamas||18 September 1973|
|Bahrain||21 September 1971|
|Bangladesh||17 September 1974|
|Barbados||9 December 1966|
|Belarus||24 October 1945||Former member: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic|
|Belgium||27 December 1945|
|Belize||25 September 1981|
|Benin[note 1]||20 September 1960|
|Bhutan||21 September 1971|
|Plurinational State of Bolivia[note 2]||14 November 1945|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||22 May 1992||Former member: Yugoslavia|
|Botswana||17 October 1966|
|Brazil||24 October 1945||Brazil and the United Nations|
|Brunei Darussalam||21 September 1984|
|Bulgaria||14 December 1955|
|Burkina Faso[note 3]||20 September 1960|
|Burundi||18 September 1962|
|Cabo Verde[note 4]||16 September 1975|
|Cambodia[note 5]||14 December 1955|
|Cameroon[note 6]||20 September 1960|
|Canada||9 November 1945||Canada and the United Nations|
|Central African Republic[note 7]||20 September 1960|
|Chad||20 September 1960|
|Chile||24 October 1945|
|China||24 October 1945||Former member: Republic of China and China and the United Nations|
|Colombia||5 November 1945|
|Comoros||12 November 1975|
|Congo[note 8]||20 September 1960|
|Costa Rica||2 November 1945|
|Côte d'Ivoire[note 9]||20 September 1960|
|Croatia||22 May 1992||Former member: Yugoslavia|
|Cuba||24 October 1945|
|Cyprus||20 September 1960|
|Czech Republic||19 January 1993||Former member: Czechoslovakia|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||17 September 1991||Korea and the United Nations|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo[note 10]||20 September 1960|
|Denmark||24 October 1945|
|Djibouti||20 September 1977|
|Dominica||18 December 1978|
|Dominican Republic||24 October 1945|
|Ecuador||21 December 1945|
|Egypt||24 October 1945||Former member: United Arab Republic|
|El Salvador||24 October 1945|
|Equatorial Guinea||12 November 1968|
|Eritrea||28 May 1993|
|Estonia||17 September 1991||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Eswatini[note 11]||24 September 1968|
|Ethiopia||13 November 1945|
|Fiji||13 October 1970||Fiji and the United Nations|
|Finland||14 December 1955|
|France||24 October 1945||France and the United Nations|
|Gabon||20 September 1960|
|Republic of The Gambia[note 12]||21 September 1965|
|Georgia||31 July 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Germany||18 September 1973||Former member: German Democratic Republic and Germany and the United Nations|
|Ghana||8 March 1957|
|Greece||25 October 1945|
|Grenada||17 September 1974|
|Guatemala||21 November 1945|
|Guinea||12 December 1958|
|Guinea-Bissau||17 September 1974|
|Guyana||20 September 1966|
|Haiti||24 October 1945|
|Honduras||17 December 1945|
|Hungary||14 December 1955|
|Iceland||19 November 1946|
|India||30 October 1945||India and the United Nations|
|Indonesia[note 13]||28 September 1950||Withdrawal of Indonesia (1965–1966) and Indonesia and the United Nations|
|Islamic Republic of Iran[note 14]||24 October 1945|
|Iraq||21 December 1945|
|Ireland||14 December 1955|
|Israel||11 May 1949||Israel, Palestine, and the United Nations|
|Italy||14 December 1955|
|Jamaica||18 September 1962|
|Japan||18 December 1956||Japan and the United Nations|
|Jordan||14 December 1955|
|Kazakhstan[note 15]||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Kenya||16 December 1963|
|Kiribati||14 September 1999|
|Kuwait||14 May 1963|
|Kyrgyzstan||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic[note 16]||14 December 1955|
|Latvia||17 September 1991||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Lebanon||24 October 1945|
|Lesotho||17 October 1966|
|Liberia||2 November 1945|
|Libya[note 17]||14 December 1955|
|Liechtenstein||18 September 1990|
|Lithuania||17 September 1991||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Luxembourg||24 October 1945||Luxembourg and the United Nations|
|Madagascar[note 18]||20 September 1960|
|Malawi||1 December 1964|
|Malaysia||17 September 1957||Former member: Federation of Malaya and Malaysia and the United Nations|
|Maldives[note 19]||21 September 1965|
|Mali||28 September 1960|
|Malta||1 December 1964|
|Marshall Islands||17 September 1991||Marshall Islands and the United Nations|
|Mauritania||27 October 1961|
|Mauritius||24 April 1968|
|Mexico||7 November 1945||Mexico and the United Nations|
|Federated States of Micronesia||17 September 1991||Federated States of Micronesia and the United Nations|
|Monaco||28 May 1993|
|Mongolia||27 October 1961|
|Montenegro||28 June 2006||Former member: Yugoslavia|
|Morocco||12 November 1956|
|Mozambique||16 September 1975|
|Myanmar[note 20]||19 April 1948|
|Namibia||23 April 1990|
|Nauru||14 September 1999|
|Nepal||14 December 1955|
|Netherlands||10 December 1945|
|New Zealand||24 October 1945||New Zealand and the United Nations|
|Nicaragua||24 October 1945|
|Niger||20 September 1960|
|Nigeria||7 October 1960|
|North Macedonia[note 21]||8 April 1993||Former member: Yugoslavia|
|Norway||27 November 1945|
|Oman||7 October 1971|
|Pakistan||30 September 1947||Pakistan and the United Nations|
|Palau||15 December 1994|
|Panama||13 November 1945|
|Papua New Guinea||10 October 1975|
|Paraguay||24 October 1945|
|Peru||31 October 1945|
|Philippines[note 22]||24 October 1945||Philippines and the United Nations|
|Poland||24 October 1945|
|Portugal||14 December 1955|
|Qatar||21 September 1971|
|Republic of Korea||17 September 1991||Korea and the United Nations|
|Republic of Moldova[note 23]||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Romania||14 December 1955|
|Russian Federation||24 October 1945||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Soviet Union and the United Nations and Russia and the United Nations|
|Rwanda||18 September 1962|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis[note 24]||23 September 1983|
|Saint Lucia||18 September 1979|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||16 September 1980|
|Samoa||15 December 1976|
|San Marino||2 March 1992|
|São Tomé and Príncipe[note 25]||16 September 1975|
|Saudi Arabia||24 October 1945|
|Senegal||28 September 1960|
|Serbia||1 November 2000||Former member: Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro and Serbia and the United Nations|
|Seychelles||21 September 1976|
|Sierra Leone||27 September 1961|
|Singapore||21 September 1965||Former member: Malaysia and Singapore and the United Nations|
|Slovakia||19 January 1993||Former member: Czechoslovakia|
|Slovenia||22 May 1992||Former member: Yugoslavia|
|Solomon Islands||19 September 1978|
|Somalia||20 September 1960|
|South Africa[note 26]||7 November 1945|
|South Sudan||14 July 2011|
|Spain||14 December 1955|
|Sri Lanka[note 27]||14 December 1955|
|Sudan||12 November 1956|
|Suriname[note 28]||4 December 1975|
|Sweden||19 November 1946|
|Switzerland||10 September 2002|
|Syrian Arab Republic||24 October 1945||Former member: United Arab Republic|
|Tajikistan||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Thailand[note 29]||16 December 1946|
|Timor-Leste||27 September 2002|
|Togo||20 September 1960|
|Tonga||14 September 1999|
|Trinidad and Tobago||18 September 1962||Trinidad and Tobago and the United Nations|
|Tunisia||12 November 1956|
|Turkey||24 October 1945|
|Turkmenistan||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Tuvalu||5 September 2000||Tuvalu and the United Nations|
|Uganda||25 October 1962|
|Ukraine||24 October 1945||Former member: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic|
|United Arab Emirates||9 December 1971|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||24 October 1945||United Kingdom and the United Nations|
|United Republic of Tanzania||14 December 1961||Former member: Tanganyika and Zanzibar|
|United States of America||24 October 1945||United States and the United Nations|
|Uruguay||18 December 1945|
|Uzbekistan||2 March 1992||Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics|
|Vanuatu||15 September 1981||Vanuatu and the United Nations|
|Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[note 30]||15 November 1945|
|Vietnam||20 September 1977|
|Yemen||30 September 1947||Former member: Yemen and Democratic Yemen|
|Zambia||1 December 1964|
|Zimbabwe||25 August 1980|
The Republic of China (ROC) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. In 1949, as a result of the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang-led ROC government lost effective control of mainland China and relocated to the island of Taiwan, and the Communist Party-led government of the People's Republic of China (PRC), declared on 1 October 1949, took control of mainland China. The UN was notified on 18 November 1949 of the formation of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; however, the Government of the Republic of China continued to represent China at the UN, despite the small size of the ROC's jurisdiction of Taiwan and a number of smaller islands compared to the PRC's jurisdiction of mainland China. As both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate representative of China, proposals to effect a change in the representation of China in the UN were discussed but rejected for the next two decades, as the ROC was still recognized as the sole legitimate representative of China by a majority of UN members. Both sides rejected compromise proposals to allow both states to participate in the UN, based on the One-China policy.
By the 1970s, a shift had occurred in international diplomatic circles and the PRC had gained the upper hand in international diplomatic relations and recognition count. On 25 October 1971, the 21st time the United Nations General Assembly debated on the PRC's admission into the UN, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was adopted, by which it recognized that "the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations and that the People's Republic of China is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council," and decided "to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it." This effectively transferred the seat of China in the UN, including its permanent seat on the Security Council, from the ROC to the PRC, and expelled the ROC from the UN. From the United Nations' perspective the "Republic of China" is not a former member. No UN member was expelled in 1971. Rather, the credentials of one Chinese delegation (from Taipei) were rejected and the credentials of another Chinese delegation (from Beijing) were accepted.
In addition to losing its seat in the UN, the UN Secretary-General concluded from the resolution that the General Assembly considered Taiwan to be a province of China. Consequently, the Secretary-General decided that it was not permitted for the ROC to become a party to treaties deposited with it.
In 1993 the ROC began campaigning to rejoin the UN separately from the People's Republic of China. A number of options were considered, including seeking membership in the specialized agencies, applying for observer status, applying for full membership, or having resolution 2758 revoked to reclaim the seat of China in the UN.
Every year from 1993–2006, UN member states submitted a memorandum to the UN Secretary-General requesting that the UN General Assembly consider allowing the ROC to resume participating in the United Nations.[note 31] This approach was chosen, rather than a formal application for membership, because it could be enacted by the General Assembly, while a membership application would need Security Council approval, where the PRC held a veto. Early proposals recommended admitting the ROC with parallel representation over China, along with the People's Republic of China, pending eventual reunification, citing examples of other divided countries which had become separate UN member states, such as East and West Germany and North and South Korea. Later proposals emphasized that the ROC was a separate state, over which the PRC had no effective sovereignty. These proposed resolutions referred to the ROC under a variety of names: "Republic of China in Taiwan" (1993–94), "Republic of China on Taiwan" (1995–97, 1999–2002), "Republic of China" (1998), "Republic of China (Taiwan)" (2003) and "Taiwan" (2004–06).
However, all fourteen attempts were unsuccessful as the General Assembly's General Committee declined to put the issue on the Assembly's agenda for debate, under strong opposition from the PRC.
While all these proposals were vague, requesting the ROC be allowed to participate in UN activities without specifying any legal mechanism, in 2007 the ROC submitted a formal application under the name "Taiwan" for full membership in the UN. However, the application was rejected by the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs citing General Assembly Resolution 2758, without being forwarded to the Security Council. Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon stated that:
The position of the United Nations is that the People's Republic of China is representing the whole of China as the sole and legitimate representative Government of China. The decision until now about the wish of the people in Taiwan to join the United Nations has been decided on that basis. The resolution (General Assembly Resolution 2758) that you just mentioned is clearly mentioning that the Government of China is the sole and legitimate Government and the position of the United Nations is that Taiwan is part of China.
Responding to the UN's rejection of its application, the ROC government has stated that Taiwan is not now nor has it ever been under the jurisdiction of the PRC, and that since General Assembly Resolution 2758 did not clarify the issue of Taiwan's representation in the UN, it does not prevent Taiwan's participation in the UN as an independent sovereign nation. The ROC government also criticized Ban for asserting that Taiwan is part of China and returning the application without passing it to the Security Council or the General Assembly, contrary to UN's standard procedure (Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council, Chapter X, Rule 59). On the other hand, the PRC government, which has stated that Taiwan is part of China and firmly opposes the application of any Taiwan authorities to join the UN either as a member or an observer, praised that UN's decision "was made in accordance with the UN Charter and Resolution 2758 of the UN General Assembly, and showed the UN and its member states' universal adherence to the one-China principle". A group of UN member states put forward a draft resolution for that fall's UN General Assembly calling on the Security Council to consider the application.
The following year two referendums in Taiwan on the government's attempts to regain participation at the UN did not pass due to low turnout. That fall the ROC took a new approach, with its allies submitting a resolution requesting that the "Republic of China (Taiwan)" be allowed to have "meaningful participation" in the UN specialized agencies. Again the issue was not put on the Assembly's agenda. In 2009, the ROC chose not to bring the issue of its participation in the UN up for debate at the General Assembly for the first time since it began the campaign in 1993.
In May 2009, the Department of Health of the Republic of China was invited by the World Health Organization to attend the 62nd World Health Assembly as an observer under the name "Chinese Taipei". This was the ROC's first participation in an event organized by a UN-affiliated agency since 1971, as a result of the improved cross-strait relations since Ma Ying-jeou became the President of the Republic of China a year before.
Czechoslovakia joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, with its name changed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic on 20 April 1990. Upon the imminent dissolution of Czechoslovakia, in a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as successor states, would apply for membership in the UN. Neither state sought sole successor state status. Both states were readmitted to the UN on 19 January 1993.
Both the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) were admitted to the UN on 18 September 1973. Through the accession of the East German federal states to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 October 1990, the territory of the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany, today simply known as Germany. Consequently, the Federal Republic of Germany continued being a member of the UN while the German Democratic Republic ceased to exist.
The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 September 1957. On 16 September 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the formation of Malaysia from Singapore, North Borneo (now Sabah), Sarawak and the Federation of Malaya. Singapore became an independent State on 9 August 1965 and a Member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.
Tanganyika was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1961, and Zanzibar was admitted to the UN on 16 December 1963. Following the ratification on 26 April 1964 of the Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states merged to form the single member "United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar", with its name changed to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Upon the imminent dissolution of the USSR, in a letter dated 24 December 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian Federation, informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of the USSR in the Security Council and all other UN organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The other fourteen independent states established from the former Soviet Republics were all admitted to the UN:
Both Egypt and Syria joined the UN as original members on 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent state, resumed its separate membership in the UN. Egypt continued as a UN member under the name of the United Arab Republic, until it reverted to its original name on 2 September 1971. Syria changed its name to the Syrian Arab Republic on 14 September 1971.
Yemen (i.e., North Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 30 September 1947; Southern Yemen (i.e., South Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1967, with its name changed to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen on 30 November 1970, and was later referred to as Democratic Yemen. On 22 May 1990, the two states merged to form the Republic of Yemen, which continued as a single member under the name Yemen.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, referred to as Yugoslavia, joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945. By 1992, it had been effectively dissolved into five independent states, which were all subsequently admitted to the UN:
Due to the dispute over its legal successor states, the member state "Yugoslavia", referring to the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, remained on the official roster of UN members for many years after its effective dissolution. Following the admission of all five states as new UN members, "Yugoslavia" was removed from the official roster of UN members.
The government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, established on 28 April 1992 by the remaining Yugoslav republics of Montenegro and Serbia, claimed itself as the legal successor state of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; however, on 30 May 1992, United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 was adopted, by which it imposed international sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia due to its role in the Yugoslav Wars, and noted that "the claim by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations has not been generally accepted," and on 22 September 1992, United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 was adopted, by which it considered that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations," and therefore decided that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly". The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia refused to comply with the resolution for many years, but following the ousting of President Slobodan Milošević from office, it applied for membership, and was admitted to the UN on 1 November 2000. On 4 February 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had its official name changed to Serbia and Montenegro, following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006. In a letter dated on the same day, the President of Serbia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of Serbia and Montenegro in the UN was being continued by Serbia, following Montenegro's declaration of independence, in accordance with the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro was admitted to the UN on 28 June 2006.
In the aftermath of the Kosovo War, the territory of Kosovo, then an autonomous province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, was put under the interim administration of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo on 10 June 1999. On 17 February 2008 it declared independence, but this has not been recognised by Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo is not a member of the UN, but is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group, both specialized agencies in the United Nations System. The Republic of Kosovo is recognised by 112 UN member states, including three of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (France, the United Kingdom, and the United States), while the other two—China and Russia—do not recognise Kosovo. On 22 July 2010, the International Court of Justice, the primary judicial organ of the UN, issued an advisory opinion, ruling that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not in violation of international law.
A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.
From Article 6:
A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
Since its inception, no member state has been suspended or expelled from the UN under Articles 5 or 6. However, in a few cases, states were suspended or expelled from participating in UN activities by means other than Articles 5 or 6:
Since the inception of the UN, only one member state (excluding those that dissolved or merged with other member states) has unilaterally withdrawn from the UN. During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, and in response to the election of Malaysia as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, in a letter dated 20 January 1965, Indonesia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that it had decided "at this stage and under the present circumstances" to withdraw from the UN. However, following the overthrow of President Sukarno, in a telegram dated 19 September 1966, Indonesia notified the Secretary-General of its decision "to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities starting with the twenty-first session of the General Assembly". On 28 September 1966, the United Nations General Assembly took note of the decision of the Government of Indonesia and the President invited the representatives of that country to take their seats in the Assembly.
Unlike suspension and expulsion, no express provision is made in the United Nations Charter of whether or how a member can legally withdraw from the UN (largely to prevent the threat of withdrawal from being used as a form of political blackmail, or to evade obligations under the Charter, similar to withdrawals that weakened the UN's predecessor, the League of Nations), or on whether a request for readmission by a withdrawn member should be treated the same as an application for membership, i.e., requiring Security Council as well as General Assembly approval. Indonesia's return to the UN would suggest that this is not required; however, scholars have argued that the course of action taken by the General Assembly was not in accordance with the Charter from a legal point of view.
A number of states were also granted observer status before being admitted to the UN as full members. The most recent case of an observer state becoming a member state was Switzerland, which was admitted in 2002.
A European Union institution, the European Commission, was granted observer status at the UNGA through Resolution 3208 in 1974. The Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 resulted in the delegates being accredited directly to the EU. It was accorded full rights in the General Assembly, bar the right to vote and put forward candidates, via UNGA Resolution A/RES/65/276 on 10 May 2011. It is the only non-state party to over 50 multilateral conventions, and has participated as a full member in every way except for having a vote in a number of UN conferences.
The sovereignty status of Western Sahara is in dispute between Morocco and the Polisario Front. Most of the territory is controlled by Morocco, the remainder (the Free Zone) by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, proclaimed by the Polisario Front. Western Sahara is listed by the UN as a "non-self-governing territory".
The Cook Islands and Niue, which are both associated states of New Zealand, are not members of the UN, but are members of specialized agencies of the UN such as WHO and UNESCO, and have had their "full treaty-making capacity" recognized by United Nations Secretariat in 1992 and 1994 respectively. They have since become parties to a number of international treaties which the UN Secretariat acts as a depositary for, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and are treated as non-member states. Both the Cook Islands and Niue have expressed a desire to become a UN member state, but New Zealand has said that they would not support the application without a change in their constitutional relationship, in particular their right to New Zealand citizenship.
Per United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 and the ongoing dialogue on the political status of Kosovo, the Republic of Kosovo is not a member of the United Nations, despite having relations with a majority of member states. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank and has applied for UNESCO membership but was narrowly rejected in 2015.
Hence, instruments received from the Taiwan Province of China will not be accepted by the Secretary-General in his capacity as depositary.
By mid 2009, 16 applications for membership on behalf of Taiwan had been sent to the UN, but, in each of these cases, the General Assembly's General Committee, which sets the Assembly's agenda, decided against even raising the question during the Assembly's session.
The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK; Khmer: រដ្ឋាភិបាលចំរុះកម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ, Odthaphibeal Chamrouh Kampouchea Brachathibtey), renamed to the National Government of Cambodia (NGC; រដ្ឋាភិបាលជាតិនៃកម្ពុជា, Rodthaphibeal Cheate nei Kampouchea) from 1990, was a coalition government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions, namely Prince Norodom Sihanouk's FUNCINPEC party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (PDK; often referred to as the Khmer Rouge) and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982, broadening the de facto deposed Democratic Kampuchea regime. For most of its existence, it was the internationally recognized government of Cambodia.Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
After the Velvet Revolution in late-1989, Czechoslovakia adopted the official name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (Czech: Česká a Slovenská Federativní Republika, Slovak: Česká a Slovenská Federatívna Republika; ČSFR) during the period from 23 April 1990 until 31 December 1992, when the country was dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This period is also referred to as the Fifth Czechoslovak Republic.Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (or Democratic Federative Yugoslavia; DF Yugoslavia or DFY) was a provisional state established during World War II on 29 November 1943 through the Second Session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (ANOJ). The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ) was its original executive body. Throughout its existence it was governed by Marshal Josip Broz Tito as prime minister.
It was recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, along with the AVNOJ as its deliberative body. The Yugoslav government-in-exile of King Peter II in London, partly due to pressure from the United Kingdom, recognized the AVNOJ government with the Treaty of Vis, signed on 16 June 1944 between the prime minister of the government-in-exile, Ivan Šubašić, and Tito. With the Treaty of Vis, the government-in-exile and the NKOJ agreed to merge into a provisional government as soon as possible. The form of the new government was agreed upon in a second Šubašić–Tito agreement signed on 1 November 1944 in the recently liberated Yugoslav capitol of Belgrade. DF Yugoslavia became one of the founding members of the United Nations upon the signing of the United Nations Charter in October 1945.
The state was formed to unite the Yugoslav resistance movement to the occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The agreement left the issue of whether the state would be a monarchy or a republic undecided until after the war and the position of head of state was vacant. After the merge of the governments, Josip Broz Tito became Prime Minister and Ivan Šubašić became foreign minister.Ethiopian Empire
The Ethiopian Empire (Tigrinya: ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥቲ ዘ ኢትዮጵያ, Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current states of Eritrea and Ethiopia. It began with the establishment of the Solomonic dynasty from approximately 1270 and lasted until 1974, when the ruling Solomonic dynasty was overthrown in a coup d'état by the Derg.
The territory of present-day Eritrea was occupied by Italy in 1890 and became Italian Eritrea. Following the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African nations to remain independent during the Scramble for Africa by the European imperial powers in the late 19th century. Ethiopia remained independent after defeating Italians during the First Italo-Ethiopian War. Later, after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Italian Empire occupied Ethiopia briefly for five years and established the Italian East Africa colony in the region. The Italians were later driven out with the help of the British army. The country was one of the founding members of the United Nations in 1945.
By 1974, Ethiopia was one of only three countries in the world to have the title of Emperor for its head of state, together with Japan and Iran under the Pahlavi dynasty. It was the second-to-last country in Africa to use the title of Emperor; the only one later was the Central African Empire, which was implemented between 1976 and 1979 by Emperor Bokassa I.Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya (Malay: Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of what previously had been British Malaya comprising eleven states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca) that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957, and in 1963 Malaysia was formed when the federation united with the Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak Crown Colonies.The federation of states that made up the Federation of Malaya is now known as Peninsular Malaysia.French Fourth Republic
The French Fourth Republic (French: La Quatrième République) was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic that was in place from 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War to 1940 during World War II, and suffered many of the same problems. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946.
Despite the political dysfunction, the Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II. It also saw the beginning of the German-French co-operation, that later led to the development of the European Union.
Some attempts were also made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 21 administrations in its 12-year history. Moreover, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization of the numerous remaining French colonies. After a series of crises, most importantly the Algerian crisis of 1958, the Fourth Republic collapsed. Wartime leader Charles de Gaulle returned from retirement to preside over a transitional administration that was empowered to design a new French constitution. The Fourth Republic was dissolved by a public referendum on 5 October 1958 which established the modern-day Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency.Kingdom of Egypt
The Kingdom of Egypt (Arabic: المملكة المصرية Al-Mamlaka Al-Miṣreyya, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom. Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Between 1936 and 1952, the British continued to maintain military presence and political advisers, at a reduced level.
The legal status of Egypt had been highly convoluted, due to its de facto breakaway from the Ottoman Empire in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914. In line with the change in status from sultanate to kingdom, the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, saw his title changed to King.
The kingdom's sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British, who retained enormous control over Egyptian affairs, and whose military continued to occupy the country. Throughout the kingdom's existence Sudan was formally united with Egypt. However, actual Egyptian authority in Sudan was largely nominal due to Britain's role as the dominant power in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party, a broadly based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British domination, and with the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party (1925), and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928), which eventually became a potent political and religious force.
King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Alarmed by Italy's recent invasion of Abyssinia, he signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, requiring Britain to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except in the Suez Canal Zone (agreed to be evacuated by 1949).
The kingdom was plagued by corruption, and its citizens saw it as a puppet of the British. This, coupled with the defeat in the 1948-1949 Palestine War, led to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 by the Free Officers Movement. Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II. In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt was established. The legal status of Sudan was only resolved in 1954, when Egypt and Britain agreed that it should be granted independence in 1956.Kingdom of Iraq
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (Arabic: المملكة العراقية الهاشمية al-Mamlakah al-‘Irāqiyyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favour of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq was granted full independence in 1932, following the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930). The independent Iraqi Kingdom under the Hashemite rulers underwent a period of turbulence through its entire existence. Establishment of Sunni religious domination in Iraq was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed. In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, as Bakr Sidqi succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941.
During World War II, the Iraqi regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah was overthrown in 1941 by the Golden Square officers, headed by Rashid Ali. The short-lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq was defeated in May 1941 by the allied forces in the Anglo-Iraqi War. Iraq was later used as a base for allied attacks on the Vichy-French-held Mandate of Syria and support for the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union.
In 1945, during the final stages of World War II, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising, broke out across Baghdad as a popular demand against the government treaty with the British, and with communist party support. More protests continued in spring, but were interrupted in May, with the martial law, when Iraq entered the 1948 Arab–Israeli War along with other members of the Arab League.
In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian–Syrian union. The resulting Arab Federation, formed on 14 February 1958, was short-lived. It ended in 1958, when the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup, led by Abd al-Karim Qasim.Kingdom of Laos
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953. The monarchy survived until December 1975, when its last king, Savang Vatthana, surrendered the throne to the Pathet Lao, who abolished the monarchy in favor of a Marxist state called the Lao People's Democratic Republic, which has controlled Laos since.Given self-rule with the new Constitution in 1947 as part of a federation with the rest of French Indochina, the 1953 Franco-Lao Treaty finally established a sovereign, independent Laos, but did not stipulate who would rule the country. In the years that followed, three groups led by the so-called Three Princes, contended for power: the neutralists under Prince Souvanna Phouma, the right-wing party under Prince Boun Oum of Champassak, and the left-wing, North Vietnamese-backed Lao Patriotic Front (now called the Pathet Lao) under Prince Souphanouvong and future Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihane.List of members of the United Nations Security Council
Membership of the United Nations Security Council is held by the five permanent members and ten elected, non-permanent members. Prior to 1966, there were six elected members, while the permanent members have in essence not changed since the creation of the United Nations in 1945, apart from the representation of China. Elected members hold their place on the Council for a two-year term, and half of these places are contested each year. To ensure geographical continuity, a certain number of members is allocated for each of the five UN regional groupings.Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
The Mutawakkilite Kingdom (Arabic: المملكة المتوكلية al-Mamlakah al-Mutawakkilīyah), also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, was a state that existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. Its capital was Sana'a until 1948, then Taiz. From 1962 to 1970, it maintained control over portions of Yemen until finally defeated in the North Yemen Civil War. Yemen was admitted to the United Nations on 30 September 1947.People's Republic of Angola
The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) was the self-declared socialist state which governed Angola from its independence in 1975 until 1992, during the Angolan Civil War.Provisional Government of the French Republic
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations Overlord and Dragoon, and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic. Its establishment marked the official restoration and re-establishment of a provisional French Republic, assuring continuity with the defunct French Third Republic.
It succeeded the French Committee of National Liberation (CFLN), which had been the provisional government of France in the overseas territories and metropolitan parts of the country (Algeria and Corsica) that had been liberated by the Free French. As the wartime government of France in 1944–1945, its main purposes were to handle the aftermath of the occupation of France and continue to wage war against Germany as one of the major Allies.
Its principal mission (in addition to the war) was to prepare the ground for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic. It also made several important reforms and political decisions, such as granting women the right to vote, founding the École nationale d'administration, and laying the grounds of social security in France.Republic of Dahomey
The Republic of Dahomey (French: République du Dahomey; pronounced [daɔmɛ]) was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community. Prior to attaining autonomy it had been French Dahomey, part of the French Union. On August 1, 1960, it attained full independence from France.
In 1975, the country was renamed Benin after the Bight of Benin (which was in turn named after the Benin Empire which had its seat of power in Benin City, modern-day Nigeria), since "Benin" was deemed politically neutral for all ethnic groups in the state, whereas "Dahomey" recalled the Fon-dominated Kingdom of Dahomey.Serbia and the United Nations
The Republic of Serbia joined the United Nations on November 1, 2000 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Originally the previous Yugoslav state was one of the original 51 member states of the United Nations.Tanganyika
Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964. It first gained independence from the United Kingdom on 9 December 1961 as a state headed by Queen Elizabeth II before becoming a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations exactly a year later. After signing the Articles of Union on 22 April 1964 and passing an Act of Union on 25 April, Tanganyika officially joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on Union Day, 26 April 1964. The new state changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania within a year.Third Czechoslovak Republic
During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. The Third Czechoslovak Republic (Czech: Třetí Československá republika, Slovak: Tretia česko-slovenská republika) which emerged as a sovereign state was not only the result of the policies of the victorious Western allies, the French Fourth Republic, the United Kingdom and the United States, but also an indication of the strength of the Czechoslovak ideal embodied in the First Czechoslovak Republic. However, at the conclusion of World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence, and this circumstance dominated any plans or strategies for postwar reconstruction. Consequently, the political and economic organisation of Czechoslovakia became largely a matter of negotiations between Edvard Beneš and Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) exiles living in Moscow.
In February 1948, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized full power in a coup d'état. Although the country's official name remained the Czechoslovak Republic until 1960, when it was changed to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, February 1948 is considered the end of the Third Republic.United Arab Republic
The United Arab Republic (UAR; Arabic: الجمهورية العربية المتحدة al-Jumhūrīyah al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah) was a sovereign state in the Middle East from 1958 to 1971. It was initially a political union between Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria from 1958 until Syria seceded from the union after the 1961 Syrian coup d'état, leaving a rump state. Egypt continued to be known officially as the United Arab Republic until 1971.
The republic was led by President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser. The UAR was a member of the United Arab States, a loose confederation with the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, which was dissolved in 1961.United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council to encourage economic cooperation among its member states (the nations of the African continent) following a recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly.It is one of five regional commissions.
The ECA has 54 member states corresponding to the 54 member states of the United Nations that lie within the continent of Africa or in oceans nearby the continent.
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Relations of the United Nations with its member states