Member states of the United Nations

The United Nations member states are the 193 sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly.[2] The UN is the world's largest intergovernmental organization.

The criteria for admission of new members to the UN are set out in Chapter II, Article 4 of the UN Charter:[3]

  1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgement of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
  2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

A recommendation for admission from the Security Council requires affirmative votes from at least nine of the council's fifteen members, with none of the five permanent members using their veto power. The Security Council's recommendation must then be approved in the General Assembly by a two-thirds majority vote.[4]

In principle, only sovereign states can become UN members, and currently all UN members are sovereign states. Although five members were not sovereign when they joined the UN, all subsequently became fully independent between 1946 and 1991. Because a state can only be admitted to membership in the UN by the approval of the Security Council and the General Assembly, a number of states that are considered sovereign according to the Montevideo Convention are not members of the UN. This is because the UN does not consider them to possess sovereignty, mainly due to the lack of international recognition or due to opposition from one of the permanent members.

In addition to the member states, the UN also invites non-member states to become observers at the UN General Assembly (currently two: the Holy See and Palestine), allowing them to participate and speak in General Assembly meetings, but not vote. Observers are generally intergovernmental organizations and international organizations and entities whose statehood or sovereignty is not precisely defined.

United Nations Members (green–grey scheme)
Map of the United Nations (UN) member states as of August 2017, with their territories (including dependent territories) recognized by the UN in green.[1]
Palais des Nations unies, à Genève
Flags of the member states of the United Nations, in front of the Palace of Nations (Geneva, Switzerland). Since 2015, the flags of the two non-member observer states are raised alongside those of the 193 member states.

Original members

United Nations Member States-1945
The United Nations in 1945, after World War II. In light blue, the founding members. In dark blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members.
UN Member Countries World
Map of the current UN member states by their dates of admission.[5]
  1945 (original members)
  1946–1959
  1960–1989
  1990–present
  non-member observer states

The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, after ratification of the United Nations Charter by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and a majority of the other signatories.[6] A total of 51 original members (or founding members) joined that year; 50 of them signed the Charter at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco on 26 June 1945, while Poland, which was not represented at the conference, signed it on 15 October 1945.[7][8]

The original members of the United Nations were: France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia.[8]

Among the original members, 49 are either still UN members or had their memberships in the UN continued by a successor state (see table below); for example, the membership of the Soviet Union was continued by the Russian Federation after its dissolution (see the section Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The other two original members, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia (i.e., the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), had been dissolved and their memberships in the UN not continued from 1992 by any one successor state (see the sections Former members: Czechoslovakia and Former members: Yugoslavia).[8]

At the time of UN's founding, the seat of China in the UN was held by the Republic of China, but as a result of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 in 1971, it is now held by the People's Republic of China (see the section Former members: Republic of China (Taiwan)).

A number of the original members were not sovereign when they joined the UN, and only gained full independence later:[9]

Current members

The current members and their dates of admission are listed below with their official designations used by the United Nations.[11][12]

The alphabetical order by the member states' official designations is used to determine the seating arrangement of the General Assembly sessions, where a draw is held each year to select a member state as the starting point.[13] Several members use their full official names in their official designations and thus are sorted out of order from their common names: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Moldova, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Until 2019, North Macedonia was listed as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (a provisional reference used for all purposes within the UN, and listed under T).

The member states can be sorted by their official designations and dates of admission by clicking on the buttons in the header of the columns. See related sections on former members by clicking on the links in the column See also.

Original members are listed with blue background.

UN member states
Flag Member state[8][14] Date of admission See also
Afghanistan
Afghanistan 19 November 1946 United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
Albania
Albania 14 December 1955
Algeria
Algeria 8 October 1962
Andorra
Andorra 28 July 1993
Angola
Angola 1 December 1976
Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda 11 November 1981
Argentina
Argentina 24 October 1945
Armenia
Armenia 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Australia
Australia 1 November 1945 Australia and the United Nations
Austria
Austria 14 December 1955
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
The Bahamas
Bahamas 18 September 1973
Bahrain
Bahrain 21 September 1971
Bangladesh
Bangladesh 17 September 1974
Barbados
Barbados 9 December 1966
Belarus
Belarus 24 October 1945 Former member: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
Belgium
Belgium 27 December 1945
Belize
Belize 25 September 1981
Benin
Benin[note 1] 20 September 1960
Bhutan
Bhutan 21 September 1971
Bolivia
Plurinational State of Bolivia[note 2] 14 November 1945
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina 22 May 1992 Former member: Yugoslavia
Botswana
Botswana 17 October 1966
Brazil
Brazil 24 October 1945 Brazil and the United Nations
Brunei
Brunei Darussalam 21 September 1984
Bulgaria
Bulgaria 14 December 1955
Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso[note 3] 20 September 1960
Burundi
Burundi 18 September 1962
Cape Verde
Cabo Verde[note 4] 16 September 1975
Cambodia
Cambodia[note 5] 14 December 1955
Cameroon
Cameroon[note 6] 20 September 1960
Canada
Canada 9 November 1945 Canada and the United Nations
Central African Republic
Central African Republic[note 7] 20 September 1960
Chad
Chad 20 September 1960
Chile
Chile 24 October 1945
China
China 24 October 1945 Former member: Republic of China and China and the United Nations
Colombia
Colombia 5 November 1945
Comoros
Comoros 12 November 1975
Republic of the Congo
Congo[note 8] 20 September 1960
Costa Rica
Costa Rica 2 November 1945
Ivory Coast
Côte d'Ivoire[note 9] 20 September 1960
Croatia
Croatia 22 May 1992 Former member: Yugoslavia
Cuba
Cuba 24 October 1945
Cyprus
Cyprus 20 September 1960
Czech Republic
Czech Republic 19 January 1993 Former member: Czechoslovakia
North Korea
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 17 September 1991 Korea and the United Nations
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo[note 10] 20 September 1960
Denmark
Denmark 24 October 1945
Djibouti
Djibouti 20 September 1977
Dominica
Dominica 18 December 1978
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic 24 October 1945
Ecuador
Ecuador 21 December 1945
Egypt
Egypt 24 October 1945 Former member: United Arab Republic
El Salvador
El Salvador 24 October 1945
Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea 12 November 1968
Eritrea
Eritrea 28 May 1993
Estonia
Estonia 17 September 1991 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Eswatini
Eswatini[note 11] 24 September 1968
Ethiopia
Ethiopia 13 November 1945
Fiji
Fiji 13 October 1970 Fiji and the United Nations
Finland
Finland 14 December 1955
France
France 24 October 1945 France and the United Nations
Gabon
Gabon 20 September 1960
The Gambia
Republic of The Gambia[note 12] 21 September 1965
Georgia (country)
Georgia 31 July 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Germany
Germany 18 September 1973 Former member: German Democratic Republic and Germany and the United Nations
Ghana
Ghana 8 March 1957
Greece
Greece 25 October 1945
Grenada
Grenada 17 September 1974
Guatemala
Guatemala 21 November 1945
Guinea
Guinea 12 December 1958
Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau 17 September 1974
Guyana
Guyana 20 September 1966
Haiti
Haiti 24 October 1945
Honduras
Honduras 17 December 1945
Hungary
Hungary 14 December 1955
Iceland
Iceland 19 November 1946
India
India 30 October 1945 India and the United Nations
Indonesia
Indonesia[note 13] 28 September 1950 Withdrawal of Indonesia (1965–1966) and Indonesia and the United Nations
Iran
Islamic Republic of Iran[note 14] 24 October 1945
Iraq
Iraq 21 December 1945
Republic of Ireland
Ireland 14 December 1955
Israel
Israel 11 May 1949 Israel, Palestine, and the United Nations
Italy
Italy 14 December 1955
Jamaica
Jamaica 18 September 1962
Japan
Japan 18 December 1956 Japan and the United Nations
Jordan
Jordan 14 December 1955
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan[note 15] 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Kenya
Kenya 16 December 1963
Kiribati
Kiribati 14 September 1999
Kuwait
Kuwait 14 May 1963
Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Laos
Lao People's Democratic Republic[note 16] 14 December 1955
Latvia
Latvia 17 September 1991 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Lebanon
Lebanon 24 October 1945
Lesotho
Lesotho 17 October 1966
Liberia
Liberia 2 November 1945
Libya
Libya[16][note 17] 14 December 1955
Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein 18 September 1990
Lithuania
Lithuania 17 September 1991 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Luxembourg
Luxembourg 24 October 1945 Luxembourg and the United Nations
Madagascar
Madagascar[note 18] 20 September 1960
Malawi
Malawi 1 December 1964
Malaysia
Malaysia 17 September 1957 Former member: Federation of Malaya and Malaysia and the United Nations
Maldives
Maldives[note 19] 21 September 1965
Mali
Mali 28 September 1960
Malta
Malta 1 December 1964
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands 17 September 1991 Marshall Islands and the United Nations
Mauritania
Mauritania 27 October 1961
Mauritius
Mauritius 24 April 1968
Mexico
Mexico 7 November 1945 Mexico and the United Nations
Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia 17 September 1991 Federated States of Micronesia and the United Nations
Monaco
Monaco 28 May 1993
Mongolia
Mongolia 27 October 1961
Montenegro
Montenegro 28 June 2006 Former member: Yugoslavia
Morocco
Morocco 12 November 1956
Mozambique
Mozambique 16 September 1975
Myanmar
Myanmar[note 20] 19 April 1948
Namibia
Namibia 23 April 1990
Nauru
Nauru 14 September 1999
Nepal
Nepal 14 December 1955
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands 10 December 1945
New Zealand
New Zealand 24 October 1945 New Zealand and the United Nations
Nicaragua
Nicaragua 24 October 1945
Niger
Niger 20 September 1960
Nigeria
Nigeria 7 October 1960
North Macedonia
North Macedonia[note 21] 8 April 1993 Former member: Yugoslavia
Norway
Norway 27 November 1945
Oman
Oman 7 October 1971
Pakistan
Pakistan 30 September 1947 Pakistan and the United Nations
Palau
Palau 15 December 1994
Panama
Panama 13 November 1945
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea 10 October 1975
Paraguay
Paraguay 24 October 1945
Peru
Peru 31 October 1945
Philippines
Philippines[note 22] 24 October 1945 Philippines and the United Nations
Poland
Poland 24 October 1945
Portugal
Portugal 14 December 1955
Qatar
Qatar 21 September 1971
South Korea
Republic of Korea 17 September 1991 Korea and the United Nations
Moldova
Republic of Moldova[note 23] 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Romania
Romania 14 December 1955
Russia
Russian Federation 24 October 1945 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Soviet Union and the United Nations and Russia and the United Nations
Rwanda
Rwanda 18 September 1962
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis[note 24] 23 September 1983
Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia 18 September 1979
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16 September 1980
Samoa
Samoa 15 December 1976
San Marino
San Marino 2 March 1992
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe[note 25] 16 September 1975
Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia 24 October 1945
Senegal
Senegal 28 September 1960
Serbia
Serbia 1 November 2000 Former member: Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro and Serbia and the United Nations
Seychelles
Seychelles 21 September 1976
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone 27 September 1961
Singapore
Singapore 21 September 1965 Former member: Malaysia and Singapore and the United Nations
Slovakia
Slovakia 19 January 1993 Former member: Czechoslovakia
Slovenia
Slovenia 22 May 1992 Former member: Yugoslavia
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands 19 September 1978
Somalia
Somalia 20 September 1960
South Africa
South Africa[note 26] 7 November 1945
South Sudan
South Sudan 14 July 2011
Spain
Spain 14 December 1955
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka[note 27] 14 December 1955
Sudan
Sudan 12 November 1956
Suriname
Suriname[note 28] 4 December 1975
Sweden
Sweden 19 November 1946
Switzerland
Switzerland 10 September 2002
Syria
Syrian Arab Republic 24 October 1945 Former member: United Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Tajikistan 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Thailand
Thailand[note 29] 16 December 1946
East Timor
Timor-Leste 27 September 2002
Togo
Togo 20 September 1960
Tonga
Tonga 14 September 1999
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago 18 September 1962 Trinidad and Tobago and the United Nations
Tunisia
Tunisia 12 November 1956
Turkey
Turkey 24 October 1945
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Tuvalu
Tuvalu 5 September 2000 Tuvalu and the United Nations
Uganda
Uganda 25 October 1962
Ukraine
Ukraine 24 October 1945 Former member: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates 9 December 1971
United Kingdom
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 24 October 1945 United Kingdom and the United Nations
Tanzania
United Republic of Tanzania 14 December 1961 Former member: Tanganyika and Zanzibar
United States
United States of America 24 October 1945 United States and the United Nations
Uruguay
Uruguay 18 December 1945
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan 2 March 1992 Former member: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Vanuatu
Vanuatu 15 September 1981 Vanuatu and the United Nations
Venezuela
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[note 30] 15 November 1945
Vietnam
Vietnam 20 September 1977
Yemen
Yemen 30 September 1947 Former member: Yemen and Democratic Yemen
Zambia
Zambia 1 December 1964
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe 25 August 1980

Former members

Republic of China

China map
Areas controlled by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China

The Republic of China (ROC) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[17] In 1949, as a result of the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang-led ROC government lost effective control of mainland China and relocated to the island of Taiwan, and the Communist Party-led government of the People's Republic of China (PRC), declared on 1 October 1949, took control of mainland China. The UN was notified on 18 November 1949 of the formation of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; however, the Government of the Republic of China continued to represent China at the UN, despite the small size of the ROC's jurisdiction of Taiwan and a number of smaller islands compared to the PRC's jurisdiction of mainland China. As both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate representative of China, proposals to effect a change in the representation of China in the UN were discussed but rejected for the next two decades, as the ROC was still recognized as the sole legitimate representative of China by a majority of UN members. Both sides rejected compromise proposals to allow both states to participate in the UN, based on the One-China policy.[18]

By the 1970s, a shift had occurred in international diplomatic circles and the PRC had gained the upper hand in international diplomatic relations and recognition count. On 25 October 1971, the 21st time the United Nations General Assembly debated on the PRC's admission into the UN,[19] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was adopted, by which it recognized that "the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations and that the People's Republic of China is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council," and decided "to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it."[20] This effectively transferred the seat of China in the UN, including its permanent seat on the Security Council, from the ROC to the PRC, and expelled the ROC from the UN. From the United Nations' perspective the "Republic of China" is not a former member. No UN member was expelled in 1971. Rather, the credentials of one Chinese delegation (from Taipei) were rejected and the credentials of another Chinese delegation (from Beijing) were accepted.

In addition to losing its seat in the UN, the UN Secretary-General concluded from the resolution that the General Assembly considered Taiwan to be a province of China. Consequently, the Secretary-General decided that it was not permitted for the ROC to become a party to treaties deposited with it.[21]

Bids for readmission as the representative of Taiwan

Voa chinese ma ying jeou tw 09Oct10 480
The presidency of Ma Ying-jeou saw the first participation of the Republic of China on a United Nations body in almost 40 years.

In 1993 the ROC began campaigning to rejoin the UN separately from the People's Republic of China. A number of options were considered, including seeking membership in the specialized agencies, applying for observer status, applying for full membership, or having resolution 2758 revoked to reclaim the seat of China in the UN.[22]

Every year from 1993–2006, UN member states submitted a memorandum to the UN Secretary-General requesting that the UN General Assembly consider allowing the ROC to resume participating in the United Nations.[23][note 31] This approach was chosen, rather than a formal application for membership, because it could be enacted by the General Assembly, while a membership application would need Security Council approval, where the PRC held a veto.[22] Early proposals recommended admitting the ROC with parallel representation over China, along with the People's Republic of China, pending eventual reunification, citing examples of other divided countries which had become separate UN member states, such as East and West Germany and North and South Korea. Later proposals emphasized that the ROC was a separate state, over which the PRC had no effective sovereignty. These proposed resolutions referred to the ROC under a variety of names: "Republic of China in Taiwan" (1993–94), "Republic of China on Taiwan" (1995–97, 1999–2002), "Republic of China" (1998), "Republic of China (Taiwan)" (2003) and "Taiwan" (2004–06).

However, all fourteen attempts were unsuccessful as the General Assembly's General Committee declined to put the issue on the Assembly's agenda for debate, under strong opposition from the PRC.[24]

While all these proposals were vague, requesting the ROC be allowed to participate in UN activities without specifying any legal mechanism, in 2007 the ROC submitted a formal application under the name "Taiwan" for full membership in the UN.[25] However, the application was rejected by the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs citing General Assembly Resolution 2758,[26] without being forwarded to the Security Council. Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon stated that:

The position of the United Nations is that the People's Republic of China is representing the whole of China as the sole and legitimate representative Government of China. The decision until now about the wish of the people in Taiwan to join the United Nations has been decided on that basis. The resolution (General Assembly Resolution 2758) that you just mentioned is clearly mentioning that the Government of China is the sole and legitimate Government and the position of the United Nations is that Taiwan is part of China.[27]

Responding to the UN's rejection of its application, the ROC government has stated that Taiwan is not now nor has it ever been under the jurisdiction of the PRC, and that since General Assembly Resolution 2758 did not clarify the issue of Taiwan's representation in the UN, it does not prevent Taiwan's participation in the UN as an independent sovereign nation.[28] The ROC government also criticized Ban for asserting that Taiwan is part of China and returning the application without passing it to the Security Council or the General Assembly,[29] contrary to UN's standard procedure (Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council, Chapter X, Rule 59).[30] On the other hand, the PRC government, which has stated that Taiwan is part of China and firmly opposes the application of any Taiwan authorities to join the UN either as a member or an observer, praised that UN's decision "was made in accordance with the UN Charter and Resolution 2758 of the UN General Assembly, and showed the UN and its member states' universal adherence to the one-China principle".[31] A group of UN member states put forward a draft resolution for that fall's UN General Assembly calling on the Security Council to consider the application.[25]

The following year two referendums in Taiwan on the government's attempts to regain participation at the UN did not pass due to low turnout. That fall the ROC took a new approach, with its allies submitting a resolution requesting that the "Republic of China (Taiwan)" be allowed to have "meaningful participation" in the UN specialized agencies.[32] Again the issue was not put on the Assembly's agenda.[24] In 2009, the ROC chose not to bring the issue of its participation in the UN up for debate at the General Assembly for the first time since it began the campaign in 1993.[33]

In May 2009, the Department of Health of the Republic of China was invited by the World Health Organization to attend the 62nd World Health Assembly as an observer under the name "Chinese Taipei". This was the ROC's first participation in an event organized by a UN-affiliated agency since 1971, as a result of the improved cross-strait relations since Ma Ying-jeou became the President of the Republic of China a year before.[34]

The Republic of China is officially recognized by 16 UN member states and the Holy See. It maintains unofficial diplomatic relations with around 100 nations, including the United States and Japan.

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, with its name changed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic on 20 April 1990. Upon the imminent dissolution of Czechoslovakia, in a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as successor states, would apply for membership in the UN. Neither state sought sole successor state status. Both states were readmitted to the UN on 19 January 1993.[35]

German Democratic Republic

Both the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) were admitted to the UN on 18 September 1973. Through the accession of the East German federal states to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 October 1990, the territory of the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany, today simply known as Germany. Consequently, the Federal Republic of Germany continued being a member of the UN while the German Democratic Republic ceased to exist.[35]

Federation of Malaya

The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 September 1957. On 16 September 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the formation of Malaysia from Singapore, North Borneo (now Sabah), Sarawak and the Federation of Malaya. Singapore became an independent State on 9 August 1965 and a Member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Tanganyika was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1961, and Zanzibar was admitted to the UN on 16 December 1963. Following the ratification on 26 April 1964 of the Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states merged to form the single member "United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar", with its name changed to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.[35][5]

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Soviet Union map 1945-09-20 to 1946-02-02
The USSR as its borders and republics were configured upon entry to the UN. Border changes and the dissolution of various republics happened over the course of its membership.

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[17] Upon the imminent dissolution of the USSR, in a letter dated 24 December 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian Federation, informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of the USSR in the Security Council and all other UN organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.[35]

The other fourteen independent states established from the former Soviet Republics were all admitted to the UN:

United Arab Republic

NasserQuwatliUAR
Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser (seated right) and Syrian president Shukri al-Quwatli sign the accord to form the United Arab Republic in 1958. The short-lived political union briefly represented both states and was used as the name of Egypt following Syria's withdrawal in 1961.

Both Egypt and Syria joined the UN as original members on 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent state, resumed its separate membership in the UN. Egypt continued as a UN member under the name of the United Arab Republic, until it reverted to its original name on 2 September 1971. Syria changed its name to the Syrian Arab Republic on 14 September 1971.[35]

Yemen and Democratic Yemen

Yemen (i.e., North Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 30 September 1947; Southern Yemen (i.e., South Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1967, with its name changed to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen on 30 November 1970, and was later referred to as Democratic Yemen. On 22 May 1990, the two states merged to form the Republic of Yemen, which continued as a single member under the name Yemen.[35]

Yugoslavia

Former Yugoslavia 2006
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia disintegrated into several states starting in the early 1990s. By 2006, six UN member states existed in its former territory. Kosovo declared independence in 2008.

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, referred to as Yugoslavia, joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945. By 1992, it had been effectively dissolved into five independent states, which were all subsequently admitted to the UN:

Due to the dispute over its legal successor states, the member state "Yugoslavia", referring to the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, remained on the official roster of UN members for many years after its effective dissolution.[35] Following the admission of all five states as new UN members, "Yugoslavia" was removed from the official roster of UN members.

The government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, established on 28 April 1992 by the remaining Yugoslav republics of Montenegro and Serbia,[40] claimed itself as the legal successor state of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;[41] however, on 30 May 1992, United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 was adopted, by which it imposed international sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia due to its role in the Yugoslav Wars, and noted that "the claim by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations has not been generally accepted,"[42] and on 22 September 1992, United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 was adopted, by which it considered that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations," and therefore decided that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly".[43][44] The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia refused to comply with the resolution for many years, but following the ousting of President Slobodan Milošević from office, it applied for membership, and was admitted to the UN on 1 November 2000.[39] On 4 February 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had its official name changed to Serbia and Montenegro, following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[45]

On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006. In a letter dated on the same day, the President of Serbia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of Serbia and Montenegro in the UN was being continued by Serbia, following Montenegro's declaration of independence, in accordance with the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro.[46] Montenegro was admitted to the UN on 28 June 2006.[47]

In the aftermath of the Kosovo War, the territory of Kosovo, then an autonomous province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, was put under the interim administration of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo on 10 June 1999. On 17 February 2008 it declared independence, but this has not been recognised by Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo is not a member of the UN, but is a member of the International Monetary Fund[48] and the World Bank Group,[49] both specialized agencies in the United Nations System. The Republic of Kosovo is recognised by 112 UN member states, including three of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (France, the United Kingdom, and the United States), while the other two—China and Russia—do not recognise Kosovo. On 22 July 2010, the International Court of Justice, the primary judicial organ of the UN, issued an advisory opinion, ruling that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not in violation of international law.[50]

Suspension, expulsion, and withdrawal of members

A member state may be suspended or expelled from the UN, according to the United Nations Charter. From Chapter II, Article 5:[3]

A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.

From Article 6:[3]

A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Since its inception, no member state has been suspended or expelled from the UN under Articles 5 or 6. However, in a few cases, states were suspended or expelled from participating in UN activities by means other than Articles 5 or 6:

  • On 25 October 1971, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was adopted, which recognized the People's Republic of China instead of the Republic of China (since 1949 controlling only Taiwan) as the legitimate representative of China in the UN and effectively expelled the Republic of China from the UN in 1971 (see the section Former members: Republic of China). This act did not constitute as the expulsion of a member state under Article 6, as this would have required Security Council approval and been subjected to vetoes by its permanent members, which included the Republic of China itself and the United States, which at that time still recognized the Republic of China.[51]
  • In October 1974, the Security Council considered a draft resolution that would have recommended that the General Assembly immediately expel South Africa from the UN, in compliance with Article 6 of the United Nations Charter, due to its apartheid policies.[35] However, the resolution was not adopted because of vetoes by three permanent members of the Security Council: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In response, the General Assembly decided to suspend South Africa from participation in the work of the Assembly's 29th session on 12 November 1974; however, South Africa was not formally suspended under Article 5. The suspension lasted until the General Assembly welcomed South Africa back to full participation in the UN on 23 June 1994, following its successful democratic elections earlier that year.[52]
  • On 28 April 1992, the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was established, by the remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 22 September 1992, United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 was adopted, by which it considered that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations," and therefore decided that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly". It did not apply for membership until Slobodan Milošević was ousted from the presidency and was admitted on 1 November 2000 (see the section Former members: Yugoslavia).

Withdrawal of Indonesia (1965–1966)

Soekarno
Indonesian president Sukarno's decision to withdraw from the United Nations in 1965 is the only instance of a withdrawal of membership in UN history. Indonesia rejoined the UN a year later.

Since the inception of the UN, only one member state (excluding those that dissolved or merged with other member states) has unilaterally withdrawn from the UN. During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, and in response to the election of Malaysia as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, in a letter dated 20 January 1965, Indonesia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that it had decided "at this stage and under the present circumstances" to withdraw from the UN. However, following the overthrow of President Sukarno, in a telegram dated 19 September 1966, Indonesia notified the Secretary-General of its decision "to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities starting with the twenty-first session of the General Assembly". On 28 September 1966, the United Nations General Assembly took note of the decision of the Government of Indonesia and the President invited the representatives of that country to take their seats in the Assembly.[35]

Unlike suspension and expulsion, no express provision is made in the United Nations Charter of whether or how a member can legally withdraw from the UN (largely to prevent the threat of withdrawal from being used as a form of political blackmail, or to evade obligations under the Charter, similar to withdrawals that weakened the UN's predecessor, the League of Nations),[51] or on whether a request for readmission by a withdrawn member should be treated the same as an application for membership, i.e., requiring Security Council as well as General Assembly approval. Indonesia's return to the UN would suggest that this is not required; however, scholars have argued that the course of action taken by the General Assembly was not in accordance with the Charter from a legal point of view.[53]

Observers and non-members

Palais des Nations unies, à Genève
Switzerland has been neutral in international conflicts since the early 19th century and joined the UN as a full member only in 2002. Despite this, the Palace of Nations in Geneva has hosted the United Nations Office at Geneva since 1946 and also previously served as the headquarters of the League of Nations.

In addition to the member states, there are two non-member permanent observer states: the Holy See and the State of Palestine.[54]

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta, while not a state, has observer status at the UN and maintains diplomatic relations with 107 countries.[66][67]

A number of states were also granted observer status before being admitted to the UN as full members.[68][69][70] The most recent case of an observer state becoming a member state was Switzerland, which was admitted in 2002.[71]

A European Union institution, the European Commission, was granted observer status at the UNGA through Resolution 3208 in 1974. The Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 resulted in the delegates being accredited directly to the EU.[72] It was accorded full rights in the General Assembly, bar the right to vote and put forward candidates, via UNGA Resolution A/RES/65/276 on 10 May 2011.[73] It is the only non-state party to over 50 multilateral conventions, and has participated as a full member in every way except for having a vote in a number of UN conferences.[74]

The sovereignty status of Western Sahara is in dispute between Morocco and the Polisario Front. Most of the territory is controlled by Morocco, the remainder (the Free Zone) by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, proclaimed by the Polisario Front. Western Sahara is listed by the UN as a "non-self-governing territory".[75]

The Cook Islands and Niue, which are both associated states of New Zealand, are not members of the UN, but are members of specialized agencies of the UN such as WHO[76] and UNESCO,[77] and have had their "full treaty-making capacity" recognized by United Nations Secretariat in 1992 and 1994 respectively.[78][79] They have since become parties to a number of international treaties which the UN Secretariat acts as a depositary for, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change[80] and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,[81] and are treated as non-member states.[82][78] Both the Cook Islands and Niue have expressed a desire to become a UN member state, but New Zealand has said that they would not support the application without a change in their constitutional relationship, in particular their right to New Zealand citizenship.[83][84]

Per United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 and the ongoing dialogue on the political status of Kosovo, the Republic of Kosovo is not a member of the United Nations, despite having relations with a majority of member states. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank and has applied for UNESCO membership but was narrowly rejected in 2015.[85]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Benin: Name was changed from Dahomey on 1 December 1975.
  2. ^ Plurinational State of Bolivia: Previously referred to as Bolivia.
  3. ^ Burkina Faso: Name was changed from Upper Volta on 6 August 1984.
  4. ^ Cabo Verde: Previously referred to as Cape Verde. On 24 October 2013, Cabo Verde requested that its name no longer be translated into different languages.[15]
  5. ^ Cambodia: Name was changed to the Khmer Republic on 7 October 1970, and back to Cambodia on 30 April 1975. Name was changed again to Democratic Kampuchea on 6 April 1976, and back to Cambodia on 3 February 1990.
  6. ^ Cameroon: Previously referred to as Cameroun (before merging with Southern Cameroons in 1961). By a letter of 4 January 1974, the Secretary-General was informed that Cameroon had changed its name to the United Republic of Cameroon. Name was changed back to Cameroon on 4 February 1984.
  7. ^ Central African Republic: By a letter of 20 December 1976, the Central African Republic advised that it had changed its name to the Central African Empire. Name was changed back to the Central African Republic on 20 September 1979.
  8. ^ Congo: Previously referred to as Congo (Brazzaville) (to differentiate it from Congo (Leopoldville)) and the People's Republic of the Congo. Name was changed to Congo on 15 November 1971 (after the Democratic Republic of the Congo changed its name to Zaire). Also referred to as Congo (Republic of the).
  9. ^ Côte d'Ivoire: Previously referred to as Ivory Coast. On 6 November 1985, Côte d'Ivoire requested that its name no longer be translated into different languages; this became fully effective on 1 January 1986.
  10. ^ Democratic Republic of the Congo: Previously referred to as Congo (Leopoldville) (to differentiate it from Congo (Brazzaville)). Name was changed from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Zaire on 27 October 1971, and back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 17 May 1997.
  11. ^ Eswatini: Name was changed from Swaziland on 19 April 2018.
  12. ^ Republic of The Gambia: Previously referred to as The Gambia.
  13. ^ Withdrew from the UN on 20 January 1965. It rejoined on 28 September 1966.
  14. ^ Islamic Republic of Iran: Previously referred to as Iran. By a communication of 5 March 1981, Iran informed the Secretary-General that it should be referred to by its complete name of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
  15. ^ Kazakhstan: Spelling was changed from Kazakstan on 20 June 1997.
  16. ^ Lao People's Democratic Republic: Name was changed from Laos on 2 December 1975.
  17. ^ Libya: Formerly recognised as the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 after originally being admitted as Libya. By notes verbales of 1 and 21 April 1977, the Libyan Arab Republic advised that it had changed its name to the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. On 16 September 2011, the UN General Assembly awarded the UN seat to the National Transitional Council, thereby restoring the original name of Libya.
  18. ^ Madagascar: Previously referred to as the Malagasy Republic.
  19. ^ Maldives: Previously referred to as the Maldive Islands.
  20. ^ Myanmar: Name was changed from Burma on 18 June 1989.
  21. ^ North Macedonia: Originally admitted under the temporary UN designation The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  22. ^ Philippines: Previously referred to as the Philippine Commonwealth (before becoming a republic in 1946) and as the Philippine Republic.
  23. ^ Republic of Moldova: Previously referred to as Moldova.
  24. ^ Saint Kitts and Nevis: Name was changed officially from Saint Christopher and Nevis on 26 November 1986; the UN, however, continued to use the former name throughout the year.
  25. ^ Sao Tome and Principe: The official UN designation lacks diacritics; however, the name is constitutionally defined as São Tomé and Príncipe, with diacritics.
  26. ^ South Africa: Previously referred to as the Union of South Africa (before becoming a republic in 1961).
  27. ^ Sri Lanka: Name was changed from Ceylon on 22 May 1972.
  28. ^ Suriname: Name was changed from Surinam on 23 January 1978.
  29. ^ Thailand: Previously referred to as Siam.
  30. ^ Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela: Previously referred to as Venezuela.
  31. ^ Specific items include:
    United Nations General Assembly Session 48 Agenda item A/48/191 1993-08-09. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 49 Agenda item A/49/144 1994-07-19. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 50 Agenda item A/50/145 1995-07-19. Retrieved 2016-04-18.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 51 Agenda item A/51/142 1996-07-18. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 52 Agenda item A/52/143 1997-07-16. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 53 Agenda item A/53/145 1998-07-08. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 54 Agenda item A/54/194 1999-08-12. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Agenda item A/55/227 2000-08-04. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 56 Agenda item A/56/193 2001-08-08. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 57 Agenda item A/57/191 2002-08-20. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 58 Agenda item A/58/197 2003-08-05. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 59 Agenda item A/59/194 2004-08-10. Retrieved 2016-04-24.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 60 Agenda item A/60/192 2005-08-11. Retrieved 2016-04-24.
    United Nations General Assembly Session 61 Agenda item A/61/194 2006-08-11. Retrieved 2016-04-24.

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External links

Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea

The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK; Khmer: រដ្ឋាភិបាលចំរុះកម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ, Odthaphibeal Chamrouh Kampouchea Brachathibtey), renamed to the National Government of Cambodia (NGC; រដ្ឋាភិបាលជាតិនៃកម្ពុជា, Rodthaphibeal Cheate nei Kampouchea) from 1990, was a coalition government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions, namely Prince Norodom Sihanouk's FUNCINPEC party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (PDK; often referred to as the Khmer Rouge) and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982, broadening the de facto deposed Democratic Kampuchea regime. For most of its existence, it was the internationally recognized government of Cambodia.

Czech and Slovak Federative Republic

After the Velvet Revolution in late-1989, Czechoslovakia adopted the official name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (Czech: Česká a Slovenská Federativní Republika, Slovak: Česká a Slovenská Federatívna Republika; ČSFR) during the period from 23 April 1990 until 31 December 1992, when the country was dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This period is also referred to as the Fifth Czechoslovak Republic.

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (or Democratic Federative Yugoslavia; DF Yugoslavia or DFY) was a provisional state established during World War II on 29 November 1943 through the Second Session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (ANOJ). The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ) was its original executive body. Throughout its existence it was governed by Marshal Josip Broz Tito as prime minister.

It was recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, along with the AVNOJ as its deliberative body. The Yugoslav government-in-exile of King Peter II in London, partly due to pressure from the United Kingdom, recognized the AVNOJ government with the Treaty of Vis, signed on 16 June 1944 between the prime minister of the government-in-exile, Ivan Šubašić, and Tito. With the Treaty of Vis, the government-in-exile and the NKOJ agreed to merge into a provisional government as soon as possible. The form of the new government was agreed upon in a second Šubašić–Tito agreement signed on 1 November 1944 in the recently liberated Yugoslav capitol of Belgrade. DF Yugoslavia became one of the founding members of the United Nations upon the signing of the United Nations Charter in October 1945.

The state was formed to unite the Yugoslav resistance movement to the occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The agreement left the issue of whether the state would be a monarchy or a republic undecided until after the war and the position of head of state was vacant. After the merge of the governments, Josip Broz Tito became Prime Minister and Ivan Šubašić became foreign minister.

Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire (Tigrinya: ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥቲ ዘ ኢትዮጵያ, Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current states of Eritrea and Ethiopia. It began with the establishment of the Solomonic dynasty from approximately 1270 and lasted until 1974, when the ruling Solomonic dynasty was overthrown in a coup d'état by the Derg.

The territory of present-day Eritrea was occupied by Italy in 1890 and became Italian Eritrea. Following the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African nations to remain independent during the Scramble for Africa by the European imperial powers in the late 19th century. Ethiopia remained independent after defeating Italians during the First Italo-Ethiopian War. Later, after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Italian Empire occupied Ethiopia briefly for five years and established the Italian East Africa colony in the region. The Italians were later driven out with the help of the British army. The country was one of the founding members of the United Nations in 1945.

By 1974, Ethiopia was one of only three countries in the world to have the title of Emperor for its head of state, together with Japan and Iran under the Pahlavi dynasty. It was the second-to-last country in Africa to use the title of Emperor; the only one later was the Central African Empire, which was implemented between 1976 and 1979 by Emperor Bokassa I.

Federation of Malaya

The Federation of Malaya (Malay: Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of what previously had been British Malaya comprising eleven states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca) that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957, and in 1963 Malaysia was formed when the federation united with the Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak Crown Colonies.The federation of states that made up the Federation of Malaya is now known as Peninsular Malaysia.

French Fourth Republic

The French Fourth Republic (French: La Quatrième République) was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic that was in place from 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War to 1940 during World War II, and suffered many of the same problems. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946.

Despite the political dysfunction, the Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II. It also saw the beginning of the German-French co-operation, that later led to the development of the European Union.

Some attempts were also made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 21 administrations in its 12-year history. Moreover, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization of the numerous remaining French colonies. After a series of crises, most importantly the Algerian crisis of 1958, the Fourth Republic collapsed. Wartime leader Charles de Gaulle returned from retirement to preside over a transitional administration that was empowered to design a new French constitution. The Fourth Republic was dissolved by a public referendum on 5 October 1958 which established the modern-day Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency.

Kingdom of Egypt

The Kingdom of Egypt (Arabic: المملكة المصرية‎ Al-Mamlaka Al-Miṣreyya, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom. Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Between 1936 and 1952, the British continued to maintain military presence and political advisers, at a reduced level.

The legal status of Egypt had been highly convoluted, due to its de facto breakaway from the Ottoman Empire in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914. In line with the change in status from sultanate to kingdom, the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, saw his title changed to King.

The kingdom's sovereignty was subject to severe limitations imposed by the British, who retained enormous control over Egyptian affairs, and whose military continued to occupy the country. Throughout the kingdom's existence Sudan was formally united with Egypt. However, actual Egyptian authority in Sudan was largely nominal due to Britain's role as the dominant power in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

During the reign of King Fuad, the monarchy struggled with the Wafd Party, a broadly based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British domination, and with the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party (1925), and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928), which eventually became a potent political and religious force.

King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Alarmed by Italy's recent invasion of Abyssinia, he signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, requiring Britain to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except in the Suez Canal Zone (agreed to be evacuated by 1949).

The kingdom was plagued by corruption, and its citizens saw it as a puppet of the British. This, coupled with the defeat in the 1948-1949 Palestine War, led to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 by the Free Officers Movement. Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II. In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt was established. The legal status of Sudan was only resolved in 1954, when Egypt and Britain agreed that it should be granted independence in 1956.

Kingdom of Iraq

The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (Arabic: المملكة العراقية الهاشمية‎ al-Mamlakah al-‘Irāqiyyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favour of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq was granted full independence in 1932, following the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930). The independent Iraqi Kingdom under the Hashemite rulers underwent a period of turbulence through its entire existence. Establishment of Sunni religious domination in Iraq was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed. In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, as Bakr Sidqi succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941.

During World War II, the Iraqi regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah was overthrown in 1941 by the Golden Square officers, headed by Rashid Ali. The short-lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq was defeated in May 1941 by the allied forces in the Anglo-Iraqi War. Iraq was later used as a base for allied attacks on the Vichy-French-held Mandate of Syria and support for the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union.

In 1945, during the final stages of World War II, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising, broke out across Baghdad as a popular demand against the government treaty with the British, and with communist party support. More protests continued in spring, but were interrupted in May, with the martial law, when Iraq entered the 1948 Arab–Israeli War along with other members of the Arab League.

In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian–Syrian union. The resulting Arab Federation, formed on 14 February 1958, was short-lived. It ended in 1958, when the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup, led by Abd al-Karim Qasim.

Kingdom of Laos

The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953. The monarchy survived until December 1975, when its last king, Savang Vatthana, surrendered the throne to the Pathet Lao, who abolished the monarchy in favor of a Marxist state called the Lao People's Democratic Republic, which has controlled Laos since.Given self-rule with the new Constitution in 1947 as part of a federation with the rest of French Indochina, the 1953 Franco-Lao Treaty finally established a sovereign, independent Laos, but did not stipulate who would rule the country. In the years that followed, three groups led by the so-called Three Princes, contended for power: the neutralists under Prince Souvanna Phouma, the right-wing party under Prince Boun Oum of Champassak, and the left-wing, North Vietnamese-backed Lao Patriotic Front (now called the Pathet Lao) under Prince Souphanouvong and future Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihane.

List of members of the United Nations Security Council

Membership of the United Nations Security Council is held by the five permanent members and ten elected, non-permanent members. Prior to 1966, there were six elected members, while the permanent members have in essence not changed since the creation of the United Nations in 1945, apart from the representation of China. Elected members hold their place on the Council for a two-year term, and half of these places are contested each year. To ensure geographical continuity, a certain number of members is allocated for each of the five UN regional groupings.

Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen

The Mutawakkilite Kingdom (Arabic: المملكة المتوكلية‎ al-Mamlakah al-Mutawakkilīyah), also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, was a state that existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. Its capital was Sana'a until 1948, then Taiz. From 1962 to 1970, it maintained control over portions of Yemen until finally defeated in the North Yemen Civil War. Yemen was admitted to the United Nations on 30 September 1947.

People's Republic of Angola

The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) was the self-declared socialist state which governed Angola from its independence in 1975 until 1992, during the Angolan Civil War.

Provisional Government of the French Republic

The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations Overlord and Dragoon, and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic. Its establishment marked the official restoration and re-establishment of a provisional French Republic, assuring continuity with the defunct French Third Republic.

It succeeded the French Committee of National Liberation (CFLN), which had been the provisional government of France in the overseas territories and metropolitan parts of the country (Algeria and Corsica) that had been liberated by the Free French. As the wartime government of France in 1944–1945, its main purposes were to handle the aftermath of the occupation of France and continue to wage war against Germany as one of the major Allies.

Its principal mission (in addition to the war) was to prepare the ground for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic. It also made several important reforms and political decisions, such as granting women the right to vote, founding the École nationale d'administration, and laying the grounds of social security in France.

Republic of Dahomey

The Republic of Dahomey (French: République du Dahomey; pronounced [daɔmɛ]) was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community. Prior to attaining autonomy it had been French Dahomey, part of the French Union. On August 1, 1960, it attained full independence from France.

In 1975, the country was renamed Benin after the Bight of Benin (which was in turn named after the Benin Empire which had its seat of power in Benin City, modern-day Nigeria), since "Benin" was deemed politically neutral for all ethnic groups in the state, whereas "Dahomey" recalled the Fon-dominated Kingdom of Dahomey.

Serbia and the United Nations

The Republic of Serbia joined the United Nations on November 1, 2000 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Originally the previous Yugoslav state was one of the original 51 member states of the United Nations.

Tanganyika

Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964. It first gained independence from the United Kingdom on 9 December 1961 as a state headed by Queen Elizabeth II before becoming a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations exactly a year later. After signing the Articles of Union on 22 April 1964 and passing an Act of Union on 25 April, Tanganyika officially joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on Union Day, 26 April 1964. The new state changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania within a year.

Third Czechoslovak Republic

During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. The Third Czechoslovak Republic (Czech: Třetí Československá republika, Slovak: Tretia česko-slovenská republika) which emerged as a sovereign state was not only the result of the policies of the victorious Western allies, the French Fourth Republic, the United Kingdom and the United States, but also an indication of the strength of the Czechoslovak ideal embodied in the First Czechoslovak Republic. However, at the conclusion of World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence, and this circumstance dominated any plans or strategies for postwar reconstruction. Consequently, the political and economic organisation of Czechoslovakia became largely a matter of negotiations between Edvard Beneš and Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) exiles living in Moscow.

In February 1948, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized full power in a coup d'état. Although the country's official name remained the Czechoslovak Republic until 1960, when it was changed to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, February 1948 is considered the end of the Third Republic.

United Arab Republic

The United Arab Republic (UAR; Arabic: الجمهورية العربية المتحدة‎ al-Jumhūrīyah al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah) was a sovereign state in the Middle East from 1958 to 1971. It was initially a political union between Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria from 1958 until Syria seceded from the union after the 1961 Syrian coup d'état, leaving a rump state. Egypt continued to be known officially as the United Arab Republic until 1971.

The republic was led by President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser. The UAR was a member of the United Arab States, a loose confederation with the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, which was dissolved in 1961.

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council to encourage economic cooperation among its member states (the nations of the African continent) following a recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly.It is one of five regional commissions.

The ECA has 54 member states corresponding to the 54 member states of the United Nations that lie within the continent of Africa or in oceans nearby the continent.

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