Member of Parliament (United Kingdom)

In the United Kingdom, Member of Parliament (MP) is the title given to individuals elected to serve in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.[1]

Electoral system

All 650 Members of Parliament are elected using the first past the post in single member constituencies across the whole of the United Kingdom in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland where each constituency has its own single representative.[2][3]

Elections

All MP positions become simultaneously vacant for elections held on a five-year cycle. The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 sets out that ordinary general elections are held on the first Thursday in May, every five years.[4]

If a vacancy arises at another time, due to death or resignation, then a constituency vacancy may be filled by a by-election. Under the Representation of the People Act 1981 any MP sentenced to over a year in jail automatically vacates their seat. For certain types of lesser acts of wrongdoing the Recall of MPs Act 2015 mandates that a recall petition is opened; if signed by more than 10% of registered voters within the constituency the seat is vacated.[5]

Title

An MP who is a member of the Privy Council is entitled to be known as The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) Name MP, or simply as Name MP if they are not.

Responsibilities

The first duty of a member of Parliament is to do what he thinks in his faithful and disinterested judgement is right and necessary for the honour and safety of Great Britain. His second duty is to his constituents, of whom he is the representative but not the delegate. Burke's famous declaration on this subject is well known. It is only in the third place that his duty to party organization or programme takes rank. All these three loyalties should be observed, but there is no doubt of the order in which they stand under any healthy manifestation of democracy.

— Winston Churchill, Duties of a Member of Parliament (c.1954-1955)[6]

Theoretically, contemporary MPs are considered to have two duties, or three if they belong to a political party. Their primary responsibility is to act in the national interest. They must also act in the interests of their constituents where this does not override their primary responsibility. Finally, if they belong to a political party, they may act in the interests of that party, subordinate to the other two responsibilities.[7][8][9][10][11]

See also

References

  1. ^ "What MPs do". UK Parliament. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  2. ^ "Voting Systems in the UK". Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Parliamentary Constituencies". Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  4. ^ "Fixed-term Parlliaments Act 2011". UK Legislation. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Recall of MPs Act 2015". Parliament.uk. Parliament.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  6. ^ "House of Commons - Modernisation of the House of Commons - First Report". publications.parliament.uk.
  7. ^ "Fixing Brexit: How parliament's checks and balances can solve our political crisis". The Independent. 1 March 2019.
  8. ^ Gauja, Anika (22 April 2016). "Political Parties and Elections: Legislating for Representative Democracy". Routledge – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Commons, Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Select Committee on Modernisation of the House of (20 June 2007). "Revitalising the Chamber: the role of the back bench Member, first report of session 2006-07, report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence". The Stationery Office – via Google Books.
  10. ^ Dimock, Susan (16 September 2016). "Classic Readings and Cases in the Philosophy of Law". Routledge – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Deacon, Michael (3 February 2017). "Why Churchill would have defended our 'enemies of democracy'" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
Edward Blake

Dominick Edward Blake, (October 13, 1833 – March 1, 1912), known as Edward Blake, was the second Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1871 to 1872 and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1880 to 1887. He is one of only three federal permanent Liberal leaders never to become Prime Minister of Canada, the others being Stéphane Dion and the latter's immediate successor Michael Ignatieff. He may be said to have served in the national politics of what developed as the affairs of three nationalities: Canadian, British, and Irish. Blake was also the founder, in 1856, of the Canadian law firm now known as Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP.

John F. Kennedy School of Government

The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS) is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. The school offers master's degrees in public policy, public administration, and international development, grants several doctoral degrees, and many executive education programs. It conducts research in subjects relating to politics, government, international affairs, and economics. Since 1970 the school has graduated 17 heads of state, the most of any educational institution.

The School's primary campus is located on John F. Kennedy Street in Cambridge. The main buildings overlook the Charles River, southwest of Harvard Yard and Harvard Square, on the site of a former MBTA Red Line trainyard. The School is adjacent to the public riverfront John F. Kennedy Memorial Park.

In 2015, Douglas Elmendorf, the former director of the U.S. Congressional Budget Office who had previously served as a Harvard faculty member, was named Dean of the Harvard Kennedy School and Don K. Price Professor of Public Policy. From 2004 to 2015, the School's Dean was David T. Ellwood, who was also the Scott M. Black Professor of Political Economy at HKS. Previously, Ellwood was an assistant secretary in the Department of Health and Human Services in the Clinton Administration.A major $120m expansion and renovation of the campus began in 2015. The project was completed in late 2017 with an official opening in December 2017.

List of United States congressional districts

Congressional districts in the United States are electoral divisions for the purpose of electing members of the United States House of Representatives. The number of voting seats in the House of Representatives is currently set at 435 with each one representing approximately 711,000 people. That number has applied since 1913, excluding a temporary increase to 437 after the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii. The total number of state members is capped by the Reapportionment Act of 1929. In addition, each of the five inhabited U.S. territories and the federal district of Washington, D.C. sends a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives.

The Bureau of the Census conducts a constitutionally mandated decennial census whose figures are used to determine the number of congressional districts to which each state is entitled, in a process called "apportionment". The 2012 elections were the first to be based on the congressional districts which were defined based on the 2010 United States Census.Each state is responsible for the redistricting of districts within their state, and several states have one "at-large" division. Redistricting must take place if the number of members changes following a reapportionment, or may take place at any other time if demographics represented in a district have changed substantially. Districts may sometimes retain the same boundaries while changing their district numbers.

The following is a complete list of the 435 current congressional districts for the House of Representatives, and over 200 obsolete districts, and the six current and one obsolete non-voting delegations.

List of sea captains

This is a list of sea captains. The list includes merchant ship's captains as well as naval ship's captains. It is limited to those notable in this role (those who already have Wikipedia articles).

Nishan-e-Pakistan

The Nishan-e-Pakistan (Urdu: نشان پاکستان‎, English: Order of Pakistan) is the highest of civil awards and decorations given by the Government of Pakistan for the highest degree of service to the country and nation of Pakistan. The award was established on 19 March 1957.

The Nishan-e-Pakistan, unlike other honours, is a highly restricted and most prestigious award and is only conferred for the merit and distinguished services to the country, international community, and foreign relations. This award, like other civilian awards, is announced on 14 August each year and its investiture takes place on following 23 March. Recipients are entitled to the post-nominal NPk.

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