Meghalaya subtropical forests

The Meghalaya subtropical forests is a montane subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of eastern India. The ecoregion covers an area of 41,700 square kilometers (16,100 sq mi), encompassing the Khasi Hills, Garo Hills, and Jaintia Hills of India's Meghalaya state, and adjacent portions of Assam state. The ecoregion is one of the most species-rich in India with a rich diversity of birds, mammals, and plants.

Flora

The ecoregion covers those portions of the Khasi, Garo, and Jaintia hills lying above 1000 meters elevation. The subtropical forests lies between the tropical lowlands of the Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests to the south and west, and the Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests to the north.

It is one of the wettest ecoregions in the world, with some places, notably Mawsynram and Cherrapunji, receiving up to eleven meters of rain in a year.

It is a center of diversity for the tree genera Magnolia and Michelia, and the families Elaeocarpaceae and Elaeagnaceae. Over 320 species of orchids are native to Meghalaya. The endemic pitcher plant (Nepenthes khasiana) is now an endangered species. About 3,128 flowering plant species have been reported from the state, of which 1,236 are endemic.[1] Joseph Dalton Hooker, a British botanist and explorer, made a huge taxonomic collection for the Kew Herbarium from Khasi and Jaintia Hills and remarked the place as one of the richest biodiversity spot in India, perhaps in all of Asia as well.[2] The state is rich in medicinal plant species as well, but the natural occurrence of most medicinal plants has decreased due to habitat loss. A total of 131 RET (Rare, Endemic and Threatened) medicinal plant species, including 36 endemic and 113 species under different threat categories, are found within the state.[3]

Fauna

The ecoregion is home to 110 species of mammals, none of which are endemic. Species include the tiger (Panthera tigris), clouded leopard (Pardofelis nebulosa), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), dhole or Asiatic wild dog (Cuon alpinus), sun bear (Ursus malayanus), sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata), Indian civet (Viverra zibetha), Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla), Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), bear macaque (Macaca arctoides), capped leaf monkey (Semnopithecus pileatus), and hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock).

See also

Sources

  • Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment, Island Press; Washington, DC.
  • Aabid Hussain Mir, Krishna Upadhaya and Hiranjit Choudhury (2014): Diversity of endemic and threatened ethnomedicinal plant species in Meghalaya, North-East India, Int. Res. J. Env. Sc. 3(12): 64-78.
  • Hooker, J.D. 1872-1897. The Flora of British India, 7 vols. L. Reeva and Company, London.
  • Khan, M.L., Menon, S. and Bawa, K.S. 1997. Effectiveness of the protected area network in biodiversity conservation: A case study of Meghalaya state, Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 853-868.

References

  1. ^ Khan et al., 1997
  2. ^ Hooker, 1872-97
  3. ^ Mir et al., 2014

External links

  • "Meghalaya subtropical forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
  • Flora of Meghalaya (Government of Meghalaya)
Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests

The Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of east-central India. The ecoregion covers an area of 341,100 square kilometers (131,700 sq mi), extending across portions of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, and Telangana states.

Garo Hills

The Garo Hills (Pron: ˈgɑ:rəʊ) are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. They are inhabited mainly by tribal dwellers, the majority of whom are Garo people. It is one of the wettest places in the world. The range is part of the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion.People who reside in the Garo Hills are known as the Garos. Besides the Garo hills, there are Garo settlements in the plains of Assam and Bangladesh. The Garos call themselves A·chik (Locally used).

Khasi Hills

The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in the Indian state of Meghalaya (before 1970 part of Assam), and is part of the Patkai range and of the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion. In older sources in particular, the alternative transcription Khasia Hills is seen.The region is inhabited mainly by tribal Khasi dwellers, which are traditionally in various chieftainships, states known as the Khasi Hill States. One of its capitals, Cherrapunji, is considered one of the wettest places in the world.The region came under the Khasi Hills district, which was divided into West Khasi Hills and East Khasi Hills districts on 28 October 1976.The highest peak is Lum Shyllong which is 1,968 metres (6,457 ft) high. It is situated a few kilometers south of Shillong town.

List of ecoregions in India

The Himalaya, which runs across India's northern tier, is the boundary between two of the Earth's great ecozones — the Palearctic, which covers most of temperate-to-arctic Eurasia, and Indomalaya, which covers most of the Indian subcontinent and extends into Indochina, Sundaland (Malaysia and western Indonesia) and the Philippines.

Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests

The Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of Bangladesh and eastern India. The ecoregion covers an area of 254,100 square kilometres (98,100 sq mi), covering most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar and Tripura, and extending into adjacent portions of Assam, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa states.

Magnolia doltsopa

Magnolia doltsopa is a large shrub or small tree native to the eastern Himalayan region and the Meghalaya subtropical forests in Northeastern India. The wood is fragrant.

Malabar Coast moist forests

The Malabar Coast moist forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India. It lies along India's Konkan and Malabar coasts, in a narrow strip between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats range, which runs parallel to the coast. It has an area of 35,500 square kilometers (13,700 sq mi), and extends from northern Maharashtra through Goa, Karnataka and Kerala to Kanniyakumari in southernmost Tamil Nadu.

The ecoregion extends from sea level to the 250 meter contour of the Western Ghats. It is bounded on the east by the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests in Maharashtra and Karnataka, and the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests in Kerala.

Very little of the natural vegetation of the ecoregion remains; it has largely been cleared for agriculture, grazing, and teak plantations.

Mande Barung

In Indian folklore, the Mande Burung is an alleged ape-like creature said to inhabit the Meghalaya subtropical forests in the remote Garo Hills of the Northeast India.

Generally described as a large, hairy bipedal hominoid, some believe that this animal, or its relatives, may be found around the world under different regional names, such as the Yeti of Tibet and Nepal, the Ban-manush in Bangladesh, the Yeren of mainland China, and the Bigfoot of the Pacific northwest region of the United States and the Canadian province of British Columbia.

Meghalaya

Meghalaya (UK: , US: ) is a state in northeastern India. The name means "the abode of clouds" in Sanskrit. The population of Meghalaya as of 2016 is estimated to be 3,211,474. Meghalaya covers an area of approximately 22,430 square kilometers, with a length to breadth ratio of about 3:1.The state is bounded to the south by the Bangladeshi divisions of Mymensingh and Sylhet, to the west by the Bangladeshi division of Rangpur, and to the north and east by India's State of Assam. The capital of Meghalaya is Shillong. During the British rule of India, the British imperial authorities nicknamed it the "Scotland of the East". Meghalaya was previously part of Assam, but on 21 January 1972, the districts of Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills became the new state of Meghalaya. English is the official language of Meghalaya. The other principal languages spoken include Khasi, Garo, Pnar, Biate Hajong, Assamese and Bengali. Unlike many Indian states, Meghalaya has historically followed a matrilineal system where the lineage and inheritance are traced through women; the youngest daughter inherits all wealth and she also takes care of her parents.The state is the wettest region of India, recording an average of 12,000 mm (470 in) of rain a year. About 70% of the state is forested. The Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion encompasses the state; its mountain forests are distinct from the lowland tropical forests to the north and south. The forests are notable for their biodiversity of mammals, birds, and plants.

Meghalaya has predominantly an agrarian economy with a significant commercial forestry industry. The important crops are potatoes, rice, maize, pineapples, bananas, papayas, spices, etc. The service sector is made up of real estate and insurance companies. Meghalaya's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at ₹16,173 crore (US$2.3 billion) in current prices. The state is geologically rich in minerals, but it has no significant industries. The state has about 1,170 km (730 mi) of national highways. It is also a major logistical center for trade with Bangladesh.In July 2018, the International Commission on Stratigraphy divided the Holocene epoch into three, with the late Holocene being called the Meghalayan stage/age, since a speleothem in Mawmluh cave indicating a dramatic worldwide climate event around 2250 BC had been chosen as the boundary stratotype.

Michelia

Michelia is a historical genus of flowering plants belonging to the Magnolia family (Magnoliaceae). The genus included about 50 species of evergreen trees and shrubs, native to tropical and subtropical south and southeast Asia (Indomalaya), including southern China. Today it is regarded as a synonym of Magnolia.

Michelia punduana

Michelia punduana is a species of plant in the Magnoliaceae family. It is endemic to the Meghalaya subtropical forests in India. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rainforest

The Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion which occupies the lower hillsides of the mountainous border region joining India, Bangladesh, and Burma (Myanmar). The ecoregion covers an area of 135,600 square kilometres (52,400 sq mi). Located where the biotas of the Indian Subcontinent and Indochina meet, and in the transition between subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests are home to great biodiversity. The WWF rates the ecoregion as "Globally Outstanding" in biological distinctiveness.

Naga-Manupuri-Chin hills moist forests

The Naga-Manupuri-Chin hills moist forests is an ecoregion of India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, designated by the World Wide Fund for Nature as one of the world's outstanding Global 200 ecoregions.

The Global 200 ecoregion includes several ecoregions:

Northern Triangle subtropical forests

Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests

Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests

Meghalaya subtropical forests

Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests

North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests

The North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India.

Northwestern thorn scrub forest

The Northwestern thorn scrub forests are a xeric shrubland ecoregion of Pakistan and Northern India, stretching along the border lowlands and hills between the two countries. Once covered in deciduous forest, this ecoregion has been degraded through agriculture and the extraction of timber so that it currently has a scanty covering of thorny scrub dominated by such trees as Acacia senegal, Acacia leucophloea and Prosopis cineraria. Where the soils are particularly saline, there are patches of semi-desert. A number of mammals are found in this habitat and about four hundred species of bird. Some small areas are protected but the collection of firewood and the conversion of the land to subsistence farming continues.

Outline of Meghalaya

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Meghalaya:

Meghalaya – state in north-east India. The name means "the abode of clouds" in Sanskrit. The state is the wettest region of India, recording an average of 12,000 mm (470 in) of rains a year.[6] About 70% of the state is forested.[8] The Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion encompasses the state; its mountain forests are distinct from the lowland tropical forests to the north and south. The forests are notable for their biodiversity of mammals, birds, and plants.

South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests

The South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southern India. It covers the southern portion of the Western Ghats range and the Nilgiri Hills between 250 and 1000 meters elevation in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states.

West Jaintia Hills district

West Jaintia Hills (Pron: ˈʤeɪnˌtɪə) is an administrative District in the state of Meghalaya in India. The united district (Jaintia Hills District) was created on 22 February 1972 and occupied an area of 3819 km2. It had a population of 295,692 (as of 2001). The district is part of the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion.With the bifurcation of the erstwhile Jaintia Hills District into East and West Jaintia Hills Districts, West Jaintia Hills District came into existence on 31 July 2012 with its headquarters at Jowai. Jowai is the host of all the heads of important governmental offices and establishments, educational institutions, hospitals, banking institutions, etc.

Western Himalayan broadleaf forests

The Western Himalayan broadleaf forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion which is found in the middle elevations of the western Himalayas, including parts of Nepal, India, and Pakistan.

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