Megara

Megara (/ˈmɛɡərə/; Greek: Μέγαρα, pronounced [ˈmeɣara]) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece. It lies in the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was one of the four districts of Attica, embodied in the four mythic sons of King Pandion II, of whom Nisos was the ruler of Megara. Megara was also a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in the exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the west on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea.

Megara

Μέγαρα
Skyline of Megara
Megara is located in Greece
Megara
Megara
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Megareon
Coordinates: 37°59′47″N 23°20′40″E / 37.99639°N 23.34444°ECoordinates: 37°59′47″N 23°20′40″E / 37.99639°N 23.34444°E
CountryGreece
Administrative regionAttica
Regional unitWest Attica
Government
 • MayorGrigorios Stamoulis
Area
 • Municipality330.1 km2 (127.5 sq mi)
 • Municipal unit322.2 km2 (124.4 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Municipality
36,924
 • Municipality density110/km2 (290/sq mi)
 • Municipal unit
28,591
 • Municipal unit density89/km2 (230/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
191 00
Area code(s)22960
Websitewww.megara.gr

Early history

Megara4
View of the archaeological site

According to Pausanias, the Megarians said that their town owed its origin to Car, the son of Phoroneus, who built the citadel called 'Caria' and the temples of Demeter called Megara, from which the place derived its name.[2]

In historical times, Megara was an early dependency of Corinth, in which capacity colonists from Megara founded Megara Hyblaea, a small polis north of Syracuse in Sicily. Megara then fought a war of independence with Corinth, and afterwards founded Chalcedon in 685 BC, as well as Byzantium (c. 667 BC).

Megara is known to have early ties with Miletos, in the region of Caria in Asia Minor. According to some scholars, they had built up a "colonisation alliance". In the 7th/6th century BCE these two cities acted in concordance with each other.[3]

Both cities acted under the leadership and sanction of an Apollo oracle. Megara cooperated with that of Delphi. Miletos had her own oracle of Apollo Didymeus Milesios in Didyma. Also, there are many parallels in the political organisation of both cities.[3]

In the late 7th century BC Theagenes established himself as tyrant of Megara by slaughtering the cattle of the rich to win over the poor.[4] During the second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) Megara fought alongside the Spartans and Athenians at crucial battles such as Salamis and Plataea.

Megara defected from the Spartan-dominated Peloponnesian League (c. 460 BC) to the Delian league due to border disputes with its neighbour Corinth and it became one of the causes of the First Peloponnesian War (460 – c. 445 BC). By the terms of the Thirty Years' Peace of 446–445 BC Megara was returned to the Peloponnesian League after successfully revolting from the Delian league.

In the (second) Peloponnesian War (c. 431 – 404 BC), Megara was an ally of Sparta. The Megarian decree is considered to be one of several contributing "causes" of the Peloponnesian War.[5] Athens issued the Megarian decree with the aim of choking out the Megarian economy. The decree banned Megarian merchants from territory controlled by Athens. The Athenians claimed that they were responding to the Megarians' desecration of the Hiera Orgas, a sacred precinct in the border region between the two states.

Arguably the most famous citizen of Megara in antiquity was Byzas, the legendary founder of Byzantium in the 7th century BC. The 6th century BC poet Theognis also came from Megara. In the early 4th century BC, Euclid of Megara founded the Megarian school of philosophy which flourished for about a century, and which became famous for the use of logic and dialectic.

During the Celtic invasion in 279 BC, Megara sent a force of 400 peltasts to Thermopylae. During the Chremonidean War, in 266 BC, the Megarians were besieged by the Macedonian king Antigonus Gonatas and managed to defeat his elephants employing burning pigs. Despite this success, the Megarians had to submit to the Macedonians.

In 243 BC, exhorted by Aratus of Sicyon, Megara expelled its Macedonian garrison and joined the Achaean League, but when the Achaeans lost control of the Isthmus in 223 BC the Megarians left them and joined the Boeotian League. Not more than thirty years later, however, the Megarians grew tired of the Boeotian decline and returned their allegiance to Achaea. The Achaean strategos Philopoemen fought off the Boeotian intervention force and secured Megara's return, either in 203 or in 193 BC.

Megara - Coronelli Vincenzo - 1687
Megara by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1687

The Megarians were proverbial for their generosity in building and endowing temples. Saint Jerome reports "There is a common saying about the Megarians [...:] 'They build as if they are to live forever; they live as if they are to die tomorrow.'"[6]

Democracy in Megara

Megara seems to have experienced democracy on two occasions. The first was between 427, when there was a democratic uprising, and 424, when a narrow oligarchy was installed (Thuc. 3.68.3; 4.66-8, 73-4). The second was in the 370s, when we hear that the people of Megara expelled some anti-democratic conspirators (Diod. 15.40.4). By the 350s, though, Isocrates is referring to Megara in terms that suggests that it was an oligarchy again (Isoc. 8.117-19).

One of the first actions of the new oligarchy in 424 was to compel the people to vote openly, which suggests that the democracy had made use of the secret ballot. Megarian democracy also made use of ostracism. Other key institutions of the democracy included a popular Assembly and Council, and a board of five (or six) generals.[7]

Geography

Megara is located in the westernmost part of Attica, near the Megara Gulf, a bay of the Saronic Gulf. The coastal plain around Megara is referred to as Megaris, which is also the name of the ancient city state centered on Megara. Megara is 8 km west of Nea Peramos, 18 km west of Eleusis, 19 km east of Agioi Theodoroi, 34 km west of Athens and 37 km east of Corinth. The Motorway 8 connects it with Athens and Corinth. The Megara railway station is served by Proastiakos suburban trains to Athens and Kiato. There is a small military airfield south of the town, ICAO code LGMG.[8]

The main town Megara had 23,456 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The largest other settlements in the municipal unit are Vlychada (pop. 1,462), Kineta (1,446), Pachi (542) and Lakka Kalogirou (517).

Municipality

2010 Dimos Megareon
Municipality map
Megara7
Monument at Heroes' Square

The municipality of Megara was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of two former municipalities, Megara and Nea Peramos, which became municipal units.[9]

The municipality has an area of 330.11 km2, the municipal unit 322.21 km2.[10]

Districts and suburbs

  • Agia Triada
  • Aigeirouses
  • Kineta
  • Koumintri
  • Lakka Kalogirou
  • Moni Agiou Ierotheou
  • Moni Agiou Ioannou Prodromou
  • Moni Panachrantou
  • Pachi
  • Stikas
  • Vlychada

Historical population

Year Town Municipal unit Municipality
1971 17,584 - -
1981 20,814 21,245 -
1991 20,403 25,061 -
2001 23,032 28,195 -
2011 23,456 28,591 36,924

Sports

Notable people

Coinage with Byzas 2nd 3rd century CE
Coinage with idealized depiction of Byzas, founder of Byzantium. Struck in Byzantium, Thrace, around the time of Marcus Aurelius (161–180 CE).

Facilities

  • Medium-wave transmitter with a 180-metre-tall radio mast, broadcasting on 666 kHz and 981 kHz

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. ^ Paus. i. 39. § 5, i. 40. § 6
  3. ^ a b Alexander Herda (2015), Megara and Miletos: Colonising with Apollo. A Structural Comparison of Religious and Political Institutions in Two Archaic Greek Polis States
  4. ^ Aristotle, Politics V 4,5
  5. ^ Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
  6. ^ Jerome, To Ageruchia, Letter cxxiii.15
  7. ^ E. Robinson, Democracy Beyond Athens, Cambridge 2011, 46-47.
  8. ^ World Aero Data
  9. ^ "Kallikratis law" (PDF) (in Greek). Greece Ministry of Interior. 11 August 2010. pp. 17367–17454. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  10. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. 18 March 2011. p. 437. ISSN 1106-5761. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  11. ^ Oost, Stewart Irvin (July 1973). "The Megara of Theagenes and Theognis". Classical Philology. The University of Chicago Press. 68 (3): 186–196. doi:10.1086/365976. JSTOR 267749.
  12. ^ Ravindran, Renuka (April 2007). "The Life of Euclid" (PDF). Resonance. Indian Academy of Sciences: 3. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  13. ^ Platts, John (1825). A Universal Biography: 1st series. From the creation to the birth of Christ. Sherwood, Jones, and Company. p. 479.
  14. ^ Preus, Anthony (12 February 2015). Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 381. ISBN 9781442246393.

External links

Battle of Megara

The Battle of Megara was fought in 424 BC between Athens and Megara, an ally of Sparta. The Athenians were victorious.

Megara was in the country of Megarid, between central Greece and the Peloponnese. Megara, an ally of Sparta, consisted of farming villages, with flat plains and foothills, and hosted two harbors: Pagae (modern Alepochori-Corinthian Gulf) and Nisaia (Saronic Gulf), making it a prime focus of contention1.

Euclid of Megara

Euclid of Megara (; also Euclides, Eucleides; Greek: Εὐκλείδης ὁ Μεγαρεύς; c. 435 – c. 365 BC) was a Greek Socratic philosopher who founded the Megarian school of philosophy. He was a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BC, and was present at his death. He held the supreme good to be one, eternal and unchangeable, and denied the existence of anything contrary to the good. Editors and translators in the Middle Ages often confused him with Euclid of Alexandria when discussing the latter's Elements.

European route E94

European route E 94 is part of the International E-road network, which is a series of main roads in Europe.

The E 94 starts in western Greece in Corinth, Greece and through Attiki Odos (A6) runs east through Megara and Eleusis and ends in the Greek capital of Athens at the Saronic Gulf in the east.

Herakles (Euripides)

Herakles (Ancient Greek: Ἡρακλῆς μαινόμενος, Hēraklēs Mainomenos, also known as Hercules Furens) is an Athenian tragedy by Euripides that was first performed c. 416 BC. While Herakles is in the underworld obtaining Cerberus for one of his labours, his father Amphitryon, wife Megara, and children are sentenced to death in Thebes by Lycus. Herakles arrives in time to save them, though the goddesses Iris and Madness (personified) cause him to kill his wife and children in a frenzy. It is the second of two surviving tragedies by Euripides where the family of Herakles are suppliants (the first being Herakles' Children). It was first performed at the City Dionysia festival.

Hercules (miniseries)

Hercules is a 2005 American television miniseries chronicling the life of the legendary Greek hero, Heracles, called Hercules in this series. It is most often aired on television as a two-part miniseries: the first part documents his early life in Tiryns and his desire and marriage to the lady Megara; the second part follows the more widely recognised part of his life, in seeking redemption for the madness-induced murder of his family.

The series incorporates Hercules's murder of his family—usually not included in modern interpretations of the character—and includes five of his twelve labors from Greek mythology. The series alters some of the elements of the myths including placing the giant Antaeus as his father while in Greek myths his father was the king of the gods, Zeus.

Herodorus of Megara

Herodorus of Megara (Greek: Ἡρόδωρος ὁ Μεγαρεύς) was an ancient Greek musician, ten times Olympic victor in the trumpet contest. He was noted particularly for his size, voracity and loudness of his trumpet (salpinx).

Hiera Orgas

The 'Hiera Orgas' (Ancient Greek: ἱερὰ ὀργάς), meaning ‘sacred meadow’, was a site, which featured in at least two conflicts between Athens and Megara.

List of Disney's Hercules characters

The following are fictional characters from Disney's 1997 film Hercules and from the derived 1998 TV series. These productions are adaptations of Greek mythology, very different from the classical versions.

List of Olympic winners of the Stadion race

The following is a list of winners of the Stadion race at the Olympic Games from 776 BC to 225 AD. It is based on the list given by Eusebius of Caesarea using a compilation by Sextus Julius Africanus. The Stadion race was the first and most important competition of the ancient Olympiads and the names of the winners are used by many Greek authors to date historic events.

1st Olympiad 776 BC - Coroebus of Elis

2nd Olympiad 772 BC - Antimachus of Elis

3rd Olympiad 768 BC - Androclus of Messenia

4th Olympiad 764 BC - Polychares of Messenia

5th Olympiad 760 BC - Aeschines of Elis

6th Olympiad 756 BC - Oebotas of Dyme

7th Olympiad 752 BC - Diocles of Messenia (Ancient Greek: Διοκλῆς Μεσήνιος; called Daïcles, Ancient Greek: Δαϊκλῆς Μεσσήνιος, in Dionysius's chronicle)

8th Olympiad 748 BC - Anticles of Messenia

9th Olympiad 744 BC - Xenocles of Messenia

10th Olympiad 740 BC - Dotades of Messenia

11th Olympiad 736 BC - Leochares of Messenia

12th Olympiad 732 BC - Oxythemis of Cleonae or Coroneia

13th Olympiad 728 BC - Diocles of Corinth

14th Olympiad 724 BC - Desmon of Corinth

15th Olympiad 720 BC - Orsippus of Megara

16th Olympiad 716 BC - Pythagoras of Laconia

17th Olympiad 712 BC - Polus of Epidaurus

18th Olympiad 708 BC - Tellis of Sicyon

19th Olympiad 704 BC - Menus of Megara

20th Olympiad 700 BC - Atheradas of Laconia

21st Olympiad 696 BC - Pantacles of Athens - In 692 BC he also won the diaulos. He was the first winner from Athens and the first runner in history to defend his title four years after his first victory.

22nd Olympiad 692 BC - Pantacles for a second time

23rd Olympiad 688 BC - Icarius of Hyperesia

24th Olympiad 684 BC - Cleoptolemus of Laconia

25th Olympiad 680 BC - Thalpis of Laconia

26th Olympiad 676 BC - Callisthenes of Laconia

27th Olympiad 672 BC - Eurybus of Athens (Ancient Greek: Εὔρυβος Ἀθηναῖος; called Eurybates, Ancient Greek: Εὐρυβάτης by Dionysius)

28th Olympiad 668 BC - Charmis of Laconia

29th Olympiad 664 BC - Chionis of Laconia

30th Olympiad 660 BC - Chionis for a second time

31st Olympiad 656 BC - Chionis for a third time

32nd Olympiad 652 BC - Cratinus of Megara

33rd Olympiad 648 BC - Gylis of Laconia

34th Olympiad 644 BC - Stomas of Athens - He was the third winner from Athens and his name is only referred by Eusebius.

35th Olympiad 640 BC - Sphaerus of Laconia (Ancient Greek: Σφαῖρος Λάκων)

36th Olympiad 636 BC - Phrynon of Athens

37th Olympiad 632 BC - Eurycleidas of Laconia

38th Olympiad 628 BC - Olyntheus of Laconia

39th Olympiad 624 BC - Rhipsolaus of Laconia

40th Olympiad 620 BC - Olyntheus of Laconia for a second time

41st Olympiad 616 BC - Cleondas of Thebes

42nd Olympiad 612 BC - Lycotas of Laconia

43rd Olympiad 608 BC - Cleon of Epidaurus

44th Olympiad 604 BC - Gelon of Laconia

45th Olympiad 600 BC - Anticrates of Epidaurus

46th Olympiad 596 BC - Chrysamaxus of Laconia

47th Olympiad 592 BC - Eurycles of Laconia

48th Olympiad 588 BC - Glycon of Croton

49th Olympiad 584 BC - Lycinus of Croton

50th Olympiad 580 BC - Epitelidas of Laconia

51st Olympiad 576 BC - Eratosthenes of Croton

52nd Olympiad 572 BC - Agis of Elis

53rd Olympiad 568 BC - Hagnon of Peparethus

54th Olympiad 564 BC - Hippostratus of Croton

55th Olympiad 560 BC - Hippostratus for a second time

56th Olympiad 556 BC - Phaedrus of Pharsalus

57th Olympiad 552 BC - Ladromus of Laconia

58th Olympiad 548 BC - Diognetus of Croton

59th Olympiad 544 BC - Archilochus of Corcyra

60th Olympiad 540 BC - Apellaeus of Elis

61st Olympiad 536 BC - Agatharchus of Corcyra

62nd Olympiad 532 BC - Eryxias of Chalcis

63rd Olympiad 528 BC - Parmenides of Camarina

64th Olympiad 524 BC - Menander of Thessaly

65th Olympiad 520 BC - Anochas of Tarentum

66th Olympiad 516 BC - Ischyrus of Himera

67th Olympiad 512 BC - Phanas of Pellene

68th Olympiad 508 BC - Isomachus of Croton

69th Olympiad 504 BC - Isomachus for a second time

70th Olympiad 500 BC - Nicasias of Opus

71st Olympiad 496 BC - Tisicrates of Croton

72nd Olympiad 492 BC - Tisicrates for a second time

73rd Olympiad 488 BC - Astyalus of Croton

74th Olympiad 484 BC - Astyalus for a second time

75th Olympiad 480 BC - Astyalus for a third time

76th Olympiad 476 BC - Scamander of Mytilene

77th Olympiad 472 BC - Dandes of Argos

78th Olympiad 468 BC - Parmenides of Poseidonia

79th Olympiad 464 BC - Xenophon of Corinth

80th Olympiad 460 BC - Torymmas of Thessaly

81st Olympiad 456 BC - Polymnastus of Cyrene

82nd Olympiad 452 BC - Lycus of Larissa

83rd Olympiad 448 BC - Crisson of Himera

84th Olympiad 444 BC - Crisson for a second time

85th Olympiad 440 BC - Crisson for a third time

86th Olympiad 436 BC - Theopompus of Thessaly

87th Olympiad 432 BC - Sophron of Ambracia

88th Olympiad 428 BC - Symmachus of Messenia

89th Olympiad 424 BC - Symmachus for a second time

90th Olympiad 420 BC - Hyperbius of Syracuse

91st Olympiad 416 BC - Exagentus of Acragas

92nd Olympiad 412 BC - Exagentus for a second time

93rd Olympiad 408 BC - Eubatus of Cyrene

94th Olympiad 404 BC - Crocinas of Larissa

95th Olympiad 400 BC - Minon of Athens - Using his victory to date historic events, Diodorus Siculus reports his name as Minos.

96th Olympiad 396 BC - Eupolemus of Elis

97th Olympiad 392 BC - Perieres of Terina or Terinaeus of Elis ?

98th Olympiad 388 BC - Sosippus of Delphi

99th Olympiad 384 BC - Dicon of Syracuse

100th Olympiad 380 BC - Dionysodorus of Tarentum

101st Olympiad 376 BC - Damon of Thurii

102nd Olympiad 372 BC - Damon for a second time

103rd Olympiad 368 BC - Pythostratus of Ephesus

104th Olympiad 364 BC - Phocides of Athens - listed by Eusebius of Caesarea as a victor in the stadion race (Diodor) or wrestling contest (Eusebius) of the 104th Olympiad (364 BC). His victory is used by Diodorus Siculus to date the events of his history.

105th Olympiad 360 BC - Porus of Cyrene

106th Olympiad 356 BC - Porus for a second time

107th Olympiad 352 BC - Smicrinas of Tarentum

108th Olympiad 348 BC - Polycles of Cyrene

109th Olympiad 344 BC - Aristolochus of Athens - His victory is used by Diodorus Siculus to date the events of his history.

110th Olympiad 340 BC - Anticles of Athens

111th Olympiad 336 BC - Cleomantis of Cleitor

112th Olympiad 332 BC - Gryllus of Chalcis

113th Olympiad 328 BC - Cliton of Macedonia

114th Olympiad 324 BC - Micinas of Rhodes

115th Olympiad 320 BC - Damasias of Amphipolis

116th Olympiad 316 BC - Demosthenes of Laconia

117th Olympiad 312 BC - Parmenides of Mytilene

118th Olympiad 308 BC - Andromenes of Corinth

119th Olympiad 304 BC - Andromenes for a second time

120th Olympiad 300 BC - Pythagoras of Magnesia-on-Maeander

121st Olympiad 296 BC - Pythagoras for a second time

122nd Olympiad 292 BC - Antigonus of Macedonia

123rd Olympiad 288 BC - Antigonus for a second time

124th Olympiad 284 BC - Philomelus of Pharsalus

125th Olympiad 280 BC - Ladas of Aegium

126th Olympiad 276 BC - Idaeus or Nicator of Cyrene

127th Olympiad 272 BC - Perigenes of Alexandria

128th Olympiad 268 BC - Seleucus of Macedonia

129th Olympiad 264 BC - Philinus of Cos

130th Olympiad 260 BC - Philinus for a second time

131st Olympiad 256 BC - Ammonius of Alexandria

132nd Olympiad 252 BC - Xenophanes of Amphissa in Aetolia

133rd Olympiad 248 BC - Simylus of Neapolis

134th Olympiad 244 BC - Alcides of Laconia

135th Olympiad 240 BC - Eraton of Aetolia

136th Olympiad 236 BC - Pythocles of Sicyon

137th Olympiad 232 BC - Menestheus of Barcyla

138th Olympiad 228 BC - Demetrius of Alexandria

139th Olympiad 224 BC - Iolaidas of Argos - He was the second winner from Argos in the category.

140th Olympiad 220 BC - Zopyrus of Syracuse

141st Olympiad 216 BC - Dorotheus of Rhodes

142nd Olympiad 212 BC - Crates of Alexandria

143rd Olympiad 208 BC - Heracleitus of Samos

144th Olympiad 204 BC - Heracleides of Salamis in Cyprus

145th Olympiad 200 BC - Pyrrhias of Aetolia

146th Olympiad 196 BC - Micion of Boeotia

147th Olympiad 192 BC - Agemachus of Cyzicus

148th Olympiad 188 BC - Arcesilaus of Megalopolis

149th Olympiad 184 BC - Hippostratus of Seleuceia in Pieria

150th Olympiad 180 BC - Onesicritus of Salamis

151st Olympiad 176 BC - Thymilus of Aspendus

152nd Olympiad 172 BC - Democritus of Megara

153rd Olympiad 168 BC - Aristander of Antissa in Lesbos

154th Olympiad 164 BC - Leonidas of Rhodes, victor in all three racing competitions

155th Olympiad 160 BC - Leonidas for a second time

156th Olympiad 156 BC - Leonidas for a third time

157th Olympiad 152 BC - Leonidas, victor in three races for a fourth time, was the first and only man to win 12 Olympic crowns over four Olympiads.

158th Olympiad 148 BC - Othon of Syracuse

159th Olympiad 144 BC - Alcimus of Cyzicus

160th Olympiad 140 BC - Agnodorus of Cyzicus

161st Olympiad 136 BC - Antipater of Epirus

162nd Olympiad 132 BC - Damon of Delphi

163rd Olympiad 128 BC - Timotheus of Tralles

164th Olympiad 124 BC - Boeotus of Sicyon

165th Olympiad 120 BC - Acusilaus of Cyrene

166th Olympiad 116 BC - Chrysogonus of Nicaea

167th Olympiad 112 BC - Chrysogonus for a second time

168th Olympiad 108 BC - Nicomachus of Philadelphia

169th Olympiad 104 BC - Nicodemus of Lacedaemon

170th Olympiad 100 BC - Simmias of Seleuceia-on-Tigris

171st Olympiad 96 BC - Parmeniscus of Corcyra

172nd Olympiad 92 BC - Eudamus of Cos

173rd Olympiad 88 BC - Parmeniscus of Corcyra for a second time

174th Olympiad 84 BC - Demostratus of Larissa

175th Olympiad 80 BC - Epaenetus of Argos, (boys' stadion race) There was no stadion race for adults this year, because Sulla had summoned all the athletes to Rome.

176th Olympiad 76 BC - Dion of Cyparissus (Cyparissia in Laconia)

177th Olympiad 72 BC - Hecatomnus of Elis

178th Olympiad 68 BC - Diocles of Hypopenus

179th Olympiad 64 BC - Andreas of Lacedaemon

180th Olympiad 60 BC - Andromachus of Ambracia

181st Olympiad 56 BC - Lamachus of Tauromenium

182nd Olympiad 52 BC - Anthestion of Argos - The third winner from Argos in the category.

183rd Olympiad 48 BC - Theodorus of Messene

184th Olympiad 44 BC - Theodorus for a second time

185th Olympiad 40 BC - Ariston of Thurii

186th Olympiad 36 BC - Scamander of Alexandria Troas

187th Olympiad 32 BC - Ariston of Thurii again

188th Olympiad 28 BC - Sopater of Argos - The fourth winner from Argos in the category.

189th Olympiad 24 BC - Asclepiades of Sidon

190th Olympiad 20 BC - Auphidius of Patrae

191st Olympiad 16 BC - Diodotus of Tyana

192nd Olympiad 12 BC - Diophanes of Aeolis

193rd Olympiad 8 BC - Artemidorus of Thyateira

194th Olympiad 4 BC - Demaratus of Ephesus

195th Olympiad 1 AD - Demaratus for a second time

196th Olympiad 5 AD - Pammenes of Magnesia-on-Maeander

197th Olympiad 9 AD - Asiaticus of Halicarnassus

198th Olympiad 13 AD - Diophanes of Prusa

199th Olympiad 17 AD - Aeschines Glaucias of Miletus

200th Olympiad 21 AD - Polemon of Petra

201st Olympiad 25 AD - Damasias of Cydonia

202nd Olympiad 29 AD - Hermogenes of Pergamum

203rd Olympiad 33 AD - Apollonius of Epidaurus

204th Olympiad 37 AD - Sarapion of Alexandria

205th Olympiad 41 AD - Eubulidas of Laodiceia

206th Olympiad 45 AD - Valerius of Mytilene

207th Olympiad 49 AD - Athenodorus of Aegium

208th Olympiad 53 AD - Athenodorus for a second time

209th Olympiad 57 AD - Callicles of Sidon

210th Olympiad 61 AD - Athenodorus of Aegium for a third time

211th Olympiad 67 AD - Tryphon of Philadelphia (These games were not held at the usual time because Nero postponed them until his visit to Greece two years later)

212th Olympiad 69 AD - Polites of Ceramus

213th Olympiad 73 AD - Rhodon of Cyme (or Theodotus)

214th Olympiad 77 AD - Straton of Alexandria

215th Olympiad 81 AD - Hermogenes of Xanthus

216th Olympiad 85 AD - Apollophanes Papis of Tarsus

217th Olympiad 89 AD - Hermogenes of Xanthus for a second time

218th Olympiad 93 AD - Apollonius of Alexandria (or Heliodorus)

219th Olympiad 97 AD - Stephanus of Cappadocia

220th Olympiad 101 AD - Achilleus of Alexandria

221st Olympiad 105 AD - Theonas Smaragdus of Alexandria

222nd Olympiad 109 AD - Callistus of Side

223rd Olympiad 113 AD - Eustolus of Side

224th Olympiad 117 AD - Isarion of Alexandria

225th Olympiad 121 AD - Aristeas of Miletus

226th Olympiad 125 AD - Dionysius Sameumys of Alexandria

227th Olympiad 129 AD - Dionysius for a second time

228th Olympiad 133 AD - Lucas of Alexandria

229th Olympiad 137 AD - Epidaurus Ammonius of Alexandria

230th Olympiad 141 AD - Didymus Clydeus of Alexandria

231st Olympiad 145 AD - Cranaus of Sicyon

232nd Olympiad 149 AD - Atticus of Sardis

233rd Olympiad 153 AD - Demetrius of Chios

234th Olympiad 157 AD - Eras of Chios

235th Olympiad 161 AD - Mnasibulus of Elateia

236th Olympiad 165 AD - Aeithales of Alexandria

237th Olympiad 169 AD - Eudaemon of Alexandria

238th Olympiad 173 AD - Agathopus of Aegina

239th Olympiad 177 AD - Agathopus for a second time

240th Olympiad 181 AD - Anubion Pheidus of Alexandria

241st Olympiad 185 AD - Heron of Alexandria

242nd Olympiad 189 AD - Magnus Libycus of Cyrene

243rd Olympiad 193 AD - Isidorus Artemidorus of Alexandria

244th Olympiad 197 AD - Isidorus for a second time

245th Olympiad 201 AD - Alexander of Alexandria (20th winner from Alexandria in Egypt and 18th Alexandrian crown during their period of dominance in the 1st and 2nd century.)

246th Olympiad 205 AD - Epinicus Cynas of Cyzicus

247th Olympiad 209 AD - Satornilus of Gortyn in Crete

248th Olympiad 213 AD - Heliodorus Trosidamas of Alexandria (Last winner of the stadion race from Alexandria in Egypt recorded by Eusebius and his second title was the 20th Alexandrian crown in the Christian era)

249th Olympiad 217 AD - Heliodorus for a second time

250th Olympiad 221 AD - Publius Aelius Alcandridas of Sparta

251st Olympiad 225 AD - Publius Aelius Alcandridas of Sparta for a second time

252nd Olympiad 229 AD - Demetrius of Salamis

253rd Olympiad 233 AD - Demetrius of Salamis for a second time

254th Olympiad 237 AD - Demetrius of Salamis for a third time

(...)

262nd Olympiad 269 AD - Dionysius of Alexandria

Manto (mythology)

There are several distinct figures in Greek mythology named Manto (Ancient Greek: Μαντώ), the most prominent being the daughter of Tiresias. The name Manto derives from Ancient Greek Mantis, "seer, prophet".

Manto, daughter of Tiresias.

Manto, daughter of Heracles. According to Servius (comm. on Virgil, Aeneid X, 199), some held that this was the Manto for whom Mantua was named.

Manto, daughter of the seer Polyidus. She and her sister Astycrateia were brought to Megara by their father, who came there to cleanse Alcathous for the murder of his son Callipolis. The tomb of the two sisters was shown at Megara in later times.

Manto, daughter of another famous seer, Melampus. Her mother was Iphianeira, daughter of Megapenthes, and her siblings were Antiphates, Bias and Pronoe.

Megara (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Megara (; Ancient Greek: Μεγάρα) was a Theban princess.

Megara Hyblaea

Megara Hyblaea (Ancient Greek: τὰ Μέγαρα) – perhaps identical with Hybla Major – is an ancient Greek colony in Sicily, situated near Augusta on the east coast, 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-northwest of Syracuse, Italy, on the deep bay formed by the Xiphonian promontory. There were at least three (and possibly as many as five) cities named "Hybla" in ancient accounts of Sicily which are often confounded with each other, and among which it is sometimes very difficult to distinguish.

Megarian school

The Megarian school of philosophy, which flourished in the 4th century BC, was founded by Euclides of Megara, one of the pupils of Socrates. Its ethical teachings were derived from Socrates, recognizing a single good, which was apparently combined with the Eleatic doctrine of Unity. Some of Euclides' successors developed logic to such an extent that they became a separate school, known as the Dialectical school. Their work on modal logic, logical conditionals, and propositional logic played an important role in the development of logic in antiquity.

Megaris

This is also the ancient Greek name of a small island off Naples, site of the Castel dell'Ovo.

Megaris (Ancient Greek: Μεγαρίς) was a small but populous state of ancient Greece, west of Attica and north of Corinthia, whose inhabitants were adventurous seafarers, credited with deceitful propensities. The capital, Megara, was famous for white marble and fine clay. Mount Geraneia dominates the center of the region. The island of Salamis was originally under the control of Megara, before it was lost to Athens in the late 7th century BCE.

Orsippus

Orsippus (Greek: Ὄρσιππος) was a Greek runner from Megara who was famed as the first to run the footrace naked at the Olympic Games and "first of all Greeks to be crowned victor naked." Others argue that it was Acanthus instead who first introduced Greek athletic nudity. Orsippus won the stadion-race of the 15th Olympic Games in 720 BC.

Teles of Megara

Teles of Megara (Greek: Τέλης; fl. c. 235 BC), was a Cynic philosopher and teacher. He wrote various discourses (diatribes), seven fragments of which were preserved by Stobaeus.

Theognis of Megara

Theognis of Megara (Greek: Θέογνις ὁ Μεγαρεύς, Théognis ho Megareús) was a Greek lyric poet active in approximately the sixth century BC. The work attributed to him consists of gnomic poetry quite typical of the time, featuring ethical maxims and practical advice about life. He was the first Greek poet known to express concern over the eventual fate and survival of his own work and, along with Homer, Hesiod and the authors of the Homeric Hymns, he is among the earliest poets whose work has been preserved in a continuous manuscript tradition (the work of other archaic poets is preserved as scattered fragments). In fact more than half of the extant elegiac poetry of Greece before the Alexandrian period is included in the approximately 1,400 lines of verse attributed to him (though several poems traditionally attributed to him were composed by others, e.g. Solon, Euenos). Some of these verses inspired ancient commentators to value him as a moralist yet the entire corpus is valued today for its "warts and all" portrayal of aristocratic life in archaic Greece.The verses preserved under Theognis' name are written from the viewpoint of an aristocrat confronted by social and political revolution typical of Greek cities in the archaic period. Part of his work is addressed to Cyrnus, who is presented as his erōmenos. The author of the poems celebrated him in his verse and educated him in the aristocratic values of the time, yet Cyrnus came to symbolize much about his imperfect world that the poet bitterly resented:

In spite of such self-disclosures, almost nothing is known about Theognis the man: little is recorded by ancient sources and modern scholars question the authorship of most of the poems preserved under his name.

Trata (dance)

The Trata (Greek: Τράτα) is a traditional commemorative dance performed every two years in Megara in Attica, but also in the Aegean Islands.

The Trata in the Aegean Islands refers to a Syrtos dance done to the song Η τράτα μας η κουρελού. The dance is done at all social functions and gatherings. On the Island of Ikaria (North East Aegean) they dance it with specific movements in the chorus.

On the Tuesday following Easter in every alternate year, the women of Megara take part the traditional dance known as the Trata on the open space before the tiny church known as Saint John the Dancer. It is popularly believed to commemorate the building of this chapel during a single day during the years of Ottoman Greece.

The trata symbolizes the fishing.

The famous dance, the Trata, is said to celebrate their success of fishing, each day.However, folklorists note that the movements of this dance, which mimic the hauling in of fishing nets, seem to indicate that it is probably a very ancient dance, much older than the Ottoman period, and was originally performed to ensure success of the fishermen.

Vyzas F.C.

Vyzas F.C. (Greek: Α.Γ.Σ. Βύζας) is a football club based in Megara, Greece. It was founded in 1928.

Regional unit of Central Athens
Regional unit of North Athens
Regional unit of West Athens
Regional unit of South Athens
Regional unit of Piraeus
Regional unit of East Attica
Regional unit of West Attica
Regional unit of Islands
Subdivisions of the municipality of Megara
Municipal units

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