Meeting at Hendaye

The Meeting of Hendaye, or interview of Hendaye took place between Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler (at the time, Caudillo of Spain and Führer of Germany respectively).[1] It occurred on 23 October 1940 at the Hendaye railway station in Hendaye, France, near the Spanish-French border, attended by the Foreign Affairs ministers, Ramón Serrano Súñer of Spain and Joachim von Ribbentrop of Nazi Germany.

The object of the meeting was to attempt to resolve disagreements over the conditions for Spain to join the Axis Powers in their war against the British Empire. However, after seven hours of talks, the Spanish demands still appeared extortionate to Hitler: the handing over of Gibraltar once the UK was defeated; the cession of French Morocco and part of French Algeria; the attachment of French Cameroon to the Spanish colony of Guinea; and German supplies of food, petrol and arms to relieve the critical economic and military situation faced by Spain after the civil war. At this time, Hitler did not wish to disturb his relations with the Vichy French regime. The only concrete result was the signing of a secret agreement under which Franco was committed to entering the war at a date of his own choosing, while Hitler gave only vague guarantees that Spain would receive "territories in Africa". It is possible that Franco specifically asked for high demands in order for Hitler to not force Spain to join in the war effort.

Meeting at Hendaye
Hitler and Franco at the train station.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Hitler and Franco at Hendaye, the Whole Story", Actually Notes, 8 December 2016

Further reading

  • Paul Preston, Franco: a biography, Basic Books, 1994. ISBN 978-0465025152.
  • Jane Boyar and Burt Boyar, Hitler stopped by Franco, Marbella House, 2001 (review in Conservative Monitor, August 2001). ISBN 978-0971039209.
  • Stanley G. Payne, Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II, Yale University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0300122824.
Eberhard von Stohrer

Eberhard von Stohrer (May 2, 1883 – March 7, 1953) was a career German diplomat who served during World War I and World War II. The son of an Army General from Württemberg, he studied at Leipzig University, receiving a Doctor of Law degree. He also studied at the University of Strasbourg and the School of Political Sciences in Paris.

El ministerio del tiempo

El ministerio del tiempo (English title: The Ministry of Time) is a Spanish fantasy television series created by Javier and Pablo Olivares and produced by Onza Partners and Cliffhanger for Televisión Española. It premiered on 24 February 2015 on TVE's main channel La 1. The series follows the exploits of a patrol of the fictional Ministry of Time, which deals with incidents caused by time travel.

On 24 March 2015, it was confirmed that TVE had renewed the series for a second season. The show was renewed for a third season on 22 September 2016. On 29 December 2016 it was announced that RTVE had sold the rights to Netflix to broadcast the third series internationally, outside of Spain, resulting in a bigger production budget.At the Fun & Serious festival in December 2017, Javier Olivares reported that the show was not renewed for a fourth season. However, actor Jaime Blanch confirmed on December 30, 2018 about a new, fourth season being green lighted for broadcast sometime in 2019.

Fascism

Fascism () is a form of radical right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries. Opposed to liberalism, Marxism and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens.Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature and views political violence, war and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky (national economic self-sufficiency) through protectionist and interventionist economic policies.Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far-right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th-century fascist movements.

Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco Bahamonde (; Spanish: [fɾanˈθisʲko ˈfɾaŋko]; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as Head of State and dictator under the title Caudillo from 1939, after the nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975. This period in Spanish history is commonly known as Francoist Spain.

During the 1924–1930 dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Franco was promoted general at age 33, the youngest in Europe. As a conservative and a monarchist, Franco opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic secular republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative CEDA lost by a narrow margin, and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in launching a coup the same year, but failed to take control of most of the country and precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco became his faction's only leader. Franco gained military support from various authoritarian regimes and groups, especially Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, while the Republican side included Spanish communists and anarchists, with support from the Soviet Union, Mexico and the international volunteers. In 1939, Franco won the war, which had claimed almost half a million lives. He established a military dictatorship and proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title Caudillo. In April 1937, Franco merged the fascist and traditionalist political parties in the rebel zone (FE de las JONS and Traditionalist Communion), as well as other conservative and monarchist elements, into a single party: the FET y de las JONS. At the same time, he outlawed all other political parties, and thus Spain became a one-party state.

Upon his rise to power, Franco implemented policies that repressed political opponents and dissenters, whereby as many as between 60,000 and 400,000 died through the use of forced labor and executions in the concentration camps his regime operated. During World War II, he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy, but provided military support to the Axis in numerous ways. However, scholars consider Franco as conservative and authoritarian, rather than truly fascist. Historian Stanley G. Payne states, "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the Generalissimo to have been a core fascist."Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being openly totalitarian using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism and was allowed to join the UN. During the Cold War, Franco was one of the world's foremost anti-Communist figures: his regime was assisted by the West, and it was asked to join NATO. After chronic economic depression in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Franco presided over the Spanish miracle, abandoning autarky and pursuing economic liberalization, delegating authority to liberal ministers. The Francoist dictatorship gradually softened over time and in 1975, Franco died at the age of 82. He restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy.

Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (Spanish: España franquista), known in Spain as the Francoist dictatorship (Spanish: dictadura franquista), officially known as the Spanish State (Spanish: Estado Español) from 1936 to 1947 and the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España) from 1947 to 1975, is the period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain as dictator with the title Caudillo.

The nature of the regime evolved and changed during its existence. Months after the start of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936, Franco emerged as the single rebel military leader and was proclaimed Head of State on 1 October 1936, ruling a dictatorship over the territory controlled by the Nationalist faction. The 1937 Unification Decree merged all parties supporting the rebel side led to Nationalist Spain becoming a single-party regime under the FET y de las JONS. The end of the war in 1939 brought the extension of the Franco rule to the whole country and the exile of Republican institutions. The Francoist dictatorship originally took a form described as "fascistized dictatorship", or "semi-fascist regime", bringing a clear influence from Fascism in fields such as labor relations, the autarkic economic policy, aesthetics, or the single-party. As time went on the regime opened up and became closer to developmental dictatorships, although it always preserved residual fascist trappings.During the Second World War, Spain's entry in to the Axis alongside its supporters from the civil war, Italy and Germany, never came to be after Franco's demands for the war-torn country to join proved too much for the other members to accept. Spain nevertheless helped Germany and Italy in various ways while maintaining its neutrality. Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade after World War II and its autocratic economy, still trying to recover from the civil war, suffered from chronic depression.

Reforms were implemented in the 1950s and Spain abandoned autarky, delegating authority from the Falangist movement, which had been prone to isolationism, to a new breed of economists, the so-called technocrats of the Opus Dei. This led to massive economic growth, second only to Japan, that lasted until the mid-1970s, known as the "Spanish miracle". During the 1950s the regime also changed from being openly totalitarian and using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism. Spain joined the United Nations in 1955 and during the Cold War, Franco was one of the world's foremost anti-Communist figures: his regime was assisted by the West, and it was asked to join NATO. Franco died in 1975 at the age of 82. He restored the monarchy before his death, which made his successor King Juan Carlos I, who led the Spanish transition to democracy.

Gare d'Hendaye

The gare d'Hendaye is a railway station in Hendaye, France, on the Bordeaux-Irun and Madrid-Hendaye lines. The station is served by TGV high speed trains, Lunéa night trains, Intercités long distance and TER local services operated by the SNCF, Trenhotel and Arco services operated by RENFE, and EuskoTren services.

The Euskotren narrow gauge services operate from a station on the forecourt of the SNCF station, for which separate ticketing is required.

The station is a border railway station where all trains have to stop, as those coming from/going into Spain have to change gauge from 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge to 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) Iberian gauge. The electric pickup supply also changes here from 1500 V DC (overhead France) to 3000 V DC (overhead Spain). Between the stations of Hendaye and Irun, both track gauges run together.

List of Axis World War II conferences

Axis leaders met with each other and neutral representatives a number of times during the war.

Gestapo–NKVD conferencesGreater East Asia ConferenceMeeting at Hendaye

Neutral powers during World War II

The neutral powers were countries that remained neutral during World War II. Some of these countries had large colonies abroad or had great economic power. Spain had just been through its civil war, which ended on 1 April 1939 (five months prior to the Invasion of Poland)—a war that involved several countries that subsequently participated in World War II.

During World War II, the neutral powers took no official side, hoping to avoid attack. However, Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland all helped the Allies by supplying "voluntary" brigades to the United Kingdom, while Spain avoided the Allies in favor of the Axis. Ireland generally favoured the Allied side, as with the United States. The United States remained neutral until December 8, 1941, a day following the sneak attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor.

The Lateran Treaty between Italy and the Vatican, signed in 1929, required that the Pope maintain "perpetual neutrality in international relations"—making the Vatican City a neutral state.

Several countries suffered invasions in spite of their efforts to be neutral. These included Nazi Germany's invasion of Denmark and Norway on 9 April 1940—then Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg on 10 May 1940. On the same day, 10 May 1940, the British, having already invaded the Faroe Islands in April, invaded Iceland and established an occupying force (subsequently replaced by the then-neutral United States). In the Baltic states, the Soviet Union invaded Lithuania on 15 June 1940 and Latvia and Estonia on 17 June. In the Balkans, the Italo-Greek War began on 28 October 1940 and Yugoslavia was invaded in April 1941. Iran was also attacked and occupied by Britain and the Soviet Union in August 1941.

See also the histories of Afghanistan, Andorra, Guatemala, Liechtenstein, Saudi Arabia and Yemen during this period.

Responsibility for the Holocaust

Responsibility for the Holocaust is the subject of an ongoing historical debate that has spanned several decades. The debate about the origins of the Holocaust is known as functionalism versus intentionalism. Intentionalists such as Lucy Dawidowicz argue that Adolf Hitler planned the extermination of the Jewish people as early as 1918, and that he personally oversaw its execution. However, functionalists such as Raul Hilberg argue that the extermination plans evolved in stages, as a result of initiatives by bureaucrats who were responding to other policy failures. The debate has settled to a large degree as historians have conceded that both positions have merit.

The primary responsibility for the Holocaust rests on Hitler, and the Nazi Party leadership, but initiatives to persecute Jews, Gypsies, and others were also perpetrated by the Schutzstaffel (SS), the German military, ordinary German citizens as well as by collaborationist members of various European governments, including their military personnel and civilians alike. A host of factors contributed to the environment under which atrocities were committed across the continent, ranging from general racism (including antisemitism), religious hatred, blind obedience, political opportunism, coercion, profiteering, and xenophobia.

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