Meenakshi Temple (also referred to as Meenakshi Amman or Meenakshi-Sundareshwara Temple), is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is dedicated to Meenakshi, a form of Parvati, and her consort, Sundareshwar, a form of Shiva. The temple is at the center of the ancient temple city of Madurai mentioned in the Tamil Sangam literature, with the goddess temple mentioned in 6th century CE texts.
Location in Tamil Nadu
Meenakshi Temple (Tamil Nadu)
Though the temple has historic roots, most of the present campus structure was rebuilt after the 14th century CE, further repaired, renovated and expanded in the 17th century by Thirumalai Nayak. In the early 14th century, the armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the temple, looted it of its valuables and destroyed the Madurai temple town along with many other temple towns of South India. The contemporary temple is the result of rebuilding efforts started by the Vijayanagara Empire rulers who rebuilt the core and reopened the temple. In the 16th century, the temple complex was further expanded and fortified by the Nayak ruler Vishwanatha Nayakar and later others. The restored complex now houses 14 gopurams (gateway towers), ranging from 45–50m in height, with the southern gopura tallest at 51.9 metres (170 ft). The complex has numerous sculpted pillared halls such as Ayirakkal (1,000 pillar hall), Kilikoondu-mandapam, Golu-mandapam and Pudu-mandapam. Its shrines are dedicated to Hindu deities and Shaivism scholars, with the vimanas above the garbhagrihas (sanctums) of Meenakshi and Sundaresvara gilded with gold.
The temple is a major pilgrimage destination within the Shaivism tradition, dedicated to Meenakshi Devi and Shiva. However, the temple includes Vishnu in many narratives, sculptures and rituals as he is considered to be Meenakshi's brother. This has made this temple and Madurai as the "southern Mathura", one included in Vaishnava texts. The Meenakshi temple also includes Lakshmi, flute playing Krishna, Rukmini, Brahma, Saraswati, other Vedic and Puranic deities, as well as artwork showing narratives from major Hindu texts. The large temple complex is the most prominent landmark in Madurai and attracts tens of thousands visitors a day. The temple attracts over a million pilgrims and visitors during the annual 10-day Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival, celebrated with much festivities and a ratha (chariot) procession during the Tamil month of Chittirai (overlaps with April–May in Georgian calendar, Chaitra in North India). The Temple has been adjudged best ‘Swachh Iconic Place’ in India as on October 1, 2017 under Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi's Flagship Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
The Meenakshi temple is located in the heart of historic Madurai city, about a kilometer south of the Vaigai River. It is about 460 kilometres (290 mi) southwest from Chennai, the state capital. The temple complex is well connected with road network (four lane National Highway 38), near a major railway junction and an airport (IATA: IXM) with daily services. The city roads radiate from the temple complex and major ring roads form a concentric pattern for the city, a structure that follows the Silpa Sastra guidelines for a city design. Madurai is one of the many temple towns in the state which is named after the grooves, clusters or forests dominated by a particular variety of a tree or shrub and the same variety of tree or shrub sheltering the presiding deity. The region is believed to have been covered with Kadamba forest and hence called Kadambavanam.
Meenakshi (Sanskrit: मीनाक्षी, lit. 'Mīnākṣī', Tamil: மீனாட்சி, lit. 'Mīṉāṭci') is a Sanskrit term meaning "fish-eyed", derived from the words mina ("fish") and akshi ("eyes"). She was earlier known by the Tamil name Tadadakai ("fish-eyed one"), mentioned in early historical account as a fierce, unmarried and meat-eating goddess which was later sanskritised as Meenakshi. According to another theory, the name of the goddess literally means "rule of the fish", derived from the Tamil words meen (fish) and aatchi (rule). She is also known by the Tamil name "Angayarkanni" or "Ankayarkannammai" (literally, "the mother with the beautiful fish eyes").
The goddess Meenakshi is the principal deity of the temple, unlike most Shiva temples in South India where Shiva is the principal deity. According to a legend found in the Tamil text Tiruvilaiyatarpuranam, king Malayadwaja Pandya and his wife Kanchanamalai performed a Yajna seeking a son for succession. Instead a daughter is born who is already 3 year old and has three breasts. Shiva intervenes and says that the parents should treat her like a son, and when she meets her husband, she will lose the third breast. They follow the advice. The girl grows up, the king crowns her as the successor and when she meets Shiva, his words come true, she takes her true form of Meenakshi. According to Harman, this may reflect the matrilineal traditions in South India and the regional belief that "penultimate [spiritual] powers rest with the women", gods listen to their spouse, and that the fate of kingdoms rest with the women. According to Susan Bayly, the reverence for Meenakshi is a part of the Hindu goddess tradition that integrates with the Dravidian Hindu society where the "woman is the lynchpin of the system" of social relationships.
The marriage of Meenakshi and Shiva was the biggest event, with all gods, goddesses and living beings gathered. Vishnu is believed to be the brother of Meenakshi. Vishnu gives her away to Shiva at the wedding.
The town of Madurai is ancient and one mentioned in Sangam era texts. These are dated to be from the 1st to 4th century CE. Some early Tamil texts call Madurai as Koodal, and these portray it as a capital and a temple town where every street radiated from the temple. Goddess Meenakshi is described as the divine ruler, who along with Shiva were the primary deities that the southern Tamil kingdoms such as the Pandya dynasty revered. The early texts imply that a temple existed in Madurai by the mid 6th century. In medieval literature and inscriptions, it is sometimes referred to as Kadambavanam (lit. "forest of Kadamba") or Velliambalam (lit. "silver hall" where Shiva danced). It was described to be the sangam of scholars, or a place where scholars meet. It is mentioned in the Tamil text Tiruvilayadalpuranam and the Sanskrit text Halasya Mahatmya. It is one of the shrines of the 275 Paadal Petra Sthalams.
Early Tamil texts mention the temple and its primary deity by various epithets and names. Thirugnanasambandar, the famous Hindu saint of Saiva philosophy for example, mentioned this temple in the 7th century, and described the deity as Aalavai Iraivan. The origin of the temple is mentioned in these early Tamil texts, some in the regional Puranam genre of literature. All of these place the temple in ancient times and include a warrior goddess, but the details vary significantly and are inconsistent with each other. Some link to it deities they call Alavai Iraivan and Alavai Annal, or alternatively Angayar Kanni Ammai. Some link its legend to other deities such as Indra who proclaims the primacy of the goddess, while some describe Hindu gods appearing before ancient kings or saints urging wealthy merchants to build this temple in the honor of a goddess. One legend describes a childless king and queen performing yajna for a son, they get a daughter who inherits the kingdom, conquers the earth, meets Shiva ultimately, marries him, continues to rule from Madurai, and the temple memorializes those times. Instead of such inconsistent ahistorical mythologies, scholars have attempted to determine the history of the temple from inscriptions found in and outside Madurai, as well as comparing the records relating to South Indian dynasties. These largely post-date the 12th century.
In the north, the Indian subcontinent had been conquered by the Delhi Sultanate. Muslim armies had begun raiding central India for plunder by the late 13th century. Between 1310–1311, the Ala ud Din Khilji's Muslim general Malik Kafur and his Delhi Sultanate forces went deeper into the Indian peninsula for loot and to establish annual tribute paying Muslim governors. The records left by the court historians of the Delhi Sultanate state that Malik Kafur raided Madurai, Chidambaram, Srirangam and other Tamil towns, destroyed the temples, and they were the sources of gold and jewels booty he brought back to Delhi.
The Islamic invasion in the 14th century, states George Michell – a professor and art historian of Indian architecture, brought an abrupt end to the patronage of Tamil Hindu temple towns. The Tamil Hindus revived these towns but in some places such as Madurai, it took a long while. After the conquest and destruction, the Delhi Sultan appointed a Muslim governor in Madurai, who seceded within the few years from the Delhi Sultanate and began the Madurai Sultanate. This Sultanate sought tribute from the temple towns, instead of supporting them. The Muslim Madurai Sultanate was relatively short-lived, with Hindu Vijayanagar Empire removing it in the late 14th century. According to one poetic legend called Madhura Vijayam attributed to Ganga Devi, the wife of Kumara Kampana, she gave him a sword, urged him to liberate Madurai, right the vast wrongs, and reopen the Meenakshi temple out of its ruins. The Vijayanagara rulers succeeded, removed the ruins and reopened the temple for active worship. They restored, repaired and expanded the temple through the 16th century, along with many other regional temples.
The temple was rebuilt by the Hindu Nayaka dynasty ruler Vishwanatha Nayak in the 16th and 17th century. According to Susan Lewandowski, the Nayaka rulers followed the Hindu texts on architecture called the Shilpa Shastras in redesigning the temple city plan and the Meenakshi temple. The city was laid out, states Lewandowski, in the shape of concentric squares and ring-roads around them, with radiating streets culminating in the Meenakshi-Sundaresvara temple. These streets use traditional Tamil Hindu month names, such as Adhi, Chitrai, Avani-moola, Masi and others. In each of these months, the Hindus started their tradition of taking the temple bronzes festively through the street of the same name. The temple and the city was once again east facing to greet the rising Surya (sun god).[note 1] The temple city grew again around the new temple, with human settlements structured along their castes, according to Lewandowski, with the royalty, Kshatriyas and Vaishya merchants lived on the southeast side of the temple, the Brahmins in a special quarter close to the temple, while others in other areas and fringes of the city. The king started a procession tradition linked to the temple to link his authority with the divine and maintain the social system. In contrast, according to Bayly, the procession reflects the traditional matrilineal social values, the brother-sister-groom kinship values that better explain its popularity. The warrior goddess worship tradition is ancient in the Tamil Hindu tradition, states Bayly, and it dramatically expanded after the 14th-century wars.
The work completed by Vishwanatha Nayaka in 1560 was substantially expanded to the current structure during the reign of Tirumala Nayaka (1623–55). Tirumala Nayaka, a Telugu-origin Hindu king, took considerable interest in erecting many complexes inside the temple. His major contributions are the Vasantha Mandapam for celebrating Vasanthotsavam (spring festival) and Kilikoondu Mandapam (corridor of parrots). The corridors of the temple tank and Meenatchi Nayakar Mandapam were built by Rani Mangammal. The initiative for some changes to the structure was under the supervision of Ariyanatha Mudaliar, the prime minister of the Nayaka Dynasty.
During the colonial era, the population around the Meenakshi temple attracted a hub of Christian missionary activity headed by competing missions from Portugal and other parts of Europe. The British rulers first gave endowments to the temple and the British troops participated in temple festivities to gain socio-political acceptance. Lord Clive, for example, donated jewels looted by the East India Company from Sringapatam, but in 1820 they withdrew from their roles as temple patrons and participating in temple festivities. The missionaries ridiculed the temple artwork and criticized the temple practices while introducing themselves as "Roman Brahmins" and "Northern Sanniasis" [sic]. The missionary efforts were largely unsuccessful with people continuing to patronize the temple after baptizing. The missionaries wrote back that the Tamils were "baptizing, but not converting", for they baptize if "someone wants a wife who is Christian" or medical aid when they have a disease, material aid if they are poor.
After the end of the Nayakas, start of the Madras presidency and withdrawal of the colonial British from support, the temple condition degraded. In 1959, Tamil Hindus began collecting donations and initiated restoration work in consultation with engineers, Hindu monasteries, historians and other scholars. The completed restoration was celebrated with a Kumbhabhishekam in 1995. The temple is sometimes spelled as Minaksi and the city as Madura in 17th to early 20th-century texts.
The temple has its traditional version of history that it calls Shiva-lilas (sports of Shiva), and sixty four of these episodes are painted as murals around the temple walls. These depict the many destructions of Madurai and the temple, then its rise from the ashes and ruins of the destruction every time.
The temple complex is the center of the old city of Madurai. It consists of monuments inside a number of concentric enclosures, each layer fortified with high masonry walls. The outer walls have four towering gateways, allowing devotees and pilgrims to enter the complex from all four directions. After the city's destruction in the 14th century, the Tamil tradition states that the king Vishwantha Nayaka rebuilt the temple and the Madurai city around it in accordance with the principles laid down in the Shilpa Shastras (Sanskrit: śilpa śāstra. The city plan is based on concentric squares with streets radiating out from the temple. Early Tamil texts mention that the temple was the center of the city and the streets happened to be radiating out like a lotus and its petals. The temple prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elaborate festival calendar in which processions circumambulate the temple complex. The vehicles used in the processions are progressively more massive the further they travel from the centre.
The temple complex is spread over about 14 acres (5.7 ha). The courtyard is close to a square with each side of about 800 feet, but more accurately a rectangle with one side about 50 feet longer. The complex has numerous shrines and mandapas, of which the most important and largest are the two parallel shrines in the innermost courtyard, one for Meenakshi (B on the plan) and other for Sundareshvara (A). Additionally, the complex has a golden lotus sacred pool (L) for pilgrims to bathe in, a thousand pillar hall choultry with extensive sculpture (Q), the kalyana mandapa or wedding hall, many small shrines for Hindu deities and for scholars from the sangam (academy) history, buildings which are religious schools and administrative offices, elephant sheds, equipment sheds such as those for holding the chariots used for periodic processions and some gardens. The temple is embedded inside a commercial hub and traditional markets.
According to Holly Reynolds, a closer examination of the temple plan, as well as the old city, suggests that it is mandala, a cosmic diagram laid out based on principles of symmetry and loci.
The temple complex has had a living history, has been in use for almost all of its history except for about 60 years when it was closed and in ruins after its destruction in the 14th century. The temple has continued to evolve in the modern era. For example, before the colonial era, the temple complex was itself inside another layer of old city’s fortified walls. The British demolished this layer of fortification in the early 19th century. The surviving plan of the temple complex places it within the old city, one defined by a set of concentric squares around the temple.
The ancient temple complex was open. The courtyard walls were added over time in response to invasion and the plunder of the temple complex. According to the text Thirupanimalai, the Vijayanagara commander Kumara Kampana after completing his conquest of Madurai, rebuilt the pre-existing structure and built defensive walls around the temple in the 14th century. Lakana Nayakar added the defensive walls around the first prakara (courtyard), as well as expanded and renovated the Mahamandapa and Meenakshi shrine about the middle of the 15th century.
After the destruction of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire in the late 16th century by a coalition of Islamic Deccan sultanates north of Karnataka, the Madurai region declared its sovereignty. Visvanatha Nayak then poured resources to heavily fortify the temple complex, set a new plan for the temple complex. The Nayaka ruler also gilded the vimana of the primary shrines with gold. Chettiappa Nayakkar rebuilt the Dvarapala mandapam in front of the Sannadhi gopuram, as well as the north colonnade of the Golden Lotus Tank, the second protective wall around the Meenakshi Devi's shrine.
The shrines of Meenakshi temple are embedded inside three walled enclosures and each of these have four gateways, the outer tower growing larger and reaching higher to the corresponding inner one. The temple has 14 gopurams, the tallest of which is southern tower, rises to over 170 ft (52 m) and was rebuilt in the late 16th century. The oldest gopuram is the eastern one (I on plan), built by Maravarman Sundara Pandyan during 1216-1238 Each gopuram is a multi-storeyed structure, covered with sculpture painted in bright hues. The outer gopurams are high pyramidal tower serving as a landmark sign for arriving pilgrims, while the inner gopuram are smaller and serve as the entrance gateways to various shrines.
The temple complex has 4 nine-storey gopurams (outer, raja), 1 seven-storey gopuram (Chittirai), 5 five-storey gopurams, 2 three-storey, and 2 one-storey gold-gilded sanctum towers. Of these five are gateways to the Sundareshvara shrine, three to the Meenakshi shrine. The towers are covered with stucco images, some of whom are deity figures and others are figures from Hindu mythology, saints or scholars. Each group or sets of panels in each storey present an episode from regional or pan-Hindu legend. The four tallest gopurams on the outer walls alone depict nearly 4,000 mythological stories.
The south gopuram is the tallest and curvilinear (above: inner and outerviews). The colorful sculptures narrate legendary scenes from Hindu texts.
The Meenakshi temple has two separate shrines for the goddess Meenakshi (Parvati, Devi, Amman) and god Sundaresvara (Shiva, Deva, Cuvami), just like most Shaiva temples. Both open to the east. The Devi shrine is on the south side (B), while the Deva shrine is more centrally placed, to the north (A), thus placing the goddess as the pradhana murti or the "more important" right side within the complex, states Fuller.
The goddess shrine has the green stone image of Meenakshi, standing in bent-leg posture. Her raised hand holds a lotus, on which sits a green parrot. Her left hand hangs by her side. This image is set in a square garbha griya (central sanctum). A copy of this image has been made from metal and is kept in the temple complex. The metal version is used for a festive procession. A distinct feature of Meenakshi in terms of iconography is the presence of parrot in her right hand. The parrot is generally associated with the Vaishnava azhwar saint Andal. The Sundareswarar shrine has a stone linga in its square plan sanctum, and this anicon is shaded under a stone cobra hood. In the northeast corner is another stone image of his consort. None of these travel during a festive procession. Rather, Sundareswarar is represented in the form of anthropomorphic Somaskanda image. There is another metal symbolic image of Shiva called the Cokkar, which is merely a pair of embossed feet on a metal stool. This symbol is kept near Sundareswarar sanctum all day, then carried in a palaki daily to Meenakshi's chamber every evening so that the two can symbolically spend the night together. In the morning, the temple volunteers wake the divine couple and the symbolic Cokkar image is carried back to the Sundareswarar sanctum.
The shrine for Sundareswarar[note 2] is the largest within the complex and its entrance is aligned with the eastern gopuram. The shrine for Meenakshi is smaller, though theologically more important. Both the Meenakshi and Sundareswarar shrines have gold plated Vimanam (tower over sanctum). The golden top can be seen from a great distance in the west through the apertures of two successive towers. The tall sculpture of Ganesh carved of single stone located outside the Sundareswarar shrine in the path from Meenashi shrine is called the Mukuruny Vinayakar. A large measure of rice measuring 3 kurini (a measure) is shaped into a big ball of sacrifice and hence the Ganesh is called Mukkurni Vinayagar (three kurinis).
Kumara Kampana, states the Thirupanimalai text, donated jewels and made grants to cover the expenses for daily operations of the two shrines in the 14th century. The Tamil Hindus who had hidden the temple idols in Nanjil Nadu, brought them back and reconsecrated them ending the nearly five decades era when the temple had been closed under the Madurai Sultanate rule. The temple inscriptions suggest that the Vijayanagara rulers participated worship ceremonies in the temple and donated gold, through the 16th century. Lakana Nayakar built the Paliarai (bed chamber) in the mid 15th century for the icon goddess and god to symbolically spend their night together. The Nataraja shrine was also added in the 15th century by Arulalan Sevahadevan Vanathirayan, who also renovated the Thiruvalavaudaiyar shrine.
The temple has other shrines, such as for Murugan in the northwest corner of the second courtyard. It was built by Krishnappa Nayakar II. A tall, monolithic Ganesha sculpture with a large rice ball, locally called the Mukuruny Vinayakar, is carved on the way between the Meenakshi shrine and the Sundareshwarar shrine, reflecting the legend that gave him the elephant head.
The Nayakas, who were the local governors for the Vijayanagara rulers, expanded the temple complex. In 1516, Saluvanarasana Nayaka added the sacred pool for pilgrims to take a dip, naming it Ezhukadal (seven seas, Saptasaharam). Chettiappa Nayakkar rebuilt the north colonnade of the Golden Lotus Tank, as well as Dvarapala mandapam in front of the Sannadhi gopuram.
The sacred temple tank is called Porthamarai Kulam ("Pond with the golden lotus"). It is also referred to as Adhi Theertham, Sivaganga and Uthama Theertham. The pool is 165 ft (50 m) by 120 ft (37 m) in size. The pool walls were painted with frescoes. Only a fraction of 17th and 18th-century paintings of Nayak period survives and one such portion is found in the small portico on the western side of the tank. It depicts the marriage of Sundareswarar and Meenkashi attended by Vijayaranga Chokkanatha and Rani Mangammal. The painting is executed on a vivid red background, with delicate black linework and large areas of white, green and ochre. The celestial couple is seated inside an architectural frame with a flowering tree in the background.
The small six pillared swing mandapam (Unjal) was built by Cheventhi Murthi Chetti during this period, and this remains in use currently for a Friday ritual and it also houses the model of the entire temple complex created in 1985.
The temple complex has many mandapas (pillared-halls) built by kings and wealthy patrons over the centuries. They are choultry, or a place for the pilgrims to rest. Some of these mandapas include:
The mandapas also feature community gathering halls. The Kanaka Sabha and Ratna Sabha are in the first prahara, Rajata Sabha in Velliambalam, Deva Sabha in the 100 pillar mandapam and Chitra Sabha in the 1000 pillar mandapam.
The Meenakshi Temple is a theologically and culturally significant temple for Hindus. Professor Christopher Fuller signifies that through the wedding of Meenakshi and Sundaresvara the "supremely important rite of passage" for women, the cultural concept of "sumangali" or "auspicious married woman" who lives with her husband but is also independent, organizer of the social connections and who is central to Tamilian life. The marriage of the goddess and god is a symbolic paradigm for human marriage. This event is commemorated with an annual festive procession that falls sometime around April. The temple is also significant because it implies an affinal, protective relationship between Shaivism and Vaishnavism traditions of Hinduism, by making Shiva the husband of Meenakshi, and Vishnu her brother, a significant relationship in Dravidian kinship system. Meenakshi herself is a central part of the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, and represented as the dominant figure of the pair in this temple. The temple thus symbolically celebrates all three of its major traditions.
According to the Tiruvilaiyatal Puranam, of the list of 68 pilgrimage places in Shaivism, four are most important: Kashi (Varanasi), Chidambaram, Tirukkalatti and Madurai. The sacrality of Madurai is from this temple. The shrine of Sundareswarar is considered as one of the Pancha Sabhai (five courts), where the Tamil Hindu tradition believes Shiva performed cosmic dance. The Tamil word velli means silver and ambalam means stage or altar. This massive Nataraja sculpture is enclosed in a huge silver altar and hence called "Velli Ambalam" (silver abode).
The temple is a popular site for Hindu weddings, though it is not the exclusive site. The short main ceremony is completed in the temple, followed by receptions and other rituals elsewhere.
The Meenakshi temple is not only a religious center, but is also an economic center. The goods and services for temple-related pilgrims and visitors is a significant part of the Madurai economy.
The Meenakshi Amman temple is an active house of Hindu worship. Priests perform the puja ceremonies on a daily basis and during festivals. Volunteers and temple staff also participate in daily rituals, such as symbolically moving an icon of Sundaresvara in a palanquin to Meenakshi's chamber every night so that they can be together, then waking the two and returning Sundaresvara to his shrine every morning. There are periodic ratha (chariot) processions where one of the metal copy icon of the goddess is taken out of the temple in an elaborate car shrine decorated with colorful clothes and flowers, with volunteers pulling the car through the streets of Madurai and circumambulating the temple complex on one of the concentric roads in the old city. This symbolizes her mythical conquests and her presence in the secular life of the people.
The temple has a six time pooja calendar everyday, each comprising four rituals namely abhisheka (sacred bath), alangaram (decoration), neivethanam (food offerings[note 3]) and deepa aradanai (lamp ceremony) for both Meenakshi and Sundareswarar. The rituals and festivals are accompanied with music with nadhaswaram (pipe instrument) and tavil (percussion instrument), recitation of the Vedas.
The Hindus generally circumambulate the shrines clockwise first before entering the shrine for a darshana. Meenakshi is typically visited before Sundareswarar by the pilgrims, she considered the primary deity of the complex. Like most Shakti temples in Tamil Nadu, the Fridays during the Tamil months of Aadi (July–August) and Thai (January–February) are celebrated in the temple by thousands of devotees. "Avani Moola Utsavam" is a 10-day festival mainly devoted to Sundareswarar describes his various Thiruvilayadal meaning Shiva's sacred games.
The Meenakshi temple hosts a festival in each month of the Tamil calendar. Some festivals attract significant participation, with the Meenakshi wedding-related festival attracting over a million people over 12 days. It is called the "Meenakshi Thirukalyanam". The festival is celebrated in the Chithirai month, which typically falls about April. It marks the divine marriage of Meenakshi, and is the most attended festival. The wedding of the divine couple is regarded as a classic instance of south Indian marriage with matrilineal emphasis, an arrangement referred as "Madurai marriage". This contrasts with the "Chidambaram marriage", with patrilineal emphasis, reflected by Shiva's dominance, ritual and mythology at the Shiva temple of Chidhambaram. The festival includes a procession, where Meenakshi and Sundareshwara travel in a chariot pulled by volunteer devotees, and Vishnu gives away his sister in marriage to Shiva. Meenakshi, the bride, is the royal monarch. During the one-month period, there are a number of events including the "Ther Thiruvizhah" (chariot festival) and "Theppa Thiruvizhah" (float festival).
Other festivals include the Vasantham festival is celebrated in Vaikasi month. The Unjal Festival in Aani, the Mulai-Kottu festival in Aadi, the Aavani Moolam Aavani, the Kolattam festivals of Ayppasi and Karthikai months, the Arudhra Dharsan festival of Margali month, the Thai month utsavam that co-celebrated with the Mariyamman temple in Madurai, the Masi utsavam and Vasamtham utsavam in Panguni.
In the Tamil month of Purattasi, the temple celebrates the Navarathri festival, also known as Dasara or Dussehra elsewhere. During this autumn festival, the temple complex is lit up at night with garlands of lights and with colourful displays during the day. The mandapam halls display mythological scenes from Hindu texts using golu dolls. These displays are particularly popular with children, and families visit the displays in large numbers.
Over the centuries, the temple has been a centre of education of culture, literature, art, music and dance.
Kumaraguruparar, a 17th-century Tamil poet, composed Meenakshi Pillaitamil in praise of presiding deity of this temple. King Tirumalai Nayak's patronage of the poet Kumaraguruparar has an important place in the history of pillaitamil (a genre of Tamil literature). Kumaraguruparar visited a lot of temples and when he visited this temple, he composed Meenakshi pillaitamil dedicated to the goddess Meenakshi.
Shyama Shastri, one of the Trinity of Carnatic music, had composed a set of nine Telugu songs in praise of Meenakshi of Madurai, which are referred to as Navaratnamalika(Garland of nine gems). According to legend, when Sastri sang these songs infront of presiding deity, the goddess had responded visibly.
A. Vaidyanatha Iyer (1890–1955), also known as Madurai Vaidyanatha Iyer or Ayyar was an Indian activist, politician and freedom-fighter who spearheaded the temple entry movement in Madras Presidency in 1939.Ariyanatha Mudaliar
Ariyanatha Mudaliar was the Delavoy (General) and the Chief Minister of the greatest of the Nayaka domains established by the Vijayanagar viceroy and later ruler of Madurai, Viswanatha Nayak (1529–64). He is renowned as the founder of the quasi-feudal organisation of regions called poligar or the palayakkarar system where the regions are divided into palayams (small principalities) and are independently governed by poligars or palayakkarars (petty chiefs).
Mudaliar enjoyed a cult status in southern Tamil Nadu and became a tutelary patron figure amongst some of the region's cattle-keeping predator groups.The Aiyaram Kaal Mandapam, or Thousand Pillared Hall, in the famous Meenakshi Temple was constructed by him in 1569. There is a statue of him at the entrance.Golu
Golu is the festive display of dolls and figurines in South India during the autumn festive season, particularly around the multiday Navaratri (Dussehra, Dasara) festival of Hinduism. These displays are typically thematic, narrating a legend from a Hindu text or a secular cultural issue. They are also known as Kolu, Gombe Habba, Bommai Kolu or Bommala Koluvu.Each displayed item in a golu display is sometimes called golu doll or equivalent. These are typically made by rural artisans from clay and local materials then brightly painted. They are generally arranged in an odd number of padis (tiers) to tell a story. Goddess-related themes are common, along with developments such as anticipated wedding within the family and of friends. During the golu display season, families visit each other with gifts to view and chit-chat over the golu display, share festive foods, and sometimes play music or sing devotional songs together. Major Hindu temples such as the Meenakshi temple arrange elaborate golu displays each year for Navaratri. Golu displays are particularly popular in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, and among their diaspora communities.History of Madurai
Madurai is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District and a popular Hindu pilgrimage centre.Impalement of the Jains in Madurai
The impalement of the Jains is an alleged 7th-century event, first mentioned in an 11th-century Tamil language text of Nambiyandar Nambi. According to this text, the 7th-century Shaivite saint Sambandar defeated a group of Jain monks in a series of debates and contests on philosophy, and thereby converted a Jain Pandyan king to Shaivism. The episode ended with the impalement of 8,000 Jains. According to the one version of the legend, the newly converted king ordered the Jains to be massacred at Sambandar's instigation; according to another version, the Jains voluntarily impaled themselves in order to fulfill their vow after losing the debate. The Pandyan king, variously called "Koon Pandiyan" or "Sundara Pandyan" in the legend is identified with the 7th century ruler Arikesari Maravarman. The site of the event is identified as Samanatham.
Scholars question whether this story is a fiction created in the 11th-century, or reflects an actual massacre. This event is not mentioned in texts of Sambandar, nor any other texts for four centuries. After Nambiyandar's work, the story appears in many inconsistent versions in various Hindu texts. The Jain sources do not mention the legend, and there is no historical evidence of the event having taken place. Parallel mythical stories in 11th and 12th-century texts allege persecution of Shaiva Nayanar saints by Jains. Thus, the myth appears to have been invented by the Shaivites to prove their superiority over the Jains.Kamakshi Amman Temple
The Kamakshi Temple is an ancient Hindu Temple dedicated to Kamakshi, the ultimate form of Goddess Lalitha Maha Tripurasundari(Parvati). It is located in the historic city of Kanchipuram, near Chennai, India. The Meenakshi Temple in Madurai, the Akilandeswari temple in Thiruvanaikaval near Tiruchirappalli and this Kamakshi temple are the important centers of worship of Goddess, in the state of Tamil Nadu. The Temple was most probably built by the Pallava kings, whose capital was Kanchipuram.
The Image of the main Deity, Kamakshi, is seated in a majestic Padmasana, a yogic posture signifying peace and prosperity, instead of the traditional standing pose. Goddess holds a sugarcane bow and bunch of five flowers in the lower two of her arms and has a pasha (lasso), an ankusha (goad) in her upper two arms. There is also a parrot perched near the flower bunch. There are no other Goddesss temples in the city of Kanchipuram, apart from this temple, which is unusual in a traditional city that has hundreds of traditional temples. There are various legends that account for this fact.
Adi Shankaracharya, the famous 8th century CE scholar and saint, re-established the Sri Chakra in this Kamakshi Devi temple in the trough-like structure in that shrine.Kanjirappally
Kanjirappally is a taluk and a town in Kottayam district situated about 38 km (24 mi) away from the district capital, in the state of Kerala, India. National Highway (old NH 220 Kollam - Theni now NH 183) connects Kanjirapally to major nearest cities. Kanjirappally, also known as the Gateway of Highrange since it is the geographic entrance to the 'Malanad' or the Hill country of Kerala, which extends to Idukki district and then to Tamil Nadu. Kanjirapally is one of the most busiest towns in kottayam district. It is a part of the Palai city metro. A new airport has been proposed which is near to kanjirapally in Erumeli.Kazimar Big Mosque
Kazimar Periya Pallivasal or Kazimar Big Mosque is the oldest mosque in Madurai city, Tamil Nadu, India constructed in the year 1284AD (Hijri 683) and continues to be in existence for more than 7 centuries till today. The mosque was founded by Kazi Syed Tajuddin, a descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who came from Yemen during 13th century and received this land from the King Kulasekara Ku(n) Pandiyan. The mosque which was the first Muslim place of worship in Madurai.
The mosque was managed by Syed Tajuddin during his life time followed by his children and descendants hereditarily for more than 7 centuries till today. Almost all of Kazi Syed Tajuddin's descendants (Huqdars of this mosque called as Syeds) have lived in the same locality (Kazimar street) for more than 700 years, and have managed the mosque since then.
The mosque, which can accommodate about 1,200 people, is within 500 metres of the Periyar (central) bus stand, within one kilometre southeast of Madurai Junction railway station and 1.5 km southwest of the Meenakshi Temple.Kumara Kampana
Kumara Kampana, also known as Kampana Udaiyar, was an army commander and the prince in the Vijayanagar Empire. He was the son of king Bukka I. Kumara Kampana led the successful invasion of the Madurai Sultanate. His exploits form the subject of the Sanskrit epic poem Madhura Vijayam written by his wife Gangadevi.According to the poetic legend, it was Ganga Devi who gave Kumara Kampana the goddess' sword to fight and liberate Madurai from the Sultanate, reopen the Meenakshi Temple, and "to undertake the righting of vast wrongs", states William Jackson.Madurai
Madurai is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the cultural capital of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Madurai District, the third largest city in Tamil Nadu and 25th most populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia.
Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300 BC are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India in Manalur. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pandyas, Cholas, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Carnatic kingdom, and the British East India Company British Raj.
The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi Amman Temple and Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent. Madurai is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubber, chemical and granite manufacturing industries.Madurai has important government educational institutes such as the Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College, Madurai Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Madurai city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. The city covers an area of 147.97 km2 and had a population of 1,561,129 in 2011. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court. The Madurai Bench has been functioning since 2004.Madurai Nayak dynasty
The Madurai Nayaks were Telugu rulers from around 1529 until 1736, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, and inauguration of a unique architectural style.
The dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Tirumala Nayaka, and the queen, Rani Mangammal. Foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portuguese, as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region.Meenakshi
Meenakshi (also known as Meenatchi and Tadadakai), is a Hindu goddess and tutelary deity of Madurai who is considered an avatar of the Goddess Parvati. She is the divine consort of Sundareswarar, a form of Shiva. She finds mention in literatures as the princess or queen of the ancient Pandya kingdom who elevates to godhood. The goddess is also extolled by Adi Shankara as Shri Vidya.She is mainly worshipped in South India where she has a major temple devoted to her known as the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai, Tamil Nadu.Meenakshi Vilasam Government Vocational Higher Secondary School
Meenakshi Vilasam Government Vocational Higher Secondary School (MVGVHSS) (മലയാളം: മീനാക്ഷി വിലാസം ജി.വി.എച്ച്.എസ്.എസ്) is a school located in Punthalathazham, India. When it was first established in 1944, the school was situated near Sree Meenakshi Temple and named Kalluvilla Private School. Kunjan Pillai was the manager and headmaster.
The school was later relocated to near Peroor Meenakshi Temple. Since then, it has been known as Meenakshi Vilasam School. In 1947, the school came under the control of the Kerala government, and 19 years later it was promoted to a high school. In 1974, the school was divided into primary and high school. Starting in 1993, MVGVHSS offered vocational education, and in 2000, non-vocational higher secondary education was introduced.Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Tirunelveli, a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Shiva is worshipped as Nellaiappar (also called Venuvananathar) represented by the lingam and his consort Parvati is depicted as Kanthimathi Amman. The temple is located on the northern banks of Thamirabarani River in Tirunelveli district. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanmars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
The temple complex covers an area of fourteen and a half acres and all its shrines are enclosed with concentric rectangular walls. The temple has a number of shrines, with those of Swamy Nellaiappar and his consort Sri Kanthimathi Ambal being the most prominent.
The temple has three six rituals at various times from 6:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., and six yearly festivals on its calendar. Brahmotsavam festival during the Tamil month of Aani (June–July) is the most prominent festival celebrated in the temple.
The original complex is believed to have been built by Pandyas, while the present masonry structure was added by Cholas, Pallavas, Cheras, Nayaks(Madurai Nayaks). In modern times, the temple is maintained and adminIstered by the Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Department of the Government of Tamil Nadu.Palliyarai
Palliyarai is a Tamil word used for the Sanctum Sanctoram in Hindu temples, the equivalent of garbhagriha in Sanscritic or Indo-Aryan languages. It generally means the place for divine resting and is considered very holy by the Hindus. In many traditional Hindu temples, during the final pooja (prayer) of the day, the goddess is typically escorted to the residing place of her divine husband, and this generally happens around 9 PM in many temples. For example, in Meenakshi temple in Madurai and ChidambaramThis event receives thousands of devotees everyday, and would include a procession by the deities around the inner corridors of the temple with great pomp and music. The first prayer of the day, when the gates of the Lord are opened, is generally called the "Thirupalliezhuchi" (meaning, waking up from divine rest) and is celebrated elaborately in Vishnu temples like Srirangam and Tirupathi. In some of the temples, a mirror is also placed behind the main deity.Puduvayal
Puduvayal is a town in Karaikudi taluk, Sivaganga district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a town located in the Chettinad region of the Sivagangai district. On road, it is 12 km away from Karaikudi and 21 km away from Aranthangi. This town is famous for its rice mills. Puduvayal is the 2nd largest rice producer in Tamil Nadu. Puduvayal is an important commercial centre for trade in the Sivaganga district and part of the suburban region of Karaikudi. The town is famous for its Veerasekara Umaiyambigai Temple (Sakkottai area). Nearby Kandanur is famous for Kandanur Sivan Kovil--which is a replica of the Madurai Meenakshi Temple--built by Nagarthars.Punthalathazham
Punthalathazham (പുന്തലത്താഴം)[Geography: 8°53'43"N 76°38'21"E] is a landlocked neighbourhood of the city of Kollam in the Indian state of Kerala. It is located around six kilometres east of the core Kollam (Quilon) city towards Kannanalloor (on Kollam-Kannanalloor-Ayoor road).
This place has a little geographical importance and serves as the tail boundary of Kollam Municipal Corporation.
Inhabitants belong to working and middle classes.Sri Sacchidananda Bharati I
Sacchidananda Bharati I (Tamil: ஸ்ரீ ஸச்சிதாநந்த பாரதீ - 1, Devanāgarī: श्रीसच्चिदानन्द भारती - 1),
was a Hindu sant and religious leader of the 17th century. He was the Jagadguru (literally worldwide spiritual master, sometimes translated "pontiff") of the Hindu matha (monastic or similar religious establishment) Sringeri Sharada Peetham from 1623 to 1663, and is believed to have saved it from attack by spiritual means.Vimana (architectural feature)
Vimana is the structure over the garbhagriha or inner sanctum in the Hindu temples of South India and Odisha in East India. In typical temples of Odisha using the Kalinga style of architecture, the Vimana is the tallest structure of the temple, as it is in the shikhara towers of temples in West and North India. By contrast, in large South Indian temples, it is typically smaller than the great gatehouses or gopuram, which are the most immediately striking architectural elements in a temple complex. A vimana is usually shaped as a pyramid, consisting of several stories or talas. Vimanas are divided in two groups: jati vimanas that have up to four talas and mukhya vimanas that have five talas and more.In North Indian temple architecture texts, the superstructure over the garbhagriha is called a 'shikhara'. However, in South Indian Hindu architecture texts, the term shikhara means a dome-shaped crowning cap above the Vimana.
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