MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine. The service provides curated consumer health information in English and Spanish. The site brings together information from the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), other U.S. government agencies, and health-related organizations. There is also a site optimized for display on mobile devices, in both English and Spanish. In 2015, about 400 million people from around the world used MedlinePlus. The service is funded by the NLM and is free to users.
MedlinePlus provides encyclopedic information on health and drug issues, and provides a directory of medical services. MedlinePlus Connect links patients or providers in electronic health record (EHR) systems to related MedlinePlus information on conditions or medications.
PubMed Health is another NLM site that offers consumer health information, in addition to information for health professionals.
The National Library of Medicine has long provided programs and services for professional medical scientists and health care providers, including MEDLINE and the various services that access it, such as PubMed and Entrez. By the 1990s, more members of the general public were using these services as Internet access became widespread. But nonprofessional users could benefit from reliable health information in a layperson-accessible format. The National Library of Medicine introduced MedlinePlus in October 1998, to provide a non-commercial online service similar, for example, to the commercial WebMD. In 2010 another NCBI service, PubMed Health, complemented MedlinePlus in offering curated consumer health information; PubMed Health focuses especially on finding information about clinical effectiveness of treatments.
MedlinePlus initially provided 22 health topics in English, which expanded to almost 1000 health topics in English and Spanish, plus links to health information in over 40 languages. MedlinePlus was recognized by the Medical Library Association for its role in providing health information. The site scored 84 in the American Customer Satisfaction Index for 2010.
In 2000s, A.D.A.M.'s medical encyclopedia was incorporated into MedlinePlus. The "Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine, Inc." is a NASDAQ-traded public company based in Atlanta, Georgia, that provides consumer health information and benefits technology products to healthcare organizations, employers, consumers, and educational institutions.
Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries. This process gradually restricts the blood flow to one's organs and tissues and can lead to severe health risks brought on by atherosclerosis, which is a specific form of arteriosclerosis caused by the buildup of fatty plaques, cholesterol, and some other substances in and on the artery walls. It can be brought on by smoking, a bad diet, or many genetic factors. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke, with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. Genetic-epidemiologic studies have identified a surprisingly long list of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for CAD. However, such studies indicate that family history is the most significant independent risk factor.Basic metabolic panel
A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a blood test consisting of a set of seven or eight biochemical tests and is one of the most common lab tests ordered by health care providers. Outside the United States, blood tests made up of the majority of the same biochemical tests are called urea and electrolytes (U&E or "Us and Es"), or urea, electrolytes, creatinine (UEC or EUC or CUE), and are often referred to as 'kidney function tests' as they also include a calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate. The BMP provides key information regarding fluid and electrolyte status, kidney function, blood sugar levels, and response to various medications and other medical therapies. It is frequently employed as a screening tool during a physical exam.
The basic metabolic panel is a simpler version of the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), which includes tests for liver function.Bloody show
Bloody show is the passage of a small amount of blood or blood-tinged mucus through the vagina near the end of pregnancy. It is caused by the detachment of the cervical mucus plug that seals the cervix during pregnancy, and is one of the signs that labor may be imminent. Although the bloody show is a common and harmless cause of bleeding in late pregnancy, there are many other possible causes for vaginal bleeding, some of which may indicate serious medical problems such as miscarriage or placental abruption, and vaginal bleeding should not be ignored as a possible sign of serious complications.Carbuncle
A carbuncle is a cluster of boils caused by bacterial infection, most commonly with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. The presence of a carbuncle is a sign that the immune system is active and fighting the infection. The infection is contagious and may spread to other areas of the body, or other people; those living in the same residence may develop carbuncles at the same time. In the early 21st century, infection involving methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become more common.Cervicitis
Cervicitis is inflammation of the uterine cervix. Cervicitis in women has many features in common with urethritis in men and many cases are caused by sexually transmitted infections. Death may occur. Non-infectious causes of cervicitis can include intrauterine devices, contraceptive diaphragms, and allergic reactions to spermicides or latex condoms.
The condition is often confused with vaginismus which is a much simpler condition and easily rectified with simple exercises.  Cervicitis affects over half of all women during their adult life.Cracked nipple
Cracked nipple (or nipple trauma) is a condition that can occur in breastfeeding women as a result of a number of possible causes. Developing a cracked nipple can result in soreness, dryness or irritation to, or bleeding of, one or both nipples during breastfeeding. The mother with a cracked nipple can have severe nipple pain when the baby is nursing. This severe pain is a disincentive for continued breastfeeding. The crack can appear as a cut across the tip of the nipple and may extend to its the base. Cracked nipples develop after the birth of the infant and is managed with pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment.EMedicine
eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base founded in 1996 by Scott Plantz MD FAAEM, Jonathan Adler MD MS FACEP FAAEM, a computer engineer Jeffrey Berezin MS. The fundamental concept was to create a large repository of professional level medical content that could be both updated and accessed continuously to assist in clinical care and physician education. The eMedicine website consists of approximately 6,800 medical topic review articles, each of which is associated with one of 62 clinical subspecialty "textbooks". Pediatrics, for example, has 1,050 articles organized into 14 subspecialty "textbooks" (Pediatric endocrinology, genetics, cardiology, pulmonology, etc.); the emergency medicine volume has 630 articles and internal medicine is near 1,400. If the remainder of the specialty textbooks (eg, Neurology, Orthopedics, Ophthalmology, etc.) are added to the total 6800+ articles were created in eMedicine. In addition, the knowledge base includes over 25,000 clinically multimedia files (eg, photographs, imaging studies, audio files, video files). To create this online content over 11,000 board certified healthcare specialists (95%+ physicians, 95%+ US based) were recruited and managed in a first generation, proprietary learning management system (LMS). To provide some perspective on the amount of content that was created it is estimated that, if hard-copy printed out, it would total over 1 million pages.
Each article is authored by board certified specialists in the subspecialty to which the article belongs and undergoes three levels of physician peer-review, plus review by a Doctor of Pharmacy. The article's authors are identified with their current faculty appointments. Each article is updated yearly, or more frequently as changes in practice occur, and the date is published on the article. eMedicine.com was sold to WebMD in January, 2006 and is available as the Medscape Reference.Hyperplasia
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. It may lead to the gross enlargement of an organ, and the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia or benign tumor.Hyperplasia is a common preneoplastic response to stimulus. Microscopically, cells resemble normal cells but are increased in numbers. Sometimes cells may also be increased in size (hypertrophy). Hyperplasia is different from hypertrophy in that the adaptive cell change in hypertrophy is an increase in the size of cells, whereas hyperplasia involves an increase in the number of cells.Immunosuppression
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant. Additionally, it is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, or Crohn's disease. This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy), plasmapheresis, or radiation. A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons (chemotherapy or HIV), is said to be immunocompromised.Kegel exercise
Kegel exercise, also known as pelvic-floor exercise, involves repeatedly contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, now sometimes colloquially referred to as the "Kegel muscles". The exercise can be performed multiple times each day, for several minutes at a time, for one to three months, to begin to have an effect.Kegel exercises aim to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.
These muscles hold up the human bladder and help to keep it from leaking. People usually perform such exercises to reduce urinary stress incontinence (especially after childbirth) and to reduce premature ejaculation in men.Several tools exist to help with these exercises, although various studies debate the relative effectiveness of different tools versus traditional exercises.The American gynecologist Arnold Kegel first published a description of such exercises in 1948.Liver disease
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.Malaise
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness, or pain, often the first sign of an infection or other disease. The word has existed in the French language since at least the 12th century.
The term is also often used figuratively in other contexts; for example, "economic malaise" refers to an economy that is stagnant or in recession (compare depression). The term is particularly associated with the US 1973–75 recession. A speech made by President Jimmy Carter in 1979 is commonly referred to as the "malaise" speech, although the term was not in the speech.Medical encyclopedia
A medical encyclopedia is a comprehensive written compendium that holds information about diseases, medical conditions, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries. It may contain an extensive gallery of medicine-related photographs and illustrations.
A medical encyclopedia provides information to readers about health questions. It may also contain some information about the history of diseases, the development of medical technology uses to detect diseases in its early phase.
A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.Metabolic disorder
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process. It can also be defined as inherited single gene anomaly, most of which are autosomal recessive.Muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin. Many people will eventually become unable to walk. Some types are also associated with problems in other organs.The muscular dystrophy group contains thirty different genetic disorders that are usually classified into nine main categories or types. The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) which typically affects males beginning around the age of four. Other types include Becker muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and myotonic dystrophy. They are due to mutations in genes that are involved in making muscle proteins. This can occur due to either inheriting the defect from one's parents or the mutation occurring during early development. Disorders may be X-linked recessive, autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant. Diagnosis often involves blood tests and genetic testing.There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Physical therapy, braces, and corrective surgery may help with some symptoms. Assisted ventilation may be required in those with weakness of breathing muscles. Medications used include steroids to slow muscle degeneration, anticonvulsants to control seizures and some muscle activity, and immunosuppressants to delay damage to dying muscle cells. Outcomes depend on the specific type of disorder.Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which represents about half of all cases of muscular dystrophy, affects about one in 5,000 males at birth. Muscular dystrophy was first described in the 1830s by Charles Bell. The word "dystrophy" is from the Greek dys, meaning "difficult" and troph meaning "nourish". Gene therapy, as a treatment, is in the early stages of study in humans.Myositis
Myositis is inflammation or swelling of the muscles. Injury, medicines, infection, or an immune disorder can lead to myositis. It is a documented side effect of the lipid-lowering drugs statins and fibrates.Nephritis
Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys and may involve the glomeruli, tubules, or interstitial tissue surrounding the glomeruli and tubules.Urine specific gravity
Specific gravity, in the context of clinical pathology, is a urinalysis parameter commonly used in the evaluation of kidney function and can aid in the diagnosis of various renal diseases.Vascular disease
Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease. Disorders in this vast network of blood vessels, can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or prove fatal.