Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 43 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles (where they tend to be wetter and cooler), and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator (where they tend to be drier and hotter).

In essence, and due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier (and sunnier) than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates.

The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" has traditionally developed: wheat, vine and olive.

Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Algiers, Athens, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Naples, Rome, Tunis, and Valencia lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco, Santiago and Victoria.

Koppen World Map C
Regions with Mediterranean climates
  Hot-summer mediterranean climate (Csa)
  Warm-summer mediterranean climate (Csb)
  Cold-summer mediterranean climate (Csc)
Tossa de Mar View
The coastal Mediterranean region of Costa Brava, Spain

Köppen climate classification

Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates (classified as Csa) and "cool dry-summer" climates (classified as Csb) are often referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group (in this case temperate climates). Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), but below 18 °C (64 °F), in their coolest months. The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern ("s" represents dry summers). Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm (1.2 in) of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, however, use a 40 mm (1.6 in) level.[1][2] The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C (72 °F), while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C (72 °F).

Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates (Csa, Csb) usually occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas normally not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, and parts of New Zealand.[3] Additional highland areas in the subtropics also meet Cs requirements, though they, too, are not normally associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, and the eastern part of the Azores.

Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C (50 °F) or higher (subtropical), and the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm (35 in). Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do (temperate oceanic), and the rare Csc zones become Eo (subpolar oceanic), with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.

Precipitation

It [Chile] has six, months of winter, no more, and in them, except when there is a quarter moon, when it rains one or two days, all the other days have such beautiful suns...
— Pedro de Valdivia to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are strongly influenced by cold ocean currents which keep the weather in the region very dry, stable, and pleasant. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night.

In winter, Mediterranean climate zones are no longer influenced by the cold ocean currents and therefore warmer water settles near land and causes clouds to form and rainfall becomes much more likely. As a result, areas with this climate receive almost all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, and may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation usually decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture usually increases; the Mediterranean climate in Southern Europe has more rain. The rainfall also tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean (the Levant) and in Southern California the summer is nearly or completely dry. In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate.

Temperature

The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters and very warm summers. However winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters, Valencia and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall almost unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season (48 °C (118 °F) has been measured in nearby Eleusis). In contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C (70 °F) due to the continuous upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the coast. Because most regions with a Mediterranean climate are near large bodies of water, temperatures are generally moderate with a comparatively small range of temperatures between the winter low and summer high (although the daily range of temperature during the summer is large due to dry and clear conditions, except along the immediate coasts). Temperatures during winter only occasionally fall below the freezing point and snow is generally seldom seen. In the summer, the temperatures range from mild to very hot, depending on distance from a large body of water, elevation, and latitude. Even in the warmest locations with a Mediterranean-type climate, however, temperatures usually do not reach the highest readings found in adjacent desert regions because of cooling from water bodies, although strong winds from inland desert regions can sometimes boost summer temperatures, quickly increasing the risk of wildfires.

As in every climatologic domain, the highland locations of the Mediterranean domain can present cooler temperatures in winter than the lowland areas, temperatures which can sometimes prohibit the growth of typical Mediterranean plants. Some Spanish authors opt to use the term "Continental Mediterranean climate" for some regions with lower temperature in winter than the coastal areas[4] (direct translation from Clima Mediterráneo Continentalizado), but most climate classifications (including Köppen's Cs zones) show no distinction.

Additionally, the temperature and rainfall pattern for a Csa or even a Csb climate can exist as a microclimate in some high-altitude locations adjacent to a rare tropical As (tropical savanna climate with dry summers, typically in a rainshadow region). These have a favourable climate with mild wet winters and fairly warm, dry summers.

Mediterranean biome

Ionian sea islands, pic8
The Ionian Sea, view from the island Lefkada, Greece
Makarska riviera
Makarska in Dalmatia, Croatia

The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome is closely associated with Mediterranean climate zones, as are unique freshwater communities. Particularly distinctive of the climate are sclerophyll shrublands, called maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, chaparral in California, matorral in Chile, fynbos in South Africa, and mallee and kwongan shrublands in Australia. Aquatic communities in Mediterranean climate regions are adapted to a yearly cycle in which abiotic (environmental) controls of stream populations and community structure dominate during floods, biotic components (e.g. competition and predation) controls become increasingly important as the discharge declines, and environmental controls regain dominance as environmental conditions become very harsh (i.e. hot and dry); as a result, these communities are well suited to recover from droughts, floods, and fires.[5] Aquatic organisms in these regions show distinct long-term patterns in structure and function,[6] and are also highly sensitive to the effects of climate change.[7][8]

Natural vegetation

The native vegetation of Mediterranean climate lands must be adapted to survive long, hot summer droughts and prolonged wet periods in winter. Mediterranean vegetation examples include the following:[9]

Much native vegetation in Mediterranean climate area valleys have been cleared for agriculture. In places such as the Sacramento Valley and Oxnard Plain in California, draining marshes and estuaries combined with supplemental irrigation has led to a century of intensive agriculture. Much of the Overberg in the southern Cape of South Africa, once covered with renosterveld, has likewise been largely converted to agriculture, mainly wheat. In hillside and mountainous areas, away from urban sprawl, ecosystems and habitats of native vegetation are more sustained.

The fynbos vegetation in the South-western Cape in South Africa is famed for its high floral diversity, and includes such plant types as members of the Restionaceae, Ericas (Heaths) and Proteas. Representatives of the Proteaceae also grow in Australia, such as Banksias. The palette of California native plants is also renowned for its species and cultivar diversity.

Hot-summer Mediterranean climate

Koppen World Map Csa
  Hot-summer mediterranean climate (Csa)

This subtype of the Mediterranean climate (Csa) is the most common form of the Mediterranean climate, therefore it is also known as a “typical Mediterranean climate”. As stated earlier, regions with this form of a Mediterranean climate experience average monthly temperatures in excess of 22 °C (71.6 °F) during its warmest month and an average in the coldest month between 18 and −3 °C (64.4 and 26.6 °F) or, in some applications, between 18 and 0 °C (64.4 and 32.0 °F). Also, at least four months must average above 10 °C (50 °F). Regions with this form of the Mediterranean climate typically experience hot, sometimes very hot and dry summers and mild, wet winters. In a number of instances, summers here can closely resemble summers seen in arid and semi-arid climates. However, high temperatures during summers are generally not quite as high as those in arid or semiarid climates due to the presence of a large body of water. All areas with this subtype have wet winters. However, some areas with a hot Mediterranean subtype can actually experience very chilly winters, with occasional snowfall.

Csa climates are mainly found around the Mediterranean Sea, southwestern Australia, southwestern South Africa, sections of Central Asia, northern sections of Iran and Iraq, the interior of northern California west of the Sierra Nevada, and inland areas of southern Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains. Southern California's coasts also experience hot summers due to the shielding effect of the Channel Islands. However, unshielded areas of that coastline can have warm-summer Mediterranean climates with hot-summer areas just a few kilometres inland.

Valencia, Spain
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[10][11]
Los Angeles, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: NOAA [1]
Perth, Australia
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: BoM[12]

Warm-summer Mediterranean climate

Koppen World Map Csb
  Warm-summer mediterranean climate (Csb)

Occasionally also termed “Cool-summer Mediterranean climate”, this subtype of the Mediterranean climate (Csb) is the less common form of the Mediterranean climate. Cool ocean currents and upwelling are often the reason for this cooler type of Mediterranean climate. As stated earlier, regions with this subtype of the Mediterranean climate experience warm (but not hot) and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 22 °C (72 °F) during its warmest month and an average in the coldest month between 18 and −3 °C (64 and 27 °F) or, in some applications, between 18 and 0 °C (64 and 32 °F). Also, at least four months must average above 10 °C (50 °F). Winters are rainy and can be mild to chilly. In a few instances, snow can fall on these areas. Precipitation occurs in the colder seasons, but there are a number of clear sunny days even during the wetter seasons.

Csb climates are found in northwestern Iberia, namely Galicia and the north of Portugal, coastal California, western Washington and Oregon, southern portions of Vancouver Island in British Columbia[13][14][15][16][17], central Chile, parts of southern Australia and sections of southwestern South Africa.

Porto, Portugal
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Instituto de Meteorologia[18]
Victoria, British Columbia
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Source: Environment Canada[19]
Cape Town, South Africa
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: WMO[20]

Cold-summer Mediterranean climate

Köppen Csc US West Coast
Distribution of the relatively rare cold-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen type Csc) in Washington, Oregon and California.

The cold-summer subtype of the Mediterranean climate (Csc) is rare and predominately found at scattered high-altitude locations along the west coasts of North and South America. This type is characterized by cool summers, with fewer than four months with a mean temperature at or above 10 °C (50 °F), as well as with mild winters, with no winter month having a mean temperature below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C [27 °F]), depending on the isotherm used). Regions with this climate are influenced by the dry-summer trend that extends considerably poleward along the west coast of the Americas, as well as the moderating influences of high altitude and relative proximity to the Pacific Ocean.

In North America, areas with Csc climate can be found in the Olympic, Cascade, Klamath, and Sierra Nevada ranges in Washington, Oregon and California. These locations are found at high altitude nearby lower altitude regions characterized by a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb) or hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa). A rare instance of this climate occurs in the tropics, on Haleakalā Summit in Hawaii.

In South America, Csc regions can be found along the Andes in Chile and Perú. The town of Balmaceda is one of the few towns confirmed to have this climate.

Small areas with a Csc climate can also be found at high elevations in Corsica.

Balmaceda, Chile
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: DMC[21]infochile[22]
Haleakala Summit, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: The Western Regional Climate Center[23]

References

  1. ^ Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rube, Franz (June 2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  2. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 4 (2): 439–473. doi:10.5194/hessd-4-439-2007. Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  3. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. Retrieved 2011-02-27.
  4. ^ "España a Través de los Mapas". www.ign.es.
  5. ^ Gasith, A. and V.H. Resh (1999). "Streams in mediterranean Climate Regions: Abiotic Influences and Biotic Responses to Predictable Seasonal Events". Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30: 51–81. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.30.1.51.
  6. ^ Resh, V.H.; L.A. Bêche; J.E. Lawrence; R.D. Mazor; E.P. McElravy; A.H. Purcell; S.M. Carlson (2013). "Long-term Population and Community Patterns of Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fishes in Northern California Mediterranean-climate Streams". Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 719: 93–118. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1373-9.
  7. ^ Lawrence, J.E.; K.B. Lunde; R.D. Mazor; L.A. Bêche; E.P. McElravy; V.H. Resh (2010). "Long-Term Macroinvertebrate Responses to Climate Change: Implications for Biological Assessment in Mediterranean-Climate Streams". Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 29 (4): 1424–1440. doi:10.1899/09-178.1.
  8. ^ Filipe, A.F.; J.E. Lawrence; N. Bonada (November 2013). "Vulnerability of Biota in Mediterranean Streams to Climate Change: A Synthesis of Ecological Responses and Conservation Challenges". Hydrobiologia. 719: 331–351. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1244-4. hdl:2445/48186.
  9. ^ Dallman, Peter (1998). Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520208094.
  10. ^ Meteorología, Agencia Estatal de. "Valores climatológicos normales: Valencia - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de España". www.aemet.es.
  11. ^ Meteorología, Agencia Estatal de. "Valencia Aeropuerto: Valencia Aeropuerto - Valores extremos absolutos - Selector - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de España". www.aemet.es.
  12. ^ "Perth Monthly climate statistics". Australia Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  13. ^ https://www.theweathernetwork.com/news/articles/the-warm-land-5-must-do-activities-at-this-hidden-bc-gem/74443. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ https://vancouversun.com/travel/southern-vancouver-islands-small-communities. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ "mediterranean+climate"&dq=victoria+canada+"mediterranean+climate"&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwim5MKVn8zgAhVKK48KHft9BWIQ6AEIRjAG https://books.google.co.in/books?id=QuBJAAAAYAAJ&q=victoria+canada+"mediterranean+climate"&dq=victoria+canada+"mediterranean+climate"&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwim5MKVn8zgAhVKK48KHft9BWIQ6AEIRjAG. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ "mediterranean+climate"&dq=victoria+canada+"mediterranean+climate"&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwim5MKVn8zgAhVKK48KHft9BWIQ6AEITzAI https://books.google.co.in/books?id=xLQcAAAAMAAJ&q=victoria+canada+"mediterranean+climate"&dq=victoria+canada+"mediterranean+climate"&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwim5MKVn8zgAhVKK48KHft9BWIQ6AEITzAI. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ "mediterranean+climate"&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwim5MKVn8zgAhVKK48KHft9BWIQ6AEIQjAF#v=snippet&q=Mediterranean&f=false https://books.google.co.in/books?id=pR0DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA36&dq=victoria+canada+"mediterranean+climate"&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwim5MKVn8zgAhVKK48KHft9BWIQ6AEIQjAF#v=snippet&q=Mediterranean&f=false. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ "Monthly Averages for Porto, Portugal". Instituto de Meteorologia. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  19. ^ "Victoria Gonzales HTS, British Columbia". Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000 (in English and French). Environment Canada. 2011-01-19. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  20. ^ "Weather Information for Cape Town". World Weather Information Service. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  21. ^ "Estadistica Climatologica Tomo III (pg 319-343)" (PDF). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
  22. ^ "Datos climatológicos Chile Sur". Atmosfera.cl. Archived from the original on 2012-12-09.
  23. ^ "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved November 3, 2013.

External links

Media related to Mediterranean climate at Wikimedia Commons

Boldo

"Boldo" is also a settlement in Arauco Province (Chile) named after this tree.

Peumus boldus, the only species in the genus Peumus, is commonly known as boldo (from the Mapudungun name foḻo). This tree of the family Monimiaceae is natively endemic to the central region of Chile, occurring from 33° to 40° southern latitude. Boldo has also been introduced to Europe and North Africa, though it is not often seen outside botanical gardens.

Together with litre, quillay, peumo, bollén and other indigenous plants, it is a characteristic component of the sclerophyllous forest endemic to central Chile. Its leaves, which have a strong, woody and slightly bitter flavor and camphor-like aroma, are used for culinary purposes, primarily in Latin America. The leaves are used in a similar manner to bay leaves and also used as an herbal tea, primarily in Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Brazil and bordering countries in South America.

Callitris preissii

Callitris preissii is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family, endemic to Rottnest Island, Australia. Common names include Rottnest Island pine, Murray pine, maroong, southern cypress pine, or slender cypress pine. The Noongar peoples know the tree as marro.

Callitris rhomboidea

Callitris rhomboidea, or Oyster Bay pine, is a species of conifer in the family Cupressaceae.

It is found only in Australia. It is native to South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, and has also naturalised in parts of Victoria and Western Australia.

One of the few islands it is found on is Taillefer Rocks in Tasmania.

Callitris verrucosa

Callitris verrucosa is a species of conifer in the family Cupressaceae. It is found only in Australia.

Celtis australis

Celtis australis, commonly known as the European nettle tree, Mediterranean hackberry, lote tree, or honeyberry, is a deciduous tree native to southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia Minor. The tree was introduced to England in 1796.

Chilean Matorral

The Chilean Matorral (NT1201) is a terrestrial ecoregion of central Chile, located on the west coast of South America. It is in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, part of the Neotropic ecozone.

Matorral is typically characterized by a temperate Mediterranean climate, with rainy winters and dry summers. It is one of the world's five Mediterranean climate regions, which are all located in the middle latitudes on the west coast of continents. The Mediterranean Basin, the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of California and Baja California, the Cape Province of South Africa, and southwestern corner of Australia are the other Mediterranean climate regions.

Climate categories in viticulture

In viticulture, the climates of wine regions are categorised based on the overall characteristics of the area's climate during the growing season. While variations in macroclimate are acknowledged, the climates of most wine regions are categorised (somewhat loosely based on the Köppen climate classification) as being part of a Mediterranean (for example Tuscany), maritime (ex: Bordeaux) or continental climate (ex: Columbia Valley). The majority of the world's premium wine production takes place in one of these three climate categories in locations between the 30th parallel and 50th parallel in both the northern and southern hemisphere. While viticulture does exist in some tropical climates, most notably Brazil, the amount of quality wine production in those areas is so small that the climate effect has not been as extensively studied as other categories.

Climate of Albania

Albania has a variety of climate systems. With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas in the Mediterranean sea, its highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, however it has a high number of climatic regions for such a small area. The coastal lowlands have typically mediterranean climate while the highlands have a continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south.Under the Köppen climate classification, the country has Hot Mediterranean climate, Warm Mediterranean climate, Subtropical climate, Oceanic climate, Continental climate and Subartic climate.

Eucalyptus marginata

Eucalyptus marginata, commonly known as jarrah, djarraly in Noongar language and historically as Swan River mahogany, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tree with rough, fibrous bark, leaves with a distinct midvein, white flowers and relatively large, more or less spherical fruit. Its hard, dense timber is insect resistant although the tree is susceptible to dieback. The timber has been utilised for cabinet-making, flooring and railway sleepers.

Harrana

Harrana, named after Qasr Kharana, an archeological Umayyad desert palace in the area, is part of the Jordan eastern plateau some 60 kilometers southeast of Amman city.

The area is largely uninhabited except for seasonal bedouin sheep and camel herders who bring their livestock to the area during December through April.

Harrana's climate, much like the other parts of the country, is influenced by the moderate Mediterranean climate from the west, the very hot Sahara's climate from the east, and the cold European climate from the north.

Though arid, the area is rich in animal life. Birds, owls, rodents, rabbits, foxes, occasional wolves and hyenas, snakes, and lizards are some of the animals that take refuge in Harrana. A variety of flowering plants bloom during late winter–early spring months including mustard plants, oriental popies, and wild irisis. Cistanche tubulosa, or the desert broomrape, is also another beautiful resident in Harrana blooming towards the end of spring and beginning of summer.

Harrana is significant for its fossil deposits preserved in gigantic limestone concretions that date back to the latest Maastrichtian some 66–67 million years ago, a period notably close to the end-Cretaceous extinction events when many groups of animals such as dinosaurs and as much as 65–70% of all marine animal species became extinct. Mosasaur specimens along with their remarkably well preserved scale imprints have been discovered from late Maastrichtian deposits of the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of Harrana

The best preserved and complete specimens of the extinct teleostean fish genus Saurocephalus and the most complete mosasaur Carinodens remains come from the latest Maastrichtian of Harrana.

Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters. Precipitation is usually distributed throughout the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) (or 0 °C (32.0 °F)) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The Dfb, Dwb and Dsb subtypes are also known as hemiboreal.

Humid continental climates are generally found roughly between latitudes 40° N and 60° N, within the central and northeastern portions of North America, Europe, and Asia. They are much less commonly found in the Southern Hemisphere due to the larger ocean area at that latitude and the consequent greater maritime moderation. In the Northern Hemisphere some of the humid continental climates, typically in Scandinavia, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland are heavily maritime-influenced, with relatively cool summers and winters being just below the freezing mark. More extreme humid continental climates found in northeast China, southern Siberia, the Canadian Prairies, and the Great Lakes region of the American Midwest and Central Canada combine hotter summer maxima and colder winters than the marine-based variety.

Juniperus drupacea

Juniperus drupacea, the Syrian juniper, is a species of juniper native to the eastern Mediterranean region from southern Greece (Parnon Oros, Peloponnese), southern Turkey, western Syria, and Lebanon, growing on rocky sites from 800–1700 m altitude.

Juniperus macrocarpa

Juniperus macrocarpa (large-fruited juniper, syn. J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball) is a species of juniper, native across the northern Mediterranean region from southwestern Spain east to western Turkey and Cyprus, growing on coastal sand dunes from sea level up to 75 m altitude.

It is a spreading shrub 2–5 m tall, rarely a small tree up to 14 m tall. The leaves are broad lanceolate, produced in whorls of three, green, 12–20 mm long and 2–3 mm broad, with a double white stomatal band split by a green midrib on the inner surface. It is dioecious, with separate male and female plants. The seed cones are berry-like, green ripening in 18 months to orange-red with a variable pink waxy coating; they are spherical, 12–18 mm diameter, and have six fused scales in two whorls, three of the scales with a single seed. The seeds are dispersed when birds eat the cones, digesting the fleshy scales and passing the hard seeds in their droppings. The pollen cones are yellow, 2–3 mm long, and fall soon after shedding their pollen in late winter.Despite its distinct morphology with large cones and broad leaves more like those of Juniperus drupacea, it has often been treated as a subspecies of Juniperus oxycedrus, though recent genetic studies have shown its DNA is distinct from that of J. oxycedrus.

Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

Persoonia longifolia

Persoonia longifolia, the upright snottygobble, also known as the long-leaf persoonia or just snottygobble, is a species of tall shrub or small tree in the plant genus Persoonia, reaching 1 to 5 metres (3–17 ft) in height. It is found in the Jarrah forests of southwest Western Australia. This species is characterised by its long narrow dark green leaves, dark yellow to orange flowers and distinctive flaky dark red bark.

Quercus macrolepis

Quercus macrolepis, the Valonia oak, the old name for Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis.

Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.

Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is often concentrated in the warmest months (for example Brisbane, Queensland or Jacksonville, Florida), and dry summer climate or (Mediterranean), where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months (for example Naples, Italy or Los Angeles, California).

Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth.

A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, which is when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter. Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, citrus, mango, pistachio, lychee, and avocado are grown within the subtropics.

Ulmus canescens

Ulmus canescens Melville is a small deciduous tree occasionally known by the common names grey elm, grey-leafed elm, and hoary elm. Its natural range extends through the lands of the central and eastern Mediterranean, from southern Italy, the islands of Sicily, Malta, Crete, Rhodes and Cyprus, to Turkey, and as far south as Israel, where it is now considered rare and endangered in the wild. The tree is typically found amidst the comparatively humid coastal woodlands and scrublands.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.5
 
 
63
45
 
 
1.4
 
 
63
46
 
 
1.3
 
 
66
50
 
 
1.5
 
 
70
54
 
 
1.5
 
 
73
59
 
 
0.9
 
 
81
66
 
 
0.3
 
 
86
72
 
 
0.8
 
 
86
72
 
 
2.8
 
 
82
66
 
 
3
 
 
75
59
 
 
1.9
 
 
68
52
 
 
1.9
 
 
63
46
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.1
 
 
68
48
 
 
3.8
 
 
69
49
 
 
2.4
 
 
70
51
 
 
0.9
 
 
73
53
 
 
0.3
 
 
74
57
 
 
0.1
 
 
78
60
 
 
0
 
 
83
64
 
 
0
 
 
84
64
 
 
0.2
 
 
83
63
 
 
0.7
 
 
78
59
 
 
1
 
 
73
52
 
 
2.3
 
 
68
47
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.4
 
 
87
64
 
 
0.5
 
 
88
64
 
 
0.8
 
 
85
62
 
 
1.7
 
 
78
56
 
 
4.6
 
 
72
51
 
 
7
 
 
67
47
 
 
6.7
 
 
65
46
 
 
5.3
 
 
66
46
 
 
3.2
 
 
68
49
 
 
2.1
 
 
73
52
 
 
0.9
 
 
79
57
 
 
0.5
 
 
84
61
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6.2
 
 
56
41
 
 
5.5
 
 
59
43
 
 
3.5
 
 
62
45
 
 
4.6
 
 
64
47
 
 
3.8
 
 
67
52
 
 
1.8
 
 
73
57
 
 
0.7
 
 
77
60
 
 
1.1
 
 
77
59
 
 
2.8
 
 
75
59
 
 
5.4
 
 
69
53
 
 
6.2
 
 
62
47
 
 
7.7
 
 
58
44
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.7
 
 
45
37
 
 
2.8
 
 
47
39
 
 
1.8
 
 
51
40
 
 
1.1
 
 
56
43
 
 
1
 
 
61
47
 
 
0.8
 
 
64
50
 
 
0.6
 
 
68
52
 
 
0.8
 
 
68
53
 
 
1.1
 
 
65
51
 
 
2
 
 
57
46
 
 
3.9
 
 
49
41
 
 
4.3
 
 
45
38
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.6
 
 
79
60
 
 
0.7
 
 
80
60
 
 
0.8
 
 
78
58
 
 
1.6
 
 
73
53
 
 
2.7
 
 
69
49
 
 
3.7
 
 
65
46
 
 
3.2
 
 
64
45
 
 
3
 
 
64
46
 
 
1.6
 
 
67
48
 
 
1.2
 
 
70
51
 
 
0.6
 
 
74
56
 
 
0.7
 
 
77
59
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.1
 
 
64
44
 
 
0.8
 
 
64
43
 
 
1.5
 
 
60
40
 
 
2.1
 
 
53
37
 
 
3.6
 
 
46
33
 
 
3.4
 
 
40
28
 
 
3.3
 
 
38
27
 
 
2.8
 
 
43
30
 
 
1.9
 
 
49
32
 
 
1.2
 
 
55
36
 
 
1.1
 
 
58
40
 
 
1.2
 
 
62
42
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
8
 
 
45
34
 
 
3.6
 
 
50
36
 
 
3.1
 
 
51
37
 
 
4
 
 
52
37
 
 
1.4
 
 
55
39
 
 
0.4
 
 
58
42
 
 
0.5
 
 
58
42
 
 
1.1
 
 
58
42
 
 
1.6
 
 
58
42
 
 
1.3
 
 
57
41
 
 
4.1
 
 
51
38
 
 
4.7
 
 
43
32
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
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