Mediolanum

Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy. The city was settled by the Insubres around 600 BC, conquered by the Romans in 222 BC, and developed into a key centre of Western Christianity and capital of the Western Roman Empire. It declined under the ravages of the Gothic War, its capture by the Lombards in 569, and their decision to make Ticinum the capital of their Kingdom of Italy.

During the Principate the population was 40,000 in 200 AD; when the city became capital of the Western Roman Empire under emperor Maximian (r. 286-305), the population rose to 100,000 people and thus Milan became one of the largest cities in Roman Italy.[1][2][3]

Mura-en
A section of Roman wall (11 m high) with a 24-sided tower

History

Mediolanum appears to have been founded around 600 BC by the Celtic Insubres, after whom this region of northern Italy was called Insubria. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; this Bellovesus was said to have founded Mediolanum (in the time of Tarquinius Priscus, according to this legend).[4] The Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC; the chief of the Insubres submitted to Rome, giving the Romans control of the city.[5] They eventually conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province Cisalpine Gaul— "Gaul this side of the Alps"— and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon (Latinized as Mediolānum) meant "(settlement) in the midst of the plain."[6][7]

Mediolanum was important for its location as a hub in the road network of northern Italy. Polybius describes the country as abounding in wine, and every kind of grain, and in fine wool. Herds of swine, both for public and private supply, were bred in its forests, and the people were well known for their generosity.[8]

During the Augustan age Mediolanum was famous for its schools; it possessed a theater and an amphitheatre (129.5 X 109.3 m[9]). A large stone wall encircled the city in Caesar's time, and later was expanded in the late third century AD, by Maximian. Mediolanum was made the seat of the prefect of Liguria (Praefectus Liguriae) by Hadrian, and Constantine made it the seat of the vicar of Italy (Vicarius Italiae). In the third century Mediolanum possessed a mint,[10] a horreum and imperial mausoleum. In 259, Roman legions under the command of Emperor Gallienus soundly defeated the Alemanni in the Battle of Mediolanum.

Solidus-Arcadius-RIC 1205
Arcadius solidus, from the Mediolanum mint, c 395-408.

In 286 Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. He chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan. Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus (470 x 85 metres), the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall (about 4.5 km long) encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers; one that was included in the convent of San Maurizio Maggiore remains 16,60 m high.

Milano - Antiquarium - Pisside con venatio e corse carri, sec. IV-V - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto - 14-July-2007 - 4
Arena games: ivory cup depicting staged hunts and chariot races, found in Milan, 4th-5th century.

It was from Milan that the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of the Empire. Constantine was in Milan to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. There were Christian communities in Mediolanum, which contributed its share of martyrs during the persecutions,[11] but the first bishop of Milan who has a firm historical presence is Merocles, who was at the Council of Rome of 313. In the mid-fourth century, the Arian controversy divided the Christians of Mediolanum; Constantius supported Arian bishops and at times there were rival bishops. Auxentius of Milan (died 374) was a respected Arian theologian.

At the time of the bishop St. Ambrose (bishop 374-397), who quelled the Arians, and emperor Theodosius I, Mediolanum reached the height of its ancient power.[12]

Milan-col
Roman columns in front of basilica di San Lorenzo.

The city also possessed a number of basilicas, added in the late fourth century AD. These are San Simpliciano, San Nazaro, San Lorenzo and the chapel of San Vittore, located in the basilica of Sant'Ambrogio. In general, the Late Empire encouraged the development of the applied arts in Mediolanum, with ivory and silver work being common in public building projects. In the crypt of the Duomo survive ruins of the ancient church of Saint Tecla and the baptisty where St. Augustine of Hippo was baptized.

In 402, the city was besieged by the Goths and the Imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, it was besieged again by Attila, but the real break with its Imperial past came in 538, during the Gothic War, when Mediolanum was laid to waste by Uraia, a nephew of Witiges, King of the Goths, with great loss of life.[13] The Lombards took Ticinum as their capital (renaming it ‘Papia’, hence the modern Pavia), and Early Medieval Milan was left to be governed by its archbishops.

Extant structures

Some of the monuments of the Roman Mediolanum still to be seen in Milan:

  • in the basilica of S. Ambrogio:
    • the Chapel of S. Vittore, with Late Antique mosaics
    • the so‑called "Tomb of Stilicho", assembled from a Roman sarcophagus and other material.
    • a large collection of inscriptions.
  • the Colonne di San Lorenzo, a colonnade in front of the church of S. Lorenzo.
  • Roman lapidary material in the Archi di Porta Nuova.
  • the scant remains of a large amphitheatre, now in an archaeological park dedicated to their preservation.
  • a tower (16.6 m high) of the circus, now inside the Convento di San Maurizio Maggiore.
  • a bit of moenia (walls) and a tower with 24 sides (Maximian, 3rd century)
  • the church of San Lorenzo (IV-V sec.) and the San Aquilino chapel.
  • ruins of the imperial palace.
  • some ruins from the Baths of Hercules; further remains of ceilings and floors are in the archaeological museum.
  • the body of St. Ambrose (d. 397) and those possibly of SS. Gervasius and Protasius — or at any rate, of earlier men, found in St. Ambrose's time, are still seen in the crypt of the church of S. Ambrogio.
  • crypt of San Giovanni in Conca
  • a bit of the moenia and some remnants of pavements in piazza Missori and in the namesake station of Milan Metro.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 BC-AD 200, p. 182, at Google Books
  2. ^ A Companion to Latin Studies, p. 356, at Google Books
  3. ^ Northern Italy, from Alps to Florence at Google Books
  4. ^ Livius, Ab Urbe condita 5.34-35.3.
  5. ^ Polybius, Histories
  6. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (in French) (2nd ed.). Paris: Errance. pp. 221–222. ISBN 2-87772-237-6.
  7. ^ Compare G. Quintela and V. Marco '"Celtic Elements in Northwestern Spain in Pre-Roman times" e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, 2005, referring to "a toponym, clearly in the second part of the composite Medio-lanum (=Milan), meaning 'plain' or flat area..."
  8. ^ Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898): "Gallia Cisalpina"
  9. ^ Benario, Herbert W. (1981). "Amphitheatres of the Roman World". The Classical Journal. 76 (3): 255–258. JSTOR 3297328. Measurements as given p. 257; it was not, as is sometimes claimed, the third largest in the world after the Flavian Amphitheatre in Rome and the vast amphitheatre in Capua.
  10. ^ Though Trajan Decius may have struck coinage at Mediolanum, the sequence begins with Gallienus, c 258; the mint at Mediolanum, transferred to Ticinum by Aurelian, ranked with Rome and Siscia (modern Sisak in Croatia) as one of the three great mints of the Empire. Mattingly, H. (1921). "The Mints of the Empire: Vespasian to Diocletian". Journal of Roman Studies. 11: 254–264 [p. 259]. doi:10.2307/295905.
  11. ^ There were Milanese cults of Saints Gervasius and Protasius, St. Victor Maurus (304), Sts. Nabor and Felix, and Sts. Nazarius and Celsus and the legendary Saint Sebastian.
  12. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister)
  13. ^ According to Procopius, the losses at Milan amounted to 300,000 men.

References

  • Polybius (1889). Histories. London, New York: Macmillan.[1]
  • Thurston Peck, Harry (1898). Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. New York: Harper and Brothers.[2]
  • MacDonald Stillwell, Richard; McAlister, William L.; Holland, Marian (1976). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton: Princeton University Press.[3]

External links

1992–93 IIHF European Cup

The 1992-1993 European Cup was the 28th edition of the European Cup, IIHF's premier European club ice hockey tournament. The season started on October 9, 1992, and finished on December 30, 1992.

The tournament was won by Malmö IF, who beat Dynamo Moscow in the final.

2014 Euroleague Final Four

The 2014 Euroleague Final Four was the concluding EuroLeague Final Four tournament of the 2013–14 Euroleague basketball season. It was held from 16–18 May 2014. All of the games were played at the Mediolanum Forum, in Milan. Maccabi Tel Aviv upset CSKA Moscow, 68–67, in the first semifinal, while Real Madrid dominated FC Barcelona, 100–62, in the second semifinal. In the final, Maccabi upset highly favored Real, by a score of 98–86, in the tournament's first overtime final since 1969. The win gave Maccabi their sixth EuroLeague title.

2016 Italian Basketball Cup

The 2016 Italian Basketball Cup, known as the Beko Final Eight for sponsorship reasons, was the 48th edition of Italy's national cup tournament. The competition was organised by Lega Basket for Lega Basket Serie A clubs. The tournament was played at the Mediolanum Forum in Milan this year. EA7 Emporio Armani Milano won their 5th cup.

Assago

Assago (Lombard: Assagh or Sagh [(a)ˈsɑːk]) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Milan, in the northern Italian region of Lombardy.

It contains the headquarters of Nestlé's Italian branch and the Mediolanum Forum.

Banca Esperia

Banca Esperia S.p.A. is an Italian bank which is a joint venture of Mediobanca and Banca Mediolanum (before 2015: Mediolanum S.p.A.).

Banca Mediolanum

Banca Mediolanum S.p.A. is an Italian bank, insurance and asset management conglomerate which is the parent company of Gruppo Mediolanum (Mediolanum Group).

The bank is listed on the Borsa Italiana and is a constituent of the FTSE MIB index from the end of 2015 when it incorporated it parent company Mediolanum S.p.A..

Mediolanum Group was founded by Ennio Doris, the current second largest shareholders of the conglomerate. The conglomerate provided asset management, banking, insurances services to customers in Italy, Spain (as Banco Mediolanum and Fibanc) and Monaco (Bankhaus August Lenz & Co.)

Despite being ranked sixth by market capitalization among financial services companies (behind Intesa Sanpaolo, UniCredit, Assicurazioni Generali, UnipolSai and Mediobanca in 2016), the conglomerate (Mediolanum S.p.A.) was ranked 13th by total assets among bank (2014 data), as well as much smaller in size by risk-weighed assets, thus the conglomerate (Mediolanum S.p.A nor Banca Mediolanum) was not included in the Single Supervisory Mechanism. However, after Banca Mediolanum reversed the merger with Mediolanum, the European Central Bank started a comprehensive assessment to assess the conglomerate and decided the conglomerate would not be included. Eventually, Banca Mediolanum remained as a less-significant bank, which would not be supervised by the European Central Bank directly.The current CEO of the company was Massimo Antonio Doris.

Battle of Mediolanum

The Battle of Mediolanum took place in 259, between the Alamannic Germans and the Roman legions under the command of Emperor Gallienus.

Gallienus

Gallienus (; Latin: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – September 268), also known as Gallien, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 22 October 253 to spring 260 and alone from spring 260 to September 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. His 15-year reign was the longest since the 19-year rule of Caracalla.

Born into a wealthy and traditional senatorial family, Gallienus was the son of Valerian and Mariniana. Valerian became Emperor on 22 October 253 and had the Roman senate elevate Gallienus to the ranks of Caesar and Augustus. Valerian divided the empire between him and his son, with Valerian ruling the east and his son the west. Gallienus defeated the usurper Ingenuus in 258 and destroyed an Alemanni army at Mediolanum in 259.

The defeat and capture of Valerian at Edessa in 260 by the Sasanian Empire threw the Roman Empire into the chaos of civil war. Control of the whole empire passed to Gallienus. He defeated the eastern usurpers Macrianus Major and Mussius Aemilianus in 261–262 but failed to stop the formation of the breakaway Gallic Empire under general Postumus. Aureolus, another usurper, proclaimed himself emperor in Mediolanum in 268 but was defeated outside the city by Gallienus and besieged inside. While the siege was ongoing, Gallienus was stabbed to death by the officer Cecropius as part of a conspiracy.

List of Italians by net worth

The list of the wealthiest of Italy is a list extracted from that published by United States Forbes, which brings together the richest men every year.

Mediolanum (Whitchurch)

Mediolanum was a fort and small town in the Roman province of Britannia. Today it is known as Whitchurch, located in the English county of Shropshire.

Mediolanum (company)

Mediolanum S.p.A. was an Italian financial services company based in Basiglio, in Metropolitan City of Milan, founded by Ennio Doris in 1982. Mediolanum Group was headed by Mediolanum S.p.A., until reversed merger with subsidiary Banca Mediolanum in 2015.

Doris remains the chief executive officer and largest shareholder with around 40% of the company today. The second-largest shareholder with over 36% is Berlusconi's Fininvest. Mediolanum is active in the banking (as Banca Mediolanum and Banco Mediolanum in Spain), life insurance and mutual fund sectors and aims much of its products towards individuals and families. The firm also operates in other European countries, notably Spain where it owns Fibanc.

The company Mediolanum S.p.A. was listed on the Borsa Italiana and was a constituent of the FTSE MIB index until the end of 2015 when it was merged with Banca Mediolanum.

Mediolanum (train)

The word Mediolanum has been used to name three distinct international express trains that have run to and from Milano Centrale in Milan, Italy since 1957. The focus of these trains on the city now known as Milan reflects the fact that Mediolanum is the Latin word for ancient Milan.

Mediolanum Capta Est

Mediolanum Capta Est is a live album by the Norwegian black metal band Mayhem, recorded in Milan. The grammatically incorrect Latin title of the album supposedly means Milan has been captured.

Mediolanum Forum

The Mediolanum Forum (originally the Forum di Assago, formerly the FilaForum, DatchForum) is an indoor sports arena that is located in Assago, near Milan, Italy. The arena has a seating capacity of 12,700 and is primarily used for ice hockey, basketball, tennis & live concerts. The venue is the home ground of the Italian League professional basketball team Pallacanestro Olimpia Milano.

The Forum received the European Prize for Architecture for sports venues awarded by CONI and the Council of Europe. It is also one of two facilities in Italy, along with PalaLottomatica in Rome, to be part of the European Arenas Association network. In January 2009, the arena changed its name to the current name of Mediolanum Forum, replacing the old name of DatchForum.

Mediolanum Santonum

Mediolanum Santonum was a Roman town in Gallia Aquitania, now Saintes. It was founded in about 20 BC in connection with an expansion of the network of Roman roads serving Burdigala. The name means "the central town of the Santones", the tribe that then inhabited the area; the town became an important center in the Roman province of Gallia Aquitania.

Milan

Milan (, also US: , Milanese: [miˈlãː]; Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] (listen)) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,395,274 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan) has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres (730 square miles). The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age.

Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research and tourism. Its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies. In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, and is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe".

The city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are currently among the world's biggest in terms of revenue, visitors and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions, academies and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci. The city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide. The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale, and one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano.

Roman Italy

Italia (the Latin name for the Italian Peninsula) was the homeland of the Romans and metropole of Rome's empire in classical antiquity. According to Roman mythology, Italy was the new home promised by Jupiter to Aeneas of Troy and his descendants, ancestors of the founders of Rome. Aside from the legendary accounts, Rome was an Italian city-state that changed its form of government from Kingdom to Republic and then grew within the context of a peninsula dominated by the Celts in the North, the Etruscans in the Centre, and the Greeks in the South.

The consolidation of Italy into a single entity occurred during the Roman expansion in the peninsula, when Rome formed a permanent association with most of the local tribes and cities. The strength of the Italian alliance was a crucial factor in the rise of Rome, starting with the Punic and Macedonian wars between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. As provinces were being established throughout the Mediterranean, Italy maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina (ruler) of the provinces". Such a status meant that Roman magistrates exercised the Imperium domi (police power) within Italy, rather than the Imperium militiae (military power) used abroad. Italy's inhabitants had Latin Rights as well as religious and financial privileges.

The period between the end of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century BC was turbulent, beginning with the Servile Wars, continuing with the opposition of aristocratic élite to populist reformers and leading to a Social War in the middle of Italy. However, Roman citizenship was recognized to the rest of the Italics by the end of the conflict and then extended to Cisalpine Gaul when Julius Caesar became Roman Dictator. In the context of the transition from Republic to Principate, Italy swore allegiance to Octavian Augustus and was then organized in eleven regions from the Alps to the Ionian Sea.

More than two centuries of stability followed, during which Italy was referred to as the rectrix mundi (queen of the world) and omnium terrarum parens (motherland of all lands). Several emperors made notable accomplishments in this period: Claudius incorporated Britain into the Roman Empire, Vespasian subjugated the Great Revolt of Judea and reformed the financial system, Trajan conquered Dacia and defeated Parthia, and Marcus Aurelius epitomized the ideal of the philosopher king.

The crisis of the third century hit Italy particularly hard and left the eastern half of the Empire more prosperous. In 286 AD the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Nevertheless, the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD, and Italian cities such as Mediolanum and Ravenna continued to serve as capitals for the West.

The Bishop of Rome gained importance during Constantine's reign and was given religious primacy with the Edict of Thessalonica under Theodosius I. Italy was invaded several times by the barbarians and fell under the control of Odoacer, when Romulus Augustus was deposed in 476 AD. In the sixth century, Italy's territory was divided between the Byzantine Empire and the Germanic peoples. After that, Italy remained divided until 1861, when it was reunited in the Kingdom of Italy, which became the present-day Republic of Italy in 1946.

Stretton, South Staffordshire

Stretton is a small, dispersed village in South Staffordshire, England. It is just north of the A5 road in the civil parish of Lapley, Stretton and Wheaton Aston

The A5 is Watling Street, a notable Roman road, and another Roman road passes through Stretton from Mediolanum (Whitchurch), forming a junction with Watling Street near the bridge over the River Penk. On the other side of the river was the now-deserted Roman settlement of Pennocrucium. The village's position on the road from Mediolanum gives it its name, the Old English for "street town" ("street" meaning a paved or Roman road). Stretton Bridge today carries Watling Street over the Penk.Stretton Hall is in the village.

The Church of England parish church of St John's Church, Stretton has a 12th-century chancel.

The Shropshire Union Canal passes to the west of the village, and there is a Stretton Wharf. The Stretton Aqueduct carries the canal over the A5 road.

Vernon Lodge Preparatory School was a small coeducational non-selective independent school in Stretton for children aged 2 to 11. It was founded in 1981 and closed in March 2015.

Via Gallica

The Via Gallica was an ancient road of northern Italy which connected the Roman municipia of the Pianura Padana. It started from the Via Postumia next to Verona, and connected Brescia (Brixia), Bergamo (Bergamum) and Milan (Mediolanum), passing near Lake Garda.

In the first section of the road in Verona, existed a Christian necropolis, on which later the Abbey and the Basilica of San Zeno were erected.

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