Medina

Medina[a], also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ('The Prophet's Mosque'), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and it is one of the two holiest cities in Islam, the other being Mecca.

Medina was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad's leadership, serving as the power base of Islam, and where Muhammad's Ummah (Community), composed of both locals and immigrants from Muhammad's original home of Mecca, developed. Medina is home to three prominent mosques, namely al-Masjid an-Nabawi,[1] Quba Mosque, and Masjid al-Qiblatayn ('The mosque of the two Qiblas'). Muslims believe that the chronologically final surahs of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad in Medina, and are called Medinan surahs in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs.[2][3]

Madina

ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة
Al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah
مَدِيْنَة ٱلنَّبِي
Madīnat an-Nabī

يَثْرِب
Yathrib
The Radiant City
Inside Masjid.e.Nabavi - panoramio
HAC 2010 MEDINE MESCIDI NEBEVI - panoramio
Jannat.ul.Baqi - Madina - panoramio
Mount Uhud
Mohamad shrine 9 - panoramio
Clockwise from top left:
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi interior, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina skyline, Quba Mosque, Mount Uhud
Madina is located in Saudi Arabia
Madina
Madina
Location of Medina
Coordinates: 24°28′N 39°36′E / 24.467°N 39.600°ECoordinates: 24°28′N 39°36′E / 24.467°N 39.600°E
Country Saudi Arabia
RegionAl Madinah
Government
 • MayorKhalid Taher
 • Regional GovernorFaisal bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Area
 • City589 km2 (227 sq mi)
 • Urban
293 km2 (113 sq mi)
Elevation
620 m (2,030 ft)
Population
(2010)
 • City1,183,205
 • Density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
 • Urban
785,204
Time zoneUTC+3 (Arabia Standard Time)
Websitehttps://www.saudi.gov.sa
Medina from ISS 2017
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.

Etymology

The Arabic word al-Madīnah (ٱلْمَدِيْنَة) simply means 'the city'. Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib (pronounced [ˈjaθrib]; يَثْرِب). The word Yathrib has been recorded in Surat al-Ahzab of the Quran.[Quran 33:13]

Also called Taybah (Good) ([ˈtˤajba]; طَيْبَة). And Tabah (Arabic: طَابَة‎; Similar in meaning to the latter) An alternative name is al-Madīnah an-Nabawiyyah (ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلنَّبَوِيَّة) or Madīnat an-Nabī (مَدِيْنَة ٱلنَّبِي, "City of the Prophet").

Overview

As of 2010, the city of Medina has a population of 1,183,205.[4] Inhabitants of Yathrib during the era before Muhammad's arrival also included Jewish tribes. Later the city's name was changed to Madīna-tu n-Nabī or al-Madīnatu 'l-Munawwarah (ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة, "the lighted city" or "the radiant city"). Medina is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, and so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca.[5] Muhammad was buried in Medina, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar, who were buried next to him in what used to be Muhammad's house.

Medina is 210 miles (340 km) north of Mecca and about 120 miles (190 km) from the Red Sea coast. It is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejazi territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. An immense plain extends to the south; in every direction the view is bounded by hills and mountains.

The historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet (9.1 to 12.2 m) high, dating from the 12th century CE, and was flanked with towers, while on a rock, stood a castle. Of its four gates, the Bab-al-Salam, or Egyptian gate, was remarkable for its beauty. Beyond the walls of the city, west and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens and plantations. These suburbs also had walls and gates. Almost all of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era. The rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

The graves of Fatimah (Muhammad's daughter) and Hasan (Muhammad's grandson), across from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi', and Abu Bakr (first caliph and the father of Muhammad's wife, Aisha), and of Umar ibn Al-Khattab), the second caliph, are also here. The mosque dates back to the time of Muhammad, but has been twice reconstructed.[6]

Because of the Saudi government's religious policy and concern that historic sites could become the focus for idolatry, much of Medina's Islamic physical heritage has been altered.

Religious significance in Islam

The Green Dome, Masjid Nabawi, Madina
The Green Dome of the Prophet's Mosque

Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of al-Masjid an-Nabawi. The mosque was expanded by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Mount Uhud is a mountain north of Medina which was the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces.

Quba Mosque, the first mosque reportedly built by Muhammad, is now located in the metropolitan area of Medina. It was destroyed by lightning, probably about 850 CE, and the graves were almost forgotten. In 892, the place was cleared up, the graves located and a fine mosque built, which was destroyed by fire in 1257 CE and almost immediately rebuilt. It was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487.[6]

Masjid al-Qiblatain is another mosque also historically important to Muslims. It is where the command was sent to Muhammad to change the direction of prayer (qibla) from Jerusalem to Mecca, according to a hadith.[7]

Like Mecca, the city of Medina only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram (area closed to non-Muslims) of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. Both cities' numerous mosques are the destination for large numbers of Muslims on their 'Umrah (second pilgrimage after Hajj). Hundreds of thousands of Muslims come to Medina annually while performing pilgrimage Hajj. Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad, caliphs and scholars are buried.

Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina is mentioned several times as being sacred in the Quran, for example ayah; 9:101, 9:129, 59:9, and ayah 63:7. Medinan suras are typically longer than their Mecca counterparts. There is also a book within the hadith of Bukhari titled 'Virtues of Medina'.[8]

Sahih Bukhari says:

Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "Medina is a sanctuary from that place to that. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of God, the angels, and all the people."

History

Pre-7th century

By the fourth century, Arab tribes began to encroach from Yemen, and there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city into the 7th century CE: the Banu Qaynuqa, the Banu Qurayza, and Banu Nadir.[9] Ibn Khordadbeh later reported that during the Persian Empire's domination in Hejaz, the Banu Qurayza served as tax collectors for the Persian Shah.[10]

المدينة المنورة
Historic Medina

The situation changed after the arrival from Yemen of two new Arab tribes named Banu Aus (or Banu 'Aws) and Banu Khazraj. At first, these tribes were allied with Jewish rulers, but later they revolted and became independent.[11] Toward the end of the 5th century,[12] the Jewish rulers lost control of the city to Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj. The Jewish Encyclopedia states that "by calling in outside assistance and treacherously massacring at a banquet the principal Jews", Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj finally gained the upper hand at Medina.[9]

Most modern historians accept the claim of the Muslim sources that after the revolt, the Jewish tribes became clients of the Aus and the Khazraj.[13] However, according to scholar of Islam William Montgomery Watt, the clientship of the Jewish tribes is not borne out by the historical accounts of the period prior to 627, and he maintained that the Jewish populace retained a measure of political independence.[11]

Early Muslim chronicler Ibn Ishaq tells of am ancient conflict between the last Yemenite king of the Himyarite Kingdom[14] and the residents of Yathrib. When the king was passing by the oasis, the residents killed his son, and the Yemenite ruler threatened to exterminate the people and cut down the palms. According to Ibn Ishaq, he was stopped from doing so by two rabbis from the Banu Qurayza tribe, who implored the king to spare the oasis because it was the place "to which a prophet of the Quraysh would migrate in time to come, and it would be his home and resting-place." The Yemenite king thus did not destroy the town and converted to Judaism. He took the rabbis with him, and in Mecca, they reportedly recognised the Ka'bah as a temple built by Abraham and advised the king "to do what the people of Mecca did: to circumambulate the temple, to venerate and honour it, to shave his head and to behave with all humility until he had left its precincts." On approaching Yemen, tells ibn Ishaq, the rabbis demonstrated to the local people a miracle by coming out of a fire unscathed and the Yemenites accepted Judaism.[15]

Eventually the Banu Aus and the Banu Khazraj became hostile to each other and by the time of Muhammad's Hijra (emigration) to Medina in 622 CE/1 AH, they had been fighting for 120 years and were the sworn enemies of each other.[16] The Banu Nadir and the Banu Qurayza were allied with the Aus, while the Banu Qaynuqa sided with the Khazraj.[17] They fought a total of four wars.[11]

Their last and bloodiest battle was the Battle of Bu'ath[11] that was fought a few years before the arrival of Muhammad.[9] The outcome of the battle was inconclusive, and the feud continued. Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, one Khazraj chief, had refused to take part in the battle, which earned him a reputation for equity and peacefulness. Until the arrival of Muhammad, he was the most respected inhabitant of Yathrib. To solve the ongoing feud, concerned residents of the city met secretly with Muhammad in Al-Aqaba, a place between Makkah and Mina, inviting him and his small group of believers to come to Yathrib, where Muhammad could serve as disinterested mediator between the factions and his community could practice its faith freely.

Muhammad's arrival

In 622 CE/1 AH, Muhammad and around 70 Meccan Muhajirun believers left Mecca for sanctuary in Yathrib, an event that transformed the religious and political landscape of the city completely; the longstanding enmity between the Aus and Khazraj tribes was dampened as many of the two Arab tribes and some local Jews embraced Islam. Muhammad, linked to the Khazraj through his great-grandmother, was agreed on as civic leader. The Muslim converts native to Yathrib of whatever background—pagan Arab or Jewish—were called Ansar ("the Patrons" or "the Helpers"), while the Muslims would pay the Zakat tax.

According to Ibn Ishaq, the local pagan Arab tribes, the Muslim Muhajirun from Mecca, the local Muslims (Ansar), and the Jewish population of the area signed an agreement, the Constitution of Medina, which committed all parties to mutual co-operation under the leadership of Muhammad. The nature of this document as recorded by Ibn Ishaq and transmitted by Ibn Hisham is the subject of dispute among modern Western historians, many of whom maintain that this "treaty" is possibly a collage of different agreements, oral rather than written, of different dates, and that it is not clear exactly when they were made. Other scholars, however, both Western and Muslim, argue that the text of the agreement—whether a single document originally or several—is possibly one of the oldest Islamic texts we possess.[18] In Yemenite Jewish sources, another treaty was drafted between Muhammad and his Jewish subjects, known as kitāb ḏimmat al-nabi, written in the 17th year of the Hijra (638 CE), and which gave express liberty unto Jews living in Arabia to observe the Sabbath and to grow-out their side-locks, but were required to pay the jizya (poll-tax) annually for their protection by their patrons.[19]

Battle of Badr

Battle of Badr
Battle positions at Badr

The Battle of Badr was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraysh in Mecca. In the spring of 624, Muhammad received word from his intelligence sources that a trade caravan, commanded by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Chieftain of the Meccan Quraysh, and guarded by thirty to forty men, was travelling from Syria back to Mecca. Muhammad gathered an army of 313 men, the largest army the Muslims had put in the field yet. However, many early Muslim sources, including the Quran, indicate that no serious fighting was expected,[20] and the future Caliph Uthman ibn Affan stayed behind to care for his sick wife.

As the caravan approached Medina, Abu Sufyan began hearing from travellers and riders about Muhammad's planned ambush. He sent a messenger named Damdam to Mecca to warn the Quraysh and get reinforcements. Alarmed, the Quraysh assembled an army of 900–1,000 men to rescue the caravan. Many of the Qurayshi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayyah ibn Khalaf, joined the army. However, some of the army was to later return to Mecca before the battle.

The battle started with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. The Muslims sent out Ali, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Obeida), and Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three mêlée, Hamzah killed his opponent with the very first strike, although Ubaydah was mortally wounded.[21]

Now both armies began firing arrows at each other. Two Muslims and an unknown number of Quraysh were killed. Before the battle started, Muhammad had given orders for the Muslims to attack with their ranged weapons, and only engage the Quraysh with melee weapons when they advanced.[22] Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!"[23][24] The Muslim army yelled "Yā manṣūr amit!"[25] and rushed the Qurayshi lines. The Meccans, although substantially outnumbering the Muslims, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon.[23] The Quran describes the force of the Muslim attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven at Badr to slaughter the Quraysh.[24][26] Early Muslim sources take this account literally, and there are several hadith where Muhammad discusses the Angel Jibreel and the role he played in the battle.

Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Obeida) was given the honour of "he who shot the first arrow for Islam" as Abu Sufyan altered course to flee the attack. In retaliation for this attack Abu Sufyan requested an armed force from Mecca.[27]

Throughout the winter and spring of 623 other raiding parties were sent by Muhammad from Medina.

Battle of Uhud

In 625, Abu Sufyan, who paid tax to the Byzantine empire regularly, once again led a Meccan force against Medina. Muhammad marched out to meet the force but before reaching the battle, about one third of the troops under Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy withdrew. With a smaller force, the Muslim army had to find a strategy to gain the upper hand. A group of archers were ordered to stay on a hill to keep an eye on the Meccan's cavalry forces and to provide protection at the rear of the Muslim's army. As the battle heated up, the Meccans were forced to somewhat retreat. The battle front was pushed further and further away from the archers, whom, from the start of the battle, had really nothing to do but watch. In their growing impatience to be part of the battle, and seeing that they were somewhat gaining advantage over the Kafirun (Infidels) these archers decided to leave their posts to pursue the retreating Meccans. A small party, however, stayed behind; pleading all along to the rest to not disobey their commanders' orders. But their words were lost among the enthusiastic yodels of their comrades.

However, the Meccans' retreat was actually a manufactured manoeuvre that paid off. The hillside position had been a great advantage to the Muslim forces, and they had to be lured off their posts for the Meccans to turn the table over. Seeing that their strategy had actually worked, the Meccans cavalry forces went around the hill and re-appeared behind the pursuing archers. Thus, ambushed in the plain between the hill and the front line, the archers were systematically slaughtered, watched upon by their desperate comrades who stayed behind up in the hill, shooting arrows to thwart the raiders, but to little effect.

However, the Meccans did not capitalise on their advantage by invading Medina and returned to Mecca. The Medinans suffered heavy losses, and Muhammad was injured.

Battle of the Trench

In 627, Abu Sufyan once more led Meccan forces against Medina. Because the people of Medina had dug a trench to further protect the city, this event became known as the Battle of the Trench. After a protracted siege and various skirmishes, the Meccans withdrew again. During the siege, Abu Sufyan had contacted the remaining Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the defenders from behind the lines. It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted. This was in breach of the Constitution of Medina and after the Meccan withdrawal, Muhammad immediately marched against the Qurayza and laid siege to their strongholds. The Jewish forces eventually surrendered. Some members of the Banu Aus now interceded on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to the appointment of one of their chiefs, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh, as judge. Sa'ad judged by Jewish Law that all male members of the tribe should be killed and the women and children enslaved as was the law stated in the Old Testament for treason (Deutoronomy).[28] This action was conceived of as a defensive measure to ensure that the Muslim community could be confident of its continued survival in Medina. The historian Robert Mantran argues that from this point of view it was successful — from this point on, the Muslims were no longer primarily concerned with survival but with expansion and conquest.[28]

Capital city of Muhammad and the Rashidun Caliphate

Madina Munavara
Old depiction of Medina during Ottoman times

In the ten years following the hijra, Medina formed the base from which Muhammad and the Muslim army attacked and were attacked, and it was from here that he marched on Mecca, entering it without battle in 629 CE/8 AH, all parties acquiescing to his leadership. Afterwards, however, despite Muhammad's tribal connection to Mecca and the ongoing importance of the Meccan Ka'bah for Islamic pilgrimage (Hajj), Muhammad returned to Medina, which remained for some years the most important city of Islam and the capital of the early caliphate.

Yathrib was renamed Medina from Madinat al-Nabi ("city of the Prophet" in Arabic) in honour of Muhammad's prophethood and death there. (Alternatively, Lucien Gubbay suggests the name Medina could also have been a derivative from the Aramaic word Medinta, which the Jewish inhabitants could have used for the city.[29])

Under the first three caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, Medina was the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire. During the period of Uthman, the third caliph, a party of Arabs from Egypt, disgruntled at his political decisions, attacked Medina in 656 CE/35 AH and murdered him in his own home. Ali, the fourth caliph, changed the capital of the caliphate from Medina to Kufa in Iraq. After that, Medina's importance dwindled, becoming more a place of religious importance than of political power.

In 1256 CE Medina was threatened by a lava flow from the Harrat Rahat volcanic area.[30][31]

After the fragmentation of the caliphate, the city became subject to various rulers, including the Mamluks of Cairo in the 13th century and finally, in 1517, the Ottoman Empire.[32]

World War I to Saudi control

In the beginning of the 20th century, during World War I, Medina witnessed one of the longest sieges in history. Medina was a city of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Local rule was in the hands of the Hashemite clan as Sharifs or Emirs of Mecca. Fakhri Pasha was the Ottoman governor of Medina. Ali bin Hussein, the Sharif of Mecca and leader of the Hashemite clan, revolted against the Caliph in Constantinople (Istanbul) and sided with Great Britain. The city of Medina was besieged by the Sharif's forces, and Fakhri Pasha tenaciously held on during the Siege of Medina from 1916 till 10 January 1919. He refused to surrender and held on another 72 days after the Armistice of Moudros, until he was arrested by his own men.[33] In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha secretly sent the Sacred Relics of Medina to Istanbul.[34]

As of 1920, the British described Medina as "much more self-supporting than Mecca."[35] After the First World War, the Hashemite Sayyid Hussein bin Ali was proclaimed King of an independent Hejaz. Soon after, in 1924, he was defeated by Ibn Saud, who integrated Medina and the whole of the Hejaz into the modern kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Medina today

Modern Medina
Modern city of Medina

Today, Medina ("Madinah" officially in Saudi documents), in addition to being the second most important Islamic pilgrimage destination after Mecca, is an important regional capital of the western Saudi Arabian province of Al Madinah. Though the city's sacred core of the old city is off limits to non-Muslims, Medina is inhabited by an increasing number of Muslim and non-Muslim expatriate workers of other Arab nationalities (Egyptians, Jordanians, Lebanese, etc.), South Asians (Bangladeshis, Indians, Pakistanis, etc.) and Filipinos.

Geography

The soil surrounding Madinah consists of mostly basalt, while the hills, especially noticeable to the south of the city, are volcanic ash which dates to the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era.

Al Madinah Al Munawarah is located at Eastern Part of Al-Hijaz Region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on longitude 39º 36' E and latitude 24º 28' N.

Madinah is located in the north-western part of the Kingdom, to the east of the Red Sea, which lies only 250 kilometres (160 miles) away from it. It is surrounded by a number of mountains: Al-Hujaj, or Pilgrims' Mountain to the west, Salaa to the north-west, Al-E'er or Caravan Mountain to the south and Uhad to the north. Madinah is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the junction of the three valleys of Al-Aql, Al-Aqiq, and Al-Himdh. For this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry mountainous region. The city is 620 metres (2,030 feet) above sea level. Its western and southwestern parts have many volcanic rocks. Madinah lies at the meeting-point of longitude 39º36' east and latitude 24º28' north. It covers an area of about 50 square kilometres (19 square miles).

Al Madinah Al Munawwarah is a desert oasis surrounded with mountains and stony areas from all sides. It was mentioned in several references and sources. It was known as Yathrib in Writings of ancient Maeniand, this is obvious evidence that the population structure of this desert oasis is a combination of north Arabs and South Arabs, who settled there and built their civilisation during the thousand years before Christ.

Climate

Medina has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). Summers are extremely hot with daytime temperatures averaging about 43 °C (109 °F) with nights about 29 °C (84 °F). Temperatures above 45 °C (113 °F) are not unusual between June and September. Winters are milder, with temperatures from 12 °C (54 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the day. There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May.

Climate data for Medina (1985–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.2
(91.8)
36.6
(97.9)
40.0
(104.0)
43.0
(109.4)
46.0
(114.8)
47.0
(116.6)
49.0
(120.2)
48.4
(119.1)
46.4
(115.5)
42.8
(109.0)
36.8
(98.2)
32.2
(90.0)
49.0
(120.2)
Average high °C (°F) 24.2
(75.6)
26.6
(79.9)
30.6
(87.1)
34.3
(93.7)
39.6
(103.3)
42.9
(109.2)
42.9
(109.2)
43.5
(110.3)
42.3
(108.1)
36.3
(97.3)
30.6
(87.1)
26.0
(78.8)
35.2
(95.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.9
(75.0)
28.5
(83.3)
33.0
(91.4)
36.3
(97.3)
36.5
(97.7)
37.1
(98.8)
35.6
(96.1)
30.4
(86.7)
24.2
(75.6)
19.8
(67.6)
28.6
(83.5)
Average low °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
13.4
(56.1)
16.8
(62.2)
21.2
(70.2)
25.5
(77.9)
28.4
(83.1)
29.1
(84.4)
29.9
(85.8)
27.9
(82.2)
21.9
(71.4)
17.7
(63.9)
13.5
(56.3)
21.5
(70.7)
Record low °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
3.0
(37.4)
7.0
(44.6)
11.5
(52.7)
14.0
(57.2)
21.7
(71.1)
22.0
(71.6)
23.0
(73.4)
18.2
(64.8)
11.6
(52.9)
9.0
(48.2)
3.0
(37.4)
1.0
(33.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.3
(0.25)
3.1
(0.12)
9.8
(0.39)
9.6
(0.38)
5.1
(0.20)
0.1
(0.00)
1.1
(0.04)
4.0
(0.16)
0.4
(0.02)
2.5
(0.10)
10.4
(0.41)
7.8
(0.31)
60.2
(2.37)
Average rainy days 2.6 1.4 3.2 4.1 2.9 0.1 0.4 1.5 0.6 2.0 3.3 2.5 24.6
Average relative humidity (%) 38 31 25 22 17 12 14 16 14 19 32 38 23
Source: Jeddah Regional Climate Center[36]

Religion

As with most cities in Saudi Arabia, Islam is the religion adhered by the majority of the population of Medina. Sunnis of different schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali) constitute the majority while there is a significant Shia minority in and around Medina, such as the Nakhawila. Outside the city centre (reserved for Muslims only), there are significant numbers of non-Muslim migrant workers and expats.

Madina Haram at evening
Masjid Nabawi at sunset

Economy

Louvre - carreaux ottomans 07
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.

Historically, Medina is known for growing dates. As of 1920, 139 varieties of dates were being grown in the area.[37] Medina also was known for growing many types of vegetables.[38]

The Medina Knowledge Economic City project, a city focused on knowledge-based industries, has been planned and is expected to boost development and increase the number of jobs in Medina.[39]

The city is served by the Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport which opened in 1974. It handles on average 20–25 flights a day, although this number triples during the Hajj season and school holidays. With the increasing number of pilgrim visiting each year, many hotels are being constructed.

Education

Universities include:

High schools include

  • Uhud High School
  • Abrar High School
  • Miraz Al Eman High school
  • Prince Abdulmohsen's High School
  • Al Rayan School Community
  • Abdullah Ibn Al Sai'b High School

Transport

Air

Terminal Lama Bandar Udara Internasional Pangeran Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Madinah
Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport

Medina is served by Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport (IATA: MED, ICAO: OEMA) located about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) from the city centre. This airport handles mostly domestic destinations and it has limited international services to regional destinations such as Cairo, Bahrain, Istanbul and Kuwait.

Rail

A high speed inter-city rail line (Haramain High Speed Rail Project also known as the "Western Railway"), is under construction in Saudi Arabia. It will link Medina and Mecca via King Abdullah Economic City, Rabigh, Jeddah and King Abdulaziz International Airport, along 444 kilometres (276 miles).[40] A three-line metro is also planned.[41]

Road

Major roads that connect city of Medina to other parts of the country are:

Bus

Medina Bus Transport finds the route to the nearest bus stop and al-Masjid an-Nabawi. Now, Madinah has a new bus service called 'tourist bus' to give a tour of Madinah and its historical places (including "The Prophet's Mosque").[42]

Destruction of heritage

The Haram Al-Nabawi in Medina - Ottoman period
Al Haram Al-Nabawi in Medina, as shown on a 17th-century ceramic tile.

Saudi Arabia is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to shirk (idolatry). As a consequence, under Saudi rule, Medina has suffered from considerable destruction of its physical heritage including the loss of many buildings over a thousand years old.[43] Critics have described this as "Saudi vandalism" and claim that in Medina and Mecca over the last 50 years, 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost.[44] In Medina, examples of historic sites which have been destroyed include the Salman al-Farsi Mosque, the Raj'at ash-Shams Mosque, the Jannatul Baqee cemetery, and the house of Muhammed.[45]

See also

References

  1. ^ /məˈdiːnə/; Arabic: ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or ٱلْمَدِيْنَة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"
  1. ^ "Masjid Quba' – Hajj". Saudi Arabia: Hajinformation.com. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  2. ^ Historical value of the Qur'ân and the Ḥadith A.M. Khan
  3. ^ What Everyone Should Know About the Qur'an Ahmed Al-Laithy
  4. ^ "The population of Medina 2016" (PDF).
  5. ^ However, an article in Aramco World by John Anthony states: "To the perhaps parochial Muslims of North Africa in fact the sanctity of Kairouan is second only to Mecca among all cities of the world." Saudi Aramco's bimonthly magazine's goal is to broaden knowledge of the cultures, history and geography of the Arab and Muslim worlds and their connections with the West; pages 30–36 of the January/February 1967 print edition The Fourth Holy City
  6. ^ a b 1954 Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 18, pp.587, 588
  7. ^ "Place Pilgrims Visit During or After Performing Hajj / Umrah". Dawntravels.com. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  8. ^ hadith found in 'Virtues of Madinah' of Sahih Bukhari searchtruth.com
  9. ^ a b c Jewish Encyclopedia Medina
  10. ^ Peters 193
  11. ^ a b c d "Al-Medina." Encyclopaedia of Islam
  12. ^ for date see "J. Q. R." vii. 175, note
  13. ^ See e.g., Peters 193; "Qurayza", Encyclopaedia Judaica
  14. ^ Muslim sources usually referred to Himyar kings by the dynastic title of "Tubba'".
  15. ^ Guillaume 7–9, Peters 49–50
  16. ^ Subhani, The Message: The Events of the First Year of Migration Archived 24 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ For alliances, see Guillaume 253
  18. ^ Firestone 118. For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e.g., Peters 116; "Muhammad", "Encyclopaedia of Islam"; "Kurayza, Banu", "Encyclopaedia of Islam".
  19. ^ Shelomo Dov Goitein, The Yemenites – History, Communal Organization, Spiritual Life (Selected Studies), editor: Menahem Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem 1983, pp. 288–299. ISBN 965-235-011-7
  20. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 287 Archived 21 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2659 Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2658 Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ a b Armstrong, p. 176.
  24. ^ a b Lings, p. 148.
  25. ^ "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!"
  26. ^ Quran: Al-i-Imran 3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali). "Allah had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude.§ Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?§ "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught.§"
  27. ^ The Biography of Mahomet, and Rise of Islam. Chapter Fourth. Extension of Islam and Early Converts, from the assumption by Mahomet of the prophetical office to the date of the first Emigration to Abyssinia by William Muir Archived 7 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ a b Robert Mantran, L'expansion musulmane Presses Universitaires de France 1995, p. 86.
  29. ^ "The Jews of Arabia". dangoor.com.
  30. ^ "Harrat Rahat". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  31. ^ Bosworth,C. Edmund: Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 385 – "Half-a-century later, in 654/1256, Medina was threatened by a volcanic eruption. After a series of earthquakes, a stream of lava appeared, but fortunately flowed to the east of the town and then northwards."
  32. ^ Somel, Selcuk Aksin (13 February 2003). "Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.
  33. ^ Peters, Francis (1994). Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. PP376-377. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03267-X
  34. ^ Mohmed Reda Bhacker (1992). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination. Routledge Chapman & Hall. P63: Following the plunder of Medina in 1810 'when the Prophet's tomb was opened and its jewels and relics sold and distributed among the Wahhabi soldiery'. P122: the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II was at last moved to act against such outrage.
  35. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 103.
  36. ^ "Climate Data for Saudi Arabia". Jeddah Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  37. ^ Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 83.
  38. ^ Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 86.
  39. ^ Economic cities a rise Archived 24 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "High speed stations for a high speed railway". Railway Gazette International. 23 April 2009.
  41. ^ "Madinah metro design contract". Railway Gazette International. 13 March 2015.
  42. ^ "النقل الترددي في المدينة المنورة – النقل الترددي يقل 300 ألف مصل إلى المسجد النبوي خلال 15 يوما". mss.gov.sa. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  43. ^ Howden, Daniel (6 August 2005). "The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage". The Independent. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  44. ^ Islamic heritage lost as Makkah modernises, Center for Islamic Pluralism
  45. ^ History of the Cemetery of Jannat al-Baqi retrieved 17 January 2011

External links

Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (Arabic: أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة‎; c. 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Abu Bakr was born in Mecca in 573 CE to Uthman Abu Quhafa and Salma Umm al-Khair. He is commonly regarded as the fourth person to have accepted Islam, after Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Ali ibn Abi Talib, and Zayd ibn Harith. Abu Bakr was present at a number of battles of Islam, such as the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud; his role in the early battles of Islam has been the subject of extensive analysis by historians.Abu Bakr was present at the Farewell Pilgrimage, as well as the event of Ghadir Khumm, in 632 CE. However, shortly after Muhammad passed away, Abu Bakr and some others left the still-unburied body of Muhammad and gathered at a place known as Saqifa. After lengthy debates that included violence, Umar ibn Al-Khattab pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr at Saqifa; he was followed in this by two others at Saqifa, as well as a group of Bedouin tribesmen who had arrived at the scene. Saqifa was later described by the famous Sunni historian Al-Tabari as "a scene from the period of Jahiliya (the pre-Islamic era)".Abu Bakr thus assumed power, ruling over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE. Once in power, Abu Bakr launched the Ridda Wars to quell an outbreak of "apostasy" in various lands outside Medina. The Ridda Wars, however, were expanded to include the use of force against Muslims who did not recognize Abu Bakr's government, instead of solely focusing on those who had left Islam. After the conclusion of the Ridda Wars, Abu Bakr launched campaigns into Syria and Persia, but died before their conclusion. Another significant event during Abu Bakr's reign was the seizure of the land of Fadak from Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter.In 634 CE, Abu Bakr fell ill from a sickness and died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by Umar.

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi

Al-Masjid an-Nabawī (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ‎, "The Prophet's Mosque") is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia. It was the third mosque built in the history of Islam, and is now one of the largest mosques in the world. It is the second-holiest site in Islam, after the Great Mosque in Mecca. It is always open, regardless of date or time.

The site was originally adjacent to Muhammad's house; he settled there after his migration from Mecca to Medina in 622. He shared in the heavy work of construction. The original mosque was an open-air building. The mosque served as a community center, a court, and a religious school. There was a raised platform for the people who taught the Quran. Subsequent Islamic rulers greatly expanded and decorated it. In 1909, it became the first place in the Arabian Peninsula to be provided with electrical lights. The mosque is under the control of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The mosque is located in what was traditionally the center of Medina, with many hotels and old markets nearby. It is a major pilgrimage site. Many pilgrims who perform the Hajj go on to Medina to visit the mosque, due to its connection to Muhammad.

After an expansion during the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, it now incorporates the final resting place of Muhammad and the first two Rashidun caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar. One of the most notable features of the site is the Green Dome in the south-east corner of the mosque, originally Aisha's house, where the tomb of Muhammad is located. In 1279, a wooden cupola was built over the tomb which was later rebuilt and renovated multiple times in late 15th century and once in 1817. The current dome was added in 1818 by the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II, and it was first painted green in 1837, hence becoming known as the "Green Dome".

Anabel Medina Garrigues

Ana Isabel Medina Garrigues (Spanish: [anaˈβel meˈðina ɣaˈriɣes], Valencian: [anaˈbɛl meˈðina ɣaˈriɣes]; born 31 July 1982) is a Spanish tennis coach and former player. As a player she reached a career-high ranking of world No. 16 in 2009, and won 11 singles and 28 doubles titles, including the 2008 and 2009 French Open with Virginia Ruano Pascual. Like many of her Spanish compatriots, she was a clay-court specialist who grinds to win most of her rallies. However, unlike most of her fellow Spaniards, she preferred to play on hard courts.

She won the WTA tournament in Strasbourg, beating Katarina Srebotnik in the final in May 2008, thus defending the title she won the previous year against Amélie Mauresmo. Her other singles titles came in Palermo in 2006, 2005, 2004 and 2001, Canberra in 2006, Strasbourg in 2005 and Fès in 2009.

After retirement from singles tennis (she continues playing doubles) at the end of the 2014 season, Medina Garrigues became a professional coach, gaining success while working for Jeļena Ostapenko, who won the 2017 French Open Grand Slam title. In late 2017, she was named captain of Spain's Fed Cup team. She has also become tournament organizer at Valencia Open.

Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench (Arabic: غزوة الخندق‎, translit. Ghazwat al-Khandaq), also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Arabic: غزوة الاحزاب‎, translit. Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000.

The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco.

The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution.

The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.

Hegira

The Hegira (medieval Latin transliteration, also Arabic: هِجْرَة‎, Hijra) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622. In June 622, after being warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly left his home in Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, 320 km (200 mi) north of Mecca, along with his companion Abu Bakr. Yathrib was soon renamed Madīnat an-Nabī (Arabic: مَدينة النّبي‎, literally "City of the Prophet"), but an-Nabī was soon dropped, so its name is "Medina", meaning "the city".The Hijrah is also often identified with the start of the Islamic calendar, which was set to 19 April 622 in the Julian calendar.

Holiest sites in Islam

There are sites, which are mentioned or referred to in the Quran, that are considered holy to Islam. Mecca and Medina in the Hejaz are the two holiest cities in Islam, unanimous among all sects. In the Islamic tradition, the Kaaba in Mecca is considered the holiest site, followed by the Prophet's Mosque in Medina, and apart from them, Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is held in high esteem.Many different sites have been labelled as fourth Holiest, including the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Sanctuary of Abraham in Hebron, Bukhara, Eyüp district in Istanbul, and Harar.

Imam

Imam (; Arabic: إمام‎ imām; plural: أئمة aʼimmah) is an Islamic leadership position.

It is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance.

For Shi'a Muslims, the imam has a more central meaning and role in Islam through the concept of imamah; the term is only applicable to those members of Ahl al-Bayt, the house of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, designated as infallibles.

Lina Medina

Lina Marcela Medina de Jurado (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlina meˈðina]; born 23 September 1933) is a Peruvian woman who became the youngest confirmed birth mother in medical history, giving birth at the age of five years, seven months, and 21 days.

Marrakesh

Marrakesh ( or ; Arabic: مراكش‎ Murrākuš; Berber languages: ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec, French: Marrakech) is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca, Fez and Tangier. It is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Located to the north of the foothills of the snow-capped Atlas Mountains, Marrakesh is situated 580 km (360 mi) southwest of Tangier, 327 km (203 mi) southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km (149 mi) south of Casablanca, and 246 km (153 mi) northeast of Agadir.

Marrakesh is possibly the most important of Morocco's four former imperial cities. The region has been inhabited by Berber farmers since Neolithic times, but the actual city was founded in 1062, by Abu Bakr ibn Umar, chieftain and cousin of Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin. In the 12th century, the Almoravids built many madrasas (Koranic schools) and mosques in Marrakesh that bear Andalusian influences. The red walls of the city, built by Ali ibn Yusuf in 1122–1123, and various buildings constructed in red sandstone during this period, have given the city the nickname of the "Red City" or "Ochre City". Marrakesh grew rapidly and established itself as a cultural, religious, and trading center for the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa; Jemaa el-Fnaa is the busiest square in Africa.

After a period of decline, the city was surpassed by Fez, but in the early 16th century, Marrakesh again became the capital of the kingdom. The city regained its preeminence under wealthy Saadian sultans Abu Abdallah al-Qaim and Ahmad al-Mansur, who embellished the city with sumptuous palaces such as the El Badi Palace (1578) and restored many ruined monuments. Beginning in the 17th century, the city became popular among Sufi pilgrims for Morocco's seven patron saints, who are entombed here. In 1912 the French Protectorate in Morocco was established and T'hami El Glaoui became Pasha of Marrakesh and held this position nearly throughout the protectorate until the role was dissolved upon the independence of Morocco and the reestablishment of the monarchy in 1956. In 2009, Marrakesh mayor Fatima Zahra Mansouri became the second woman to be elected mayor in Morocco.

Like many Moroccan cities, Marrakesh comprises an old fortified city packed with vendors and their stalls (the medina, a UNESCO World Heritage Site), bordered by modern neighbourhoods, the most prominent of which is Gueliz. Today it is one of the busiest cities in Africa and serves as a major economic center and tourist destination. Tourism is strongly advocated by the reigning Moroccan monarch, Mohammed VI, with the goal of doubling the number of tourists visiting Morocco to 20 million by 2020. Despite the economic recession, real estate and hotel development in Marrakesh have grown dramatically in the 21st century. Marrakesh is particularly popular with the French, and numerous French celebrities own property in the city. Marrakesh has the largest traditional market (souk) in Morocco, with some 18 souks selling wares ranging from traditional Berber carpets to modern consumer electronics. Crafts employ a significant percentage of the population, who primarily sell their products to tourists. Marrakesh is one of North Africa’s largest centers of wildlife trade, despite the illegality of much of this trade. Much of this trade can be found in the medina and adjacent squares. Tortoises are particularly popular for sale as pets, but Barbary macaques and snakes can also be seen.Marrakesh is served by Ménara International Airport and the Marrakesh railway station, which connects the city to Casablanca and northern Morocco. Marrakesh has several universities and schools, including Cadi Ayyad University. A number of Moroccan football clubs are located here, including Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech. The Marrakesh Street Circuit hosts the World Touring Car Championship, Auto GP and FIA Formula Two Championship races.

Medina, Ohio

Medina ( mi-DY-nə) is a city in Medina County, Ohio approximately 33 mi (53 km) south of Cleveland and 23 mi (37 km) west of Akron. The population was 26,678 at the 2010 Census. It is the county seat of Medina County.

Medina, Washington

Medina ( (listen)) is a mostly residential city in Eastside, King County, Washington, United States. The city is on a peninsula in Lake Washington, on the opposite shore from Seattle, bordered by Clyde Hill and Hunts Point to the east and water on all other sides. The city's population was 2,969 at the 2010 census. Billionaires Bill Gates and Jeff Bezos, along with a number of Microsoft executives, or other associates of Gates, have homes in Medina.

Medina County, Ohio

Medina County (pronounced ) is a county in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 172,332. Its county seat is Medina. The county was created in 1812 and later organized in 1818. It is named for Medina, though the "I" in it is pronounced as in "dine."Medina County is part of the Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, although some communities have closer ties to the Akron area.

Medina County, Texas

Medina County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,006. Its county seat is Hondo. The county is named for the Medina River.

The Medina Dam, the fourth largest in the nation when completed in 1913, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The irrigation project, creating Medina Lake, was built by 1500 skilled workers who worked in shifts operating 24 hours a day to complete the dam in two years.

Medina County is part of the San Antonio, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Muhammad

Muhammad (Arabic: مُحمّد‎, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six. He was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib and Abu Talib's wife Fatimah bint Asad. In later years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer. When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, and receiving his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God is the right course of action (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.The followers of Muhammad were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

Muhammad in Islam

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (Arabic: مُحَمَّد ابْن عَبْد الله ابْن عَبْد الْمُطَّلِب ابْن هَاشِم‎) (c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam. Muslims also believe that the Quran, which is the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, and that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Ibrahim, Musa, 'Isa, and other Prophets. The religious, social, and political tenets that Muhammad established with the Quran became the foundation of Islam and the Muslim world.Muslims often refer to Muhammad as Prophet Muhammad, or just The Prophet or The Messenger, and regard him as the greatest of all Prophets. He is seen by the Muslims as a possessor of all virtues. As an act of respect, most Muslims follow the name of Muhammad by the Arabic benediction sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, (meaning Peace be upon him), sometimes abbreviated as SAW or PBUH.

The deeds and sayings in the life of Muhammad – known as Sunnah – are considered a model of the life-style that Muslims are obliged to follow. Recognizing Muhammad as God's final messenger is one of the central requirements in Islam which is clearly laid down in the second part of the Shahada (شَهادة, "Testimony" or proclamation of faith): Lā ilāha illā l-Lāh, Muhammadun Rasūlu l-Lāh (لا إله إلّا الله، محمّدٌ رّسول الله, "There is no god but God, Muhammad is the Messenger of God"). The Quran, in passages such as 3:132, 48:29 and 66:1, often uses the words "messenger" and "prophet" (such as ar-Rasūl (الرَّسول, "The Messenger") or Rasūl Allāh (رَسول الله, "Messenger of God") for Muhammad, and asks people to follow him, so as to become successful in this hayāt (حَياة, 'life') and al-Ākhirah (الآخرة, the Afterlife).

Born about 570 into a respected Qurayshi family of Mecca, Muhammad earned the title "al-Amin" (الامين, meaning "the Trustworthy"). At the age of 40 in 610 CE, Muhammad is said to have received his first verbal revelation in the cave called Hira, which was the beginning of the descent of the Quran that continued up to the end of his life; and Muslims hold that Muhammad was asked by God to preach the oneness of God in order to stamp out idolatry, a practice overtly present in pre-Islamic Arabia. Because of persecution of the newly converted Muslims, upon the invitation of a delegation from Medina (then known as Yathrib), Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina in 622 CE, an event known as the Hijrah. A turning point in Muhammad's life, this Hegira also marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad sketched out the Constitution of Medina specifying the rights of and relations among the various existing communities there, formed an independent community, and managed to establish the first Islamic state. Despite the ongoing hostility of the Meccans, Muhammad, along with his followers, took control of Mecca in 630 CE, and ordered the destruction of all pagan idols. In later years in Medina, Muhammad unified the different tribes of Arabia under Islam, carried out social and religious reforms. By the time he died in 632, almost all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.

Muhammad in Medina

The Islamic prophet Muhammad came to Medina following the migration of his followers in what is known as the Hijra (migration to Medina) in 622. He had been invited to Medina by city leaders to adjudicate disputes between clans from which the city suffered. He left Medina to return to and conquer Mecca in December 629.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Medina County, Ohio

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Medina County, Ohio.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Medina County, Ohio, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map.There are 29 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Another property was once listed but has been removed.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 15, 2019.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Medina County, Texas

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Medina County, Texas.

This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Medina County, Texas. There are two districts and seven individual properties listed on the National Register in the county. One district includes an individually listed property that is also a State Historic Site, State Antiquities Landmark (SAL), and a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark (RTHL). This district contains several other RTHLs while properties elsewhere in the county include one more SAL and RTHL.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 15, 2019.

Ummah

Ummah (Arabic: أمة‎ [ˈʊm.mæ]) is an Arabic word meaning "community". It is distinguished from Shaʻb (شعب [ʃæʕb]) which means a nation with common ancestry or geography. Thus, it can be said to be a supra-national community with a common history.

It is a synonym for ummat al-Islām (أمة الإسلام, 'the Islamic community'), and it is commonly used to mean the collective community of Islamic people. In the Quran the ummah typically refers to a single group that shares common religious beliefs, specifically those that are the objects of a divine plan of salvation. In the context of pan-Islamism and politics, the word ummah can be used to mean the concept of a Commonwealth of the Believers (أمة المؤمنين ummat al-muʼminīn).

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