Medical evacuation

Medical evacuation, often shortened to medevac[1] or medivac,[1] is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to wounded being evacuated from a battlefield, to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of an accident to receiving medical facilities, or to patients at a rural hospital requiring urgent care at a better-equipped facility using medically equipped ground vehicles (ambulances) or aircraft (air ambulances).[1]

Examples include civilian EMS vehicles, civilian aeromedical helicopter services, and Army air ambulances. This term also covers the transfer of patients from the battlefield to a treatment facility or from one treatment facility to another by medical personnel, such as from a local hospital to a trauma center.

Agusta A109K2 Slovensko (25)
An AW109 helicopter evacuates a patient from the Tatra mountains in Slovakia

History

USAF R-5 medevac Korean War
USAF Sikorsky R-5 Helicopter evacuates casualties during the Korean War
Medevac mission, Balad Air Base, Iraq
An aeromedical evacuation of injured patients by a C-17 from Balad, Iraq to Ramstein, Germany, in 2007

The first medical transport by air was recorded in Serbia in the autumn of 1915 during First World War.[2] One of the ill soldiers in that first medical transport was Milan Rastislav Štefánik, a Slovak pilot-volunteer who was flown to safety by French aviator Louis Paulhan.[3]

The United States Army used this lifesaving technique in Burma toward the end of World War II with Sikorsky R-4B helicopters. The first helicopter rescue was by 2nd Lt Carter Harman, in Japanese-held Burma, who had to make several hops to get his Sikorsky YR-4B to the 1st Air Commando Group's secret airfield in enemy territory and then made four trips from there between April 25 and 26 to recover the American pilot and four injured British soldiers, one at a time.[4] The first medivac under fire was done in Manila in 1945 when five pilots evacuated 75-80 soldiers one or two at a time.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Merriam-Webster (2012). "Medevac". Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  2. ^ Serbia, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of. "Veliki rat - Avijacija". rts.rs.
  3. ^ L'homme-vent, special issue of L'Ami de Pézenas, 2010
  4. ^ Fries, Patrick. When I Have Your Wounded: The Dustoff Legacy (DVD), Arrowhead Films, 2013.
  5. ^ Conner, Roger. Medevac From Luzon, Air & Space Magazine, July 2010.

External links

335 Medical Evacuation Regiment

335 Medical Evacuation Regiment is a British Army medical regiment and part of 2 Medical Brigade. It is an Army Reserve unit, part of the Royal Army Medical Corps, and has a unique role within the Armed Forces.

The Regiment is paired with all three of the armoured medical regiments within the Reactive Force: 1 Armoured Medical Regiment, 4 Armoured Medical Regiment and 5 Armoured Medical Regiment. Although it is administered from Queen Elizabeth Barracks in North Yorkshire, as a specialist unit the regiment recruits reservists from all over the UK.

55th Rescue Squadron

The 55th Rescue Squadron is an aviation unit of the United States Air Force. It operates the Sikorsky HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter and provides rapidly deployable combat search and rescue forces to theater commanders worldwide. They tactically employ the HH-60G helicopter and its crew in hostile environments to recover downed aircrew and isolated personnel during day, night, or marginal weather conditions. The squadron also conducts military operations other than war including civil search and rescue, disaster relief, international aid, emergency medical evacuation, and counter-drug activities.Since 2003, the squadron provided rapidly deployable combat search and rescue forces worldwide; and deployed aircraft and crews in response to national disasters, domestic search and rescue, and medical evacuation ("MEDEVAC") missions.

Aeromedical evacuation

Aeromedical evacuation (AE) usually refers to the use of military transport aircraft to carry wounded personnel.

The first recorded British ambulance flight took place in 1917 in the Sinai peninsula some 30 miles south of El Arish when a Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c flew out a soldier in the Imperial Camel Corps who had been shot in the ankle during the raid on Bir el Hassana. The flight took 45 minutes; the same journey by land would have taken some 3 days.In the 1920s several aeromedical services, both official and unofficial, started up in various parts of the world. Aircraft were still primitive at the time, with limited capabilities, and the efforts received mixed reviews.

Development of the idea continued. France and the United Kingdom used fully organized aeromedical evacuation services during the African and Middle Eastern colonial wars of the 1920s. In 1920, the British, while suppressing the "Mad Mullah" in Somaliland, used an Airco DH.9A fitted out as an air ambulance. It carried a single stretcher under a fairing behind the pilot. The French evacuated over 7,000 casualties during that period. By 1936, an organized military air ambulance service evacuated wounded from the Spanish Civil War for medical treatment in Nazi Germany.

The first use of medevac with helicopters was the evacuation of three British pilot combat casualties by a US Army Sikorsky in Burma during WW2, and the first dedicated use of helicopters by U.S. forces occurred during the Korean War, between 1950 and 1953.

Air Born Indonesia

Air Born Indonesia is national private Air Charter Company established on December 9, 2010. Air Born is currently base in Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan offering a comprehensive Air Transport.

Air Born is a fast growing company specialize in remote Air Transport operations for Mining, Oil and Gas Company in transporting their Executives, Employees, Contractors, Emergency Medical Evacuation and critical spare parts.

Airfast Indonesia

PT. Airfast Indonesia is an air carrier based in Tangerang, Indonesia in Greater Jakarta. It specialises in contract operations, aviation management services and charter passenger and cargo services to the oil, mining and construction industries in Indonesia and other countries in the area. It is also involved in aerial mapping, survey flights, heli-logging and medical evacuation services. Its main base is Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Jakarta. Airfast Indonesia is listed in Category 1 by Indonesian Civil Aviation Authority for airline safety quality. Airfast Indonesia is one of five airlines now allowed to fly into Europe from Indonesia.

Casualty evacuation

Casualty evacuation, also known as CASEVAC or by the callsign Dustoff or colloquially Dust Off, is a military term for the emergency patient evacuation of casualties from a combat zone. Casevac can be done by both ground and air. "DUSTOFF" is the callsign specific to U.S. Army Air Ambulance units. CASEVACs by air today are almost exclusively done by helicopter, a practice begun on a small scale toward the end of World War II; before that, STOL aircraft, such as the Fieseler Fi 156 or Piper J-3 were used. Casevac aircraft are a non-standardized and non-dedicated vehicle that does not necessarily have en route care, which is used to get a casualty back to another location where they can be treated by professional medical staff.

The primary difference between a CASEVAC and a medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) is that a MEDEVAC uses a standardized and dedicated vehicle providing en route care. On the other hand, CASEVAC uses non-standardized and non-dedicated vehicles that may or may not provide en route care. CASEVACs are commonly referred to as "a lift/flight of opportunity". If a corpsman/medic on the ground calls for a CASEVAC, the closest available unit with space could be called to assist, regardless of its medical capabilities. This could include U.S. Marine Corps aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey, U.S. Navy SH-60 Seahawk helicopters, or CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters. The guiding principle in a CASEVAC is to transport casualties that are in dire need for evacuation from the battlefield and do not have time to wait on a MEDEVAC. MEDEVAC aircraft and ground transport are mandated by the Geneva Convention to be unarmed and well marked. Firing on "clearly marked and identified" MEDEVAC vehicles would be considered a war crime under Article II of the Geneva Convention, in the same sense as firing on a hospital ship would be a war crime. CASEVAC transport are allowed to be armed since they are normally used for other purposes but carry no penalties for engagement by hostile forces."Dust Off" was the tactical call sign for medical evacuation missions first used in 1963 by Major Lloyd E. Spencer, Commander of the U.S. Army 57th Medical Detachment (Helicopter Ambulance). The name lasted the rest of the war. Typically air ambulances transport wounded soldiers categorized as "urgent" patients from point of injury to a medical facility within an hour of soldier(s) being wounded. Flying into an active landing zone to pick up wounded was a dangerous job. Peter Dorland and James Nanney wrote in Dust Off: Army Aeromedical Evacuation in Vietnam, "... slightly more a third of the aviators became casualties in their work, and the crew chiefs and medical corpsmen who accompanied them suffered similarly. The danger of their work was further borne out by the high rate of air ambulance loss to hostile fire: 3.3 times that of all other forms of helicopter missions in the Vietnam War."All members of the US Armed Forces today are trained in some form of basic first aid. While lacking advanced life saving equipment and medical personnel in regular vehicles, all personnel today enter the combat zone with an Improved First Aid Kit (IFAK) on their equipment. The IFAK has basic medical supplies such as bandages, a tourniquet, and QuikClot gauze. Most units have stretchers and burn blankets in their vehicles. In addition each unit is staffed by a corpsman or medic. These professionals are trained in Tactical Combat Casualty Care.The U.S. military has worked to ensure dedicated MEDEVAC platforms with trained medical personnel are available in the event of a casualty. This has, in part, led to a 90.6% casualty survival rate, compared to 80.9% in World War II.In Australian military terminology, a CASEVAC refers to the evacuation of a small number of troops, usually just one.

Chinese medical evacuation ship Zhuanghe

Zhuanghe (865) (Chinese: 庄河) is a converted container ship that entered service with People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) South Sea Fleet in 2004. The modular container ship is intended for various missions with the primary task of medical evacuation, but with different modules, it can also perform other missions such as troop transport, naval and aviation training.

Originally, Zhuanghe was the third ship of the Xianghe (香河) class container ships built by West Germany in the mid-1980s for COSCO, with some minor differences between each ship of this class, such as number of containers carried and propulsion system. A total of four ships were built by three different German shipyards and Zhuanghe itself was built by Seebeckwerft in 1985 and entered service in July of the same year. Standard capacity was a total of 1668 containers, including 108 for refrigerated containers. Approximately half of the containers were carried above the deck, and the other half below deck in cargo holds. The ship was divided into six cargo holds with a volume of approximately 39,905 cubic meters. A total of 118 bottles of carbon dioxide dry powder fire extinguishers were carried to fight potential fire, which would be detected by automatic fire detection system. As a container ship, Zhuanghe was crewed by a total of 32 sailors. Standard rescue equipment included two lifeboats each with capacity of 41 people, a liferaft on the port side with capacity of 25 people and two life rafts on starboard side each with capacity of 31 people.The conversion of Zhuanghe was completed in 2004 and the number of lifeboats and life rafts were increased, while the number of containers were drastically reduced because containers are not stacked above deck any more. A total of a hundred container sized modules are carried, and any combination can be selected based on the mission requirement. Built as a cargo ship, not much consideration was given to passenger comfort because Zhuanghe was not a cruise ship, and only carried a very small crew due to high levels of automation. Due to the lack of information released about the ship, it is not clear if Zhuanghe is stable enough to allow extremely complex surgeries to be performed in extremely adverse weather like the Type 920 hospital ship, a capability the earlier Qiaongsha class ambulance transport, also converted from a cargo ship does not have.

Club One Air

Club One Air is an air charter company in India based on the fractional ownership model. Based in Delhi, Mumbai and Visakhapatnam.

It is Asia's first aircraft fractional ownership company. It launched its operations from Delhi in August 2005 and Mumbai in March 2006.

Club One Air specializes in corporate and tourism charter and also provides medical evacuation services across India.

Deraya Air Taxi

Deraya Air Taxi is an airline based in Jakarta, Indonesia. It operates commuter, charter, medical evacuation, and aerial photography services, as well as a flying school. Its main base is Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, Jakarta, with a hub at Husein Sastranegara International Airport, Bandung. Deraya Air Taxi is listed in category 2 by Indonesian Civil Aviation Authority for airline safety quality.

Eurocopter EC635

The Eurocopter EC635 (now Airbus Helicopters H135M) is a multi-purpose light helicopter developed by Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters) as a military version of the Eurocopter EC135. It is a twin-engined aircraft and can carry up to 8 people, including the pilot, and a range of military equipment or armaments. The helicopter is marketed for troop transport, medical evacuation, cargo transport, reconnaissance and surveillance and armed combat support missions.

European Medical Command

The European Medical Command (EMC) is a planned medical command centre in support of the military operations of the European Union, as part of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO).The EMC will provide the EU with a permanent medical capability to support operations abroad, including medical resources and a rapidly deployable medical task force. The EMC will also provide medical evacuation facilities, triage and resuscitation, treatment and holding of patients until they can be returned to duty, and emergency dental treatment. It will also contribute to harmonising medical standards, certification and legal (civil) framework conditions.

Evacuation

Evacuation or Evacuate may refer to:

Casualty evacuation (CASEVAC), patient evacuation in combat situations

Casualty movement, the procedure for moving a casualty from its initial location to an ambulance

Emergency evacuation, removal of persons from a dangerous place due to a disaster or impending war

Medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), evacuating a patient by plane or helicopter or even train

M1133 Medical Evacuation Vehicle

The Medical Evacuation Vehicle (MEV) are assigned from the Battalion Aid Station for Battalion-sized units, and dedicated to each of the company-sized elements of the unit and provide treatment for serious injury and advanced trauma cases.

Marambio Airport

Marambio Airport (ICAO: SAWB) is an airport serving Marambio Base, an Argentinian research station on Seymour Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. Marambio is the main air-support node for most local and foreign stations in Argentine Antarctica, providing year-round medical evacuation, search and rescue, personnel, cargo, and mail transfer.Supplies are taken to the Marambio Base during the whole year for later distribution to other Argentine bases (except for Belgrano II). There are over 100 intercontinental flights every year.

Military helicopter

A military helicopter is a helicopter that is either specifically built or converted for use by military forces. A military helicopter's mission is a function of its design or conversion. The most common use of military helicopters is transport of troops, but transport helicopters can be modified or converted to perform other missions such as combat search and rescue (CSAR), medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), airborne command post, or even armed with weapons for attacking ground targets. Specialized military helicopters are intended to conduct specific missions. Examples of specialized military helicopters are attack helicopters, observation helicopters and anti-submarine warfare helicopters.

Military medicine

The term military medicine has a number of potential connotations. It may mean:

A medical specialty, specifically a branch of occupational medicine attending to the medical risks and needs (both preventive and interventional) of soldiers, sailors and other service members. This disparate arena has historically involved the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases (especially tropical diseases), and, in the 20th Century, the ergonomics and health effects of operating military-specific machines and equipment such as submarines, tanks, helicopters and airplanes. Undersea and aviation medicine can be understood as subspecialties of military medicine, or in any case originated as such. Few countries certify or recognize "military medicine" as a formal speciality or subspeciality in its own right.

The planning and practice of the surgical management of mass battlefield casualties and the logistical and administrative considerations of establishing and operating combat support hospitals. This involves military medical hierarchies, especially the organization of structured medical command and administrative systems that interact with and support deployed combat units. (See Battlefield medicine.)

The administration and practice of health care for military service members and their dependents in non-deployed (peacetime) settings. This may (as in the United States) consist of a medical system paralleling all the medical specialties and sub-specialties that exist in the civilian sector. (See also Veterans Health Administration which serves U.S. veterans.)

Medical research and development specifically bearing upon problems of military medical interest. Historically, this encompasses all of the medical advances emerging from medical research efforts directed at addressing the problems encountered by deployed military forces (e.g., vaccines or drugs for soldiers, medical evacuation systems, drinking water chlorination, etc.) many of which ultimately prove important beyond the purely military considerations that inspired them.

Smart Aviation Company

Smart Aviation Company is a corporate airline operator based in Egypt. The company launched operations during the second quarter of 2007 from its base in Cairo International Airport

The company is the first corporate jet operator in the country to cater to businessmen, politicians, executive air travelers and medical services.

In 2009, it expanded its business portfolio to cover medical evacuation in the form of air ambulance operations and in December 2010 will launch commercial passenger operations.

Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines

Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines is an airline that mainly operates cargo aircraft on scheduled routes for contract charters and non-scheduled routes for ad-hoc charters.

Tri-MG Airlines are based in Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Apart from Cargo flight operation, they do operate light aircraft for passengers. They also provide medical evacuation services (Medivac) for patients who require to be airlifted on special charters in connection with hospitalization and its treatments.

Utility helicopter

A utility helicopter is a multi-purpose helicopter. A utility military helicopter can fill roles such as ground attack, air assault, military logistics, medical evacuation, command and control, and troop transport. Some overlap of terminology is inevitable with transport helicopter.

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