Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.
MeSH was introduced in the 1960s, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed. Originally in English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different origins.
|Medical Subject Headings|
|Description||Medical Subject Headings|
|Research center||United States National Library of Medicine|
National Center for Biotechnology Information
|Laboratory||United States National Library of Medicine|
|Authors||F B Rogers|
|Primary citation||PMID 13982385|
The 2009 version of MeSH contains a total of 25,186 subject headings, also known as descriptors. Most of these are accompanied by a short description or definition, links to related descriptors, and a list of synonyms or very similar terms (known as entry terms). This additional information and the hierarchical structure (see below) make the MeSH essentially a thesaurus, rather than a plain subject headings list.
The descriptors or subject headings are arranged in a hierarchy. A given descriptor may appear at several locations in the hierarchical tree. The tree locations carry systematic labels known as tree numbers, and consequently one descriptor can carry several tree numbers. For example, the descriptor "Digestive System Neoplasms" has the tree numbers C06.301 and C04.588.274; C stands for Diseases, C06 for Digestive System Diseases and C06.301 for Digestive System Neoplasms; C04 for Neoplasms, C04.588 for Neoplasms By Site, and C04.588.274 also for Digestive System Neoplasms. The tree numbers of a given descriptor are subject to change as MeSH is updated. Every descriptor also carries a unique alphanumerical ID that will not change.
Most subject headings come with a short description or definition. See the MeSH description for diabetes type 2 as an example. The explanatory text is written by the MeSH team based on their standard sources if not otherwise stated. References are mostly encyclopaedias and standard textbooks of the subject areas. References for specific statements in the descriptions are not given, instead readers are referred to the bibliography.
In addition to the descriptor hierarchy, MeSH contains a small number of standard qualifiers (also known as subheadings), which can be added to descriptors to narrow down the topic. For example, "Measles" is a descriptor and "epidemiology" is a qualifier; "Measles/epidemiology" describes the subheading of epidemiological articles about Measles. The "epidemiology" qualifier can be added to all other disease descriptors. Not all descriptor/qualifier combinations are allowed since some of them may be meaningless. In all there are 83 different qualifiers.
In addition to the descriptors, MeSH also contains some 139,000 supplementary concept records. These do not belong to the controlled vocabulary as such; instead they enlarge the thesaurus and contain links to the closest fitting descriptor to be used in a MEDLINE search. Many of these records describe chemical substances.
In MEDLINE/PubMed, every journal article is indexed with about 10–15 subject headings, subheadings and supplementary concept records, with some of them designated as major and marked with an asterisk, indicating the article's major topics. When performing a MEDLINE search via PubMed, entry terms are automatically translated into (i.e. mapped to) the corresponding descriptors with a good degree of reliability; it is recommended to check the 'Details tab' in PubMed to see how a search formulation was translated. By default, a search for a descriptor will include all the descriptors in the hierarchy below the given one.
In ClinicalTrials.gov, each trial has keywords that describe the trial. The ClinicalTrials.gov team assigns each trial two sets of MeSH terms. One set for the conditions studied by the trial and another for the set of interventions used in the trial. The XML file that can be downloaded for each trial contains these MeSH keywords. The XML file also has a comment that says: "the assignment of MeSH keywords is done by imperfect algorithm".
The top-level categories in the MeSH descriptor hierarchy are:
Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitors are G-protein coupled receptors belonging to the class B secretin subfamily. Members include:
Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1
Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2
Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3Confusion
Confusion is the state of being bewildered or unclear. The term "acute mental confusion" is often used interchangeably with delirium in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and the Medical Subject Headings publications to describe the pathology. These refer to the loss of orientation, or the ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location and personal identity. Mental confusion is sometimes accompanied by disordered consciousness (the loss of linear thinking) and memory loss (the ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material). The term is from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse".Cytochrome
Cytochromes are proteins containing heme as a cofactor. They are classified according to the type of heme and its mode of binding. Four varieties are recognized by the IUBMB, cytochromes a, cytochromes b, cytochromes c and cytochrome d. Cytochrome function is linked to the reversible redox change from ferrous (Fe(II)) to the ferric (Fe(III)) oxidation state of the iron found in the heme core. In addition to the classification by the IUBMB into four cytochrome classes, several additional classifications such as cytochrome o and cytochrome P450 can be found in biochemical literature.EGF module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor
The EGF module-containing Mucin-like hormone Receptors (EMRs) are closely related subgroup of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors have a unique hybrid structure in which an extracellular epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain is fused to a GPCR domain through a mucin-like stalk. There are four variants of EMR labeled 1-4, each encoded by a separate gene. These receptors are predominantly expressed in cells of the immune system and bind ligands such as CD55.Free fatty acid receptor
The free fatty acid receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor which binds free fatty acids. There are four variants of the receptor, each encoded by a separate gene (FFAR1, FFAR2, FFAR3, FFAR4). Preliminary findings suggest that FFAR2 and FFAR3 may interact to form a FFAR2-FFAR3 receptor heteromer.GoPubMed
GoPubMed was a knowledge-based search engine for biomedical texts. The
Gene Ontology (GO) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) served as "Table of contents" in order to structure the millions of articles in the MEDLINE database. MeshPubMed was at one point a separate project, but the two were merged.
The technologies used in GoPubMed were generic and could in general be applied to any kind of texts and any kind of knowledge bases. The system was developed at the Technische Universität Dresden by Michael Schroeder and his team at Transinsight.
GoPubMed was recognized with the 2009 red dot: best of the best award in the category communication design – graphical user interfaces and interactive tool. Transinsight was recognized with the German Innovation Prize IT for its developments in Enterprise Semantic Intelligence at CeBIT 2011.Gs alpha subunit
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase. It is one of the three main families of G proteins: Gαi/Gαo, Gαq, and Gαs. A mnemonic for remembering this subunit is to look at the first letter (Gαs = Adenylate Cyclase stimulator).Imino acid
In chemistry, an imino acid is any molecule that contains both imine (>C=NH) and carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional groups.
Imino acids are related to amino acids, which contain both amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, differing in the bonding to the nitrogen.
The D-amino acid oxidase enzymes are able to convert amino acids into imino acids. Also the direct biosynthetic precursor to the amino acid proline is the imino acid (S)-Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C).List of MeSH codes
The following is a list of the codes for MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine. Click on the prefixes (A01 etc.) in the list below to see detailed codes.
The source for content is from the 2006 MeSH Trees.
A – Anatomy
A01 – body regions (74 articles)
A02 – musculoskeletal system (213 articles)
A03 – digestive system (98 articles)
A04 – respiratory system (46 articles)
A05 – urogenital system (87 articles)
A06 – endocrine system
A07 – cardiovascular system
A08 – nervous system
A09 – sense organs
A10 – tissues
A11 – cells
A12 – fluids and secretions
A13 – animal structures
A14 – stomatognathic system
A15 – hemic and immune systems
A16 – embryonic structures
A17 – integumentary system
B – Organisms
B01 – animals
B02 – algae
B03 – bacteria
B04 – viruses
B05 – fungi
B06 – plants
B07 – archaea
B08 – mesomycetozoea
C – Diseases
C01 – bacterial infections and mycoses
C02 – virus diseases
C03 – parasitic diseases
C04 – neoplasms
C05 – musculoskeletal diseases
C06 – digestive system diseases
C07 – stomatognathic diseases
C08 – respiratory tract diseases
C09 – otorhinolaryngologic diseases
C10 – nervous system diseases
C11 – eye diseases
C12 – urologic and male genital diseases
C13 – female genital diseases and pregnancy complications
C14 – cardiovascular diseases
C15 – hemic and lymphatic diseases
C16 – congenital, hereditary, and neonatal diseases and abnormalities
C17 – skin and connective tissue diseases
C18 – nutritional and metabolic diseases
C19 – endocrine system diseases
C20 – immune system diseases
C21 – disorders of environmental origin
C22 – animal diseases
C23 – pathological conditions, signs and symptoms
D – Chemicals and Drugs
D01 – inorganic chemicals
D02 – organic chemicals
D03 – heterocyclic compounds
D04 – polycyclic compounds
D05 – macromolecular substances
D06 – hormones, hormone substitutes, and hormone antagonists
D07 – none (enzymes and coenzymes)
D08 – enzymes and coenzymes (carbohydrates)
D09 – carbohydrates (lipids)
D10 – lipids (amino acids, peptides, and proteins)
D11 – none (nucleic acids, nucleotides, and nucleosides)
D12/20 – amino acids, peptides, and proteins (complex mixtures)
D13/23 – nucleic acids, nucleotides, and nucleosides (biological factors)
D14/25 – biomedical and dental materials
D15/26 – pharmaceutical preparations
D16/27 – chemical actions and uses
D20 – complex mixtures
D23 – biological factors
E – Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment
E01 – diagnosis
E02 – therapeutics
E03 – anesthesia and analgesia
E04 – surgical procedures, operative
E05 – investigative techniques
E06 – dentistry
E07 – equipment and supplies
F – Psychiatry and Psychology
F01 – behavior and behavior mechanisms
F02 – psychological phenomena and processes
F03 – mental disorders
F04 – behavioral disciplines and activities
G – Biological Sciences
G01 – biological sciences
G02 – health occupations
G03 – environment and public health
G04 – biological phenomena, cell phenomena, and immunity
G05 – genetic processes
G06 – biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition
G07 – physiological processes
G08 – reproductive and urinary physiology
G09 – circulatory and respiratory physiology
G10 – digestive, oral, and skin physiology
G11 – musculoskeletal, neural, and ocular physiology
G12 – chemical and pharmacologic phenomena
G13 – genetic phenomena
G14 – genetic structures
H – Physical Sciences
H01 – natural sciences
I – Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena
I01 – social sciences
I02 – education
I03 – human activities
J – Technology and Food and Beverages
J01 – technology, industry, and agriculture
J02 – food and beverages
K – Humanities
K01 – humanities
L – Information Science
L01 – information science
M – Persons
M01 – persons
N – Health Care
N01 – population characteristics
N02 – health care facilities, manpower, and services
N03 – health care economics and organizations
N04 – health services administration
N05 – health care quality, access, and evaluation
V – Publication Characteristics
V01 – publication components (publication type)
V02 – publication formats (publication type)
V03 – study characteristics (publication type)
V04 – support of research
Z – Geographic Locations
Z01 – geographic locationsList of MeSH codes (A17)
The following is a list of the "A" codes for MeSH. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine.
Source for content is here. (File "2006 MeSH Trees".)List of MeSH codes (B02)
The following is a list of the "B" codes for MeSH. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine.List of MeSH codes (B08)
The following is a list of the "B" codes for MeSH. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine.
Source for content is here. (File "2006 MeSH Trees".)List of MeSH codes (D12)
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine.
Source for content is here. (File "2006 MeSH Trees".)
List of MeSH codes (D12.125) - amino acids
List of MeSH codes (D12.644) - peptides
List of MeSH codes (D12.776) - proteinsList of MeSH codes (V04)
The following is a list of the "V" codes for MeSH. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine.
Source for content is here. (File "2006 MeSH Trees".)Prokaryotic elongation factors
In prokaryotes, four elongation factors are required for translation: EF-Tu, EF-Ts, EF-G and EF-P.
EF-Tu mediates the entry of the aminoacyl tRNA into a free site of the ribosome.
EF-Ts serves as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu, catalyzing the release of GDP from EF-Tu.
EF-G catalyzes the translocation of the tRNA and mRNA down the ribosome at the end of each round of polypeptide elongation.
EF-P stimulates peptide formation by catalyzing the first synthesis step between the first amino acid (N-formylmethionine) and the second amino acid.RAB27
Rab27 is a member of the Rab subfamily of GTPases. Rab27 is post translationally modified by the addition of two geranylgeranyl groups on the two C-terminal cysteines.Thiaminase
Thiaminase (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that metabolizes or breaks down thiamine into two molecular parts.
The old name was "aneurinase".There are two types:
thiaminase+I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (EC 184.108.40.206)
thiaminase+II at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (EC 220.127.116.11)Thioesterase
Thioesterases are enzymes which belong to the esterase family. Esterases, in turn, are one type of the several hydrolases known.
Thioesterases exhibit Esterase activity (splitting of an ester into acid and alcohol, in the presence of water) specifically at a thiol group.
Thioesterases or thiolester hydrolases are identified as members of E.C.3.1.2.