Media of the United States

Media of the United States consist of several different types of media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites. The U.S. also has a strong music industry. Many of the media are controlled by large for-profit corporations who reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and sale of copyrighted material. American media conglomerates tend to be leading global players, generating large revenues as well as large opposition in many parts of the world. With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, further deregulation and convergence are under way, leading to mega-mergers, further concentration of media ownership, and the emergence of multinational media conglomerates. These mergers enable tighter control of information.[1] Currently, five corporations control roughly 90% of the media.[2][3] Critics allege that localism, local news and other content at the community level, media spending and coverage of news, and diversity of ownership and views have suffered as a result of these processes of media concentration.[4]

Theories to explain the success of such companies include reliance on certain policies of the American federal government or a tendency to natural monopolies in the industry. See Media bias in the United States.

The organization Reporters Without Borders compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. In 2013–14 United States was ranked 46th out of 180 countries, a drop of thirteen points from the preceding year.[5][6]

Newspapers

Land on the Moon 7 21 1969-repair
The Washington Post on Monday, July 21, 1969 stating "'The Eagle Has Landed'—Two Men Walk on the Moon".

Newspapers have declined in their influence and penetration into American households over the years. The U.S. does not have a national paper. The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and USA Today are the most circulated newspapers in the United States and are sold in most U.S. cities.[7]

The new york times building in new york city
The new york times building

Although the Times' primary audience has always been the people of New York City, the New York Times has gradually become the dominant national "newspaper of record." Apart from its daily nationwide distribution, the term means that back issues are archived on microfilm by every decent-sized public library in the nation, and the Times' articles are often cited by both historians and judges as evidence that a major historical event occurred on a certain date. The Los Angeles Times and the Wall Street Journal are also newspapers of record to a lesser extent. Although USA Today has tried to establish itself as a national paper, it has been widely derided by the academic world as the "McPaper" and is not subscribed to (let alone archived) by most libraries.

Apart from the newspapers just mentioned, all major metropolitan areas have their own local newspapers. Typically, a metropolitan area will support at most one or two major newspapers, with many smaller publications targeted towards particular audiences. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major news agency wire service, such as the Associated Press, Reuters or Bloomberg News[8] for their national and world coverage.

With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.

Most general-purpose newspapers are either being printed one time a week, usually on Thursday or Friday, or are printed daily. Weekly newspapers tend to have much smaller circulation and are more prevalent in rural communities or small towns. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily paper(s), for example, New York City's Village Voice or Los Angeles' L.A. Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups.

Probably due to competition from other media, the number of daily newspapers in the U.S. has declined over the past half-century, according to Editor & Publisher, the trade journal of American newspapers. In particular, the number of evening newspapers has fallen by almost one-half since 1970, while the number of morning editions and Sunday editions has grown.

For comparison, in 1950, there were 1,772 daily papers (and 1,450 – or about 70 percent – of them were evening papers) while in 2000, there were 1,480 daily papers (and 766—or about half—of them were evening papers.)

Daily newspaper circulation is also slowly declining in America, partly due to the near-demise of two-newspaper towns, as the weaker newspapers in most cities have folded:

Year Circulation
1960 58.8 million
1970 62.1 million
1980 62.2 million
1990 62.3 million
2000 55.8 million

The primary source of newspaper income is advertising – in the form of "classifieds" or inserted advertising circulars – rather than circulation income. However, since the late 1990s, this revenue source has been directly challenged by Web sites like eBay (for sales of secondhand items), Monster.com (jobs), and Craigslist (everything).

Additionally, as investigative journalism declined at major daily newspapers in the 2000s, many reporters formed their own non-profit investigative newsrooms. Examples include ProPublica on the national level, Texas Tribune at the state level and Voice of OC at the local level.

The largest newspapers (by circulation) in the United States are USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

Magazines

Time Magazine - first cover
The first issue of Time (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker Joseph G. Cannon.

Thanks to the huge size of the English-speaking North American media market, the United States has a large magazine industry with hundreds of magazines serving almost every interest, as can be determined by glancing at any newsstand in any large American city. Most magazines are owned by one of the large media conglomerates or by one of their smaller regional brethren. The American Society of Magazine Editors sponsors the annual National Magazine Awards recognizing excellence.

The U.S. has three leading weekly news magazines: Time, Newsweek and U.S. News and World Report. Time and Newsweek are center-left while U.S. News and World Report tends to be center-right. Time is well known for naming a "Person of the Year" each year, while U.S. News publishes annual ratings of American colleges and universities.

The U.S. also has over a dozen major political magazines, including The Atlantic and The New Yorker among others.

Finally, besides the hundreds of specialized magazines that serve the diverse interests and hobbies of the American people, there are also dozens of magazines published by professional organizations for their members, such as Communications of the ACM (for computer science specialists) and the ABA Journal (for lawyers).

Radio

FDR-September-30-1934
Fireside chat on government and capitalism (September 30, 1934)

American radio broadcasts in two bands: FM and AM. Some stations are only talk radio – featuring interviews and discussions – while music radio stations broadcast one particular type of music: Top 40, hip-hop, country, etc. Radio broadcast companies have become increasingly consolidated in recent years. National Public Radio is the nation's primary public radio network, but most radio stations are commercial and profit-oriented.

Talk radio as a political medium has also exploded in popularity during the 1990s, due to the 1987 repeal of the Fairness Doctrine, which meant that stations no longer had to "balance" their day by programming alternative points of view.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1970 had limited the number of radio station one person or company could own to 1 AM and 1 FM locally, and 7 AM and 7 FM stations nationally. But due to extensive concentration of media ownership stemming from the Telecommunications Act of 1996, radio companies could own not more than 8 local stations per area market. Most stations are now owned by major radio companies such as iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel Communications), Cumulus Media, Townsquare Media, and CBS Radio. See IBOC and HD Radio.

A new form of radio that is gaining popularity is satellite radio. The two biggest subscriptions based radio services are Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite Radio, which have recently merged to form Sirius XM Radio. Unlike terrestrial radio music channels are commercial free and other channels feature minimal commercials. Satellite radio also is not regulated by the FCC.

During the advent of the internet in the 21st century, internet radio and digital streaming services have been emerged. Among popular brands are Pandora and iHeartRadio. Although, the recording industry also sees Internet radio as a threat and has attempted to impose high royalty rates for the use of recorded music to discourage independent stations from playing popular songs.

Arbitron, a consumer research company, provides ratings (similar to the Nielsen ratings) for national and local radio stations in the United States.

Television

Press photographers and film crews at Barack Obama rally, February 4, 2008
Press photographers and film crews at Barack Obama rally, February 4, 2008

Ninety-nine percent of American households have at least one television and the majority of households have more than one. The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), CBS (formerly the Columbia Broadcasting System), the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and the Fox Broadcasting Company (Fox).

Broadcast-network-logos
The five major U.S. broadcast network logos

Several Spanish language broadcast (as well as cable) networks exist, which are the most common form of non-English television broadcasts. These networks are not as widely distributed over-the-air as their English counterparts, available mostly in markets with sizeable Latino and Hispanic populations; several of these over-the-air networks are alternatively fed directly to cable, satellite and IPTV providers in markets without either the availability or the demand for a locally based owned-and-operated or affiliate station.

The largest of these networks, Univision, launched in 1986 as a successor to the Spanish International Network. Its major competition is Telemundo (est. 1986), a sister network of NBC (which acquired Telemundo in 2001).

Public television has a far smaller role than in most other countries. However, a number of states, including West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, and South Carolina, among others, do have state-owned public broadcasting authorities which operate and fund all public television stations in their respective states. The income received from the government is insufficient to cover expenses and stations also rely on corporate sponsorships and viewer contributions.

DirecTV and Dish Network are the major satellite television providers, with 20 and 14 million customers respectively as of February 2014.[9] Meanwhile, the major cable television providers are Comcast with 22 million customers, Time Warner Cable with 11 million, and Cox Communications, Charter Communications, AT&T U-verse and Verizon FiOS with 5–6 million each.

Motion pictures

In the 20th century, the motion picture industry rose to become one of the most successful and powerful industries in the U.S. Along with other intellectual property industries, its relative importance to the American economy has strengthened as the importance of manufacturing and agriculture have decreased (due to globalization).

Rise of the home video market (1980s–1990s)

Robert Rodriguez
Robert Rodriguez launched his own cable television channel, El Rey.[10]

The 1980s and 1990s saw another significant development. The full acceptance of home video by studios opened a vast new business to exploit. Films such as Showgirls, The Secret of NIMH, and The Shawshank Redemption, which may have performed poorly in their theatrical run, were now able to find success in the video market. It also saw the first generation of filmmakers with access to videotapes emerge. Directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Paul Thomas Anderson had been able to view thousands of films and produced films with vast numbers of references and connections to previous works. Tarantino has had a number of collaborations with director Robert Rodriguez. Rodriguez directed the 1992 action film El Mariachi, which was a commercial success after grossing $2 million against a budget of $7,000. In 2011, El Mariachi was inducted into the Library of Congress to be preserved as part of its National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". The film is further immortalized by Guinness World Records as the lowest-budgeted film ever to gross $1 million at the box office.[11]

This, along with the explosion of independent film and ever-decreasing costs for filmmaking, changed the landscape of American movie-making once again and led a renaissance of filmmaking among Hollywood's lower and middle-classes—those without access to studio financial resources. With the rise of the DVD in the 21st century, DVDs have quickly become even more profitable to studios and have led to an explosion of packaging extra scenes, extended versions, and commentary tracks with the films.

Internet

History Wikipedia English SOPA 2012 Blackout2
Wikipedia blackout protest against SOPA on January 18, 2012

The Internet has provided a means for newspapers and other media organizations to deliver news and keep archives public. Revenue is generated through advertising or subscription payments.

Online Streaming

The days of having to tune in live or buy expensive discs in order to watch your favorite shows and movies are gone. Online streaming makes it possible to watch everything from live news and sports to classic movies to modern TV favorites on their own time, and on any device they choose. Some of online streaming service providers are Netflix, Hulu Plus, Amazon Video and YouTube. Over-the-top subscription services that mirrored cable and TV Everywhere services began emerging in the mid-2010s. In 2015, Dish Network and Sony respectively launched Sling TV and PlayStation Vue, cable-style online and mobile streaming services priced at lower monthly rates than packages offered by traditional pay television system operators.

References

  1. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. p. 671 ISBN 0060838655
  2. ^ These 6 Corporations Control 90% Of The Media In America. Business Insider. 14 June 2012.
  3. ^ Frances Goldin, Debby Smith, Michael Smith (2014). Imagine: Living in a Socialist USA. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0062305573 p. 189:
    • "Twenty years ago, thirty corporations controlled 90 percent of the media. Today, it is a grand total of six mega-corporations - Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, CBS and Comcast. Besides accumulating their own profits, the media are daily trumpets for the rest of the corporate world's advertising."
  4. ^ Converging Media, Diverging Politics: A Political Economy of News Media in the United States and Canada. Edited by David Skinner, James R. Compton, and Michael Gasher, Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. Robert William Jensen, review essay of "Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times," published in The Texas Observer, September 17, 1999, archived here Archived December 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "World Press Freedom Index 2014". Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  6. ^ Stearns, Josh (11 February 2014). U.S. Plummets in Global Press Freedom Rankings. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  7. ^ Stynes, Tess (October 28, 2014). "USA Today Remains Top Newspaper by Circulation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  8. ^ "High wires". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
  9. ^ Consumers wary of Comcast, Time Warner Cable merger - USA Today, 13 February 2014
  10. ^ Craig Hunter. "T2's Robert Patrick & More Join 'From Dusk Till Dawn: The Series'". Thehollywoodnews.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  11. ^ Oscars 2015: The Guinness World Records alternative Academy Award

See also

Bibliography

External links

Altoona Mirror

The Altoona Mirror is a daily newspaper located in Altoona, Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the hometown newspaper for Altoona and serves all of Blair County as well as parts of surrounding counties.

Arizona Daily Star

The Arizona Daily Star is the major morning daily newspaper that serves Tucson and surrounding districts of southern Arizona in the United States. The paper was purchased by Pulitzer in 1971; Lee Enterprises bought Pulitzer in 2005. At present, the paper's business operations are owned jointly by Lee Enterprises and the Gannett Company.

Centre Daily Times

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Journal-News

Journal-News is a daily newspaper published by Cox Media Group in Liberty Township, Butler County, Ohio, United States. It formed in 2013 from the merger of the Hamilton JournalNews in Hamilton and The Middletown Journal in Middletown. Journal-News is intended to be a full-size daily newspaper with minimal coverage of Cincinnati and Dayton. It shares staff and resources with sister publications Today's Pulse and the Dayton Daily News and competes with The Cincinnati Enquirer.

Lewiston Morning Tribune

The Lewiston Morning Tribune is a daily newspaper serving north central Idaho and southeastern Washington, with a digital edition since September 1995. It is available via Amazon Kindle. The LCCN is sn 82014515.

Media bias in the United States

Media bias in the United States occurs when the US media systematically skews reporting in a way that crosses standards of professional journalism. Claims of media bias in the United States include claims of conservative bias, corporate bias, liberal bias, and mainstream bias. A variety of watchdog groups combat this by fact-checking both biased reporting and unfounded claims of bias, and some characterise individual news outlets by perceived bias. A variety of scholarly disciplines study media bias. Many news outlets make no pretense of being unbiased, and give their readers or listeners the news they want, leading to what has been called post truth politics.

New York Age

The New York Age was a black newspaper produced from 1887 to 1960, and was one of the most influential black newspapers of its time.

New York Daily News

The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most widely circulated daily newspaper in the United States. It was founded in 1919, and was the first U.S. daily printed in tabloid format. It reached its peak circulation in 1947, at 2.4 million copies a day.

Sarasota Herald-Tribune

The Sarasota Herald-Tribune is a daily newspaper, located in Sarasota, Florida, founded in 1925 as the Sarasota Herald.

Style Weekly

Style Weekly is an alternative weekly newspaper for news, arts, culture and opinion published in Richmond, Virginia, United States. It is owned by Landmark Media Enterprises, the same company that owns The Virginian-Pilot, among other newspapers.

The Christian Post

The Christian Post is an American nondenominational, Evangelical Christian newspaper. Based in Washington, D.C., it was founded in March 2004.Contents include Church news, ministries news, mission news, education news, Christian entertainment news, health-related news, opinions, U.S. news, and international news. Also featured are devotionals, cartoons, and videos.

Its executive editor is Richard Land, president of Southern Evangelical Seminary, and president emeritus of the Southern Baptist Convention’s Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission. Christopher Chou is CEO.

The Cincinnati Herald

The Cincinnati Herald is an African-American newspaper published each Wednesday by Sesh Communications in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. The Herald's offices are located in the Avondale neighborhood. Sister publications include The Dayton Defender and SeshPrime Magazine, a monthly magazine for African-American senior citizens.

The Daily Wire

The Daily Wire is an American conservative news and opinion website founded in 2015 by political commentator Ben Shapiro. He currently serves as editor-in-chief, Michael Knowles is managing editor, and Jeremy Boreing is Chief Operating Officer. The website's office is in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles County, California.

The Gettysburg Times

The Gettysburg Times is an American newspaper in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania that is owned by the Sample News Group. It published daily, except for Sundays, Christmas Day and New Years Day

The Times was founded in 1902 as The Progress, but is also the successor to prior newspapers going back to the Adams Centinel which was founded in 1800 and was the first newspaper in Adams County.The Gettysburg Times' focus is Adams County news. Its news staff covers area municipal meetings and events and its sports staff covers seven schools - Delone Catholic, Littlestown, Gettysburg, Bermudian Springs, New Oxford, Fairfield, Bermudian Springs and Biglerville. The newspaper is headed by Managing Editor Alex J. Hayes and Publisher Harry Hartman.

In addition to Adams County news, the paper routinely publishes public-interest excerpts from national news sources.

The Miami Times

The Miami Times is South Florida's African-American newspaper. The paper was established in 1923.

The New York Observer

The New York Observer was a weekly newspaper printed from 1987 to 2016, when it ceased print publication and became the online-only newspaper Observer. The media site focuses on culture, real estate, media, politics and the entertainment and publishing industries. As of January 2017, the editorial team is led by managing editor Merin Curotto, and has featured other writers and editors including Rex Reed, Will Bredderman, Drew Grant, Brady Dale, John Bonazzo, Vinnie Mancuso, and James Jorden.

The Spokesman-Review

The Spokesman-Review is a daily broadsheet newspaper in the northwest United States, based in Spokane, Washington; it is the city's only daily publication. It has the third highest readership among daily newspapers in the state, with most of its readership base in Eastern Washington.

Times Record News

Times Record News is a daily newspaper established in 1907 in Wichita Falls, Texas, owned by the Gannett Company.

From 1976 until 1997, the Times Record News was part of Harte-Hanks chain, when Scripps acquired the paper.

The Times Record News also publishes the Sheppard Senator, the local newspaper serving the military stationed in Wichita Falls at Sheppard Air Force Base, named for the late U.S. Senator Morris Sheppard of Texarkana.

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