Media of the United Kingdom

There are several different types of media in the United Kingdom: television, radio, newspapers, magazines and websites. The country also has a strong music industry. The United Kingdom has a diverse range of providers, the most prominent being the publicly owned public service broadcaster, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The BBC's largest competitors are ITV plc, which operates 13 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network, and American global media conglomerate Comcast, which owns the broadcaster Sky Ltd. Regional media is covered by local radio, television and print newspapers. Trinity Mirror operates 240 local and regional newspapers, as well as national newspapers such as the Daily Mirror and the Sunday Mirror.

Bbc broadcasting house front
Broadcasting House in London is the headquarters of the BBC.

Audiences

Mediacity at night 2
Mediacity in Greater Manchester, privately funded and publicly backed by the BBC is the largest media-production facility in the United Kingdom.

In 2009 it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3.75 hours of television per day and listened to 2.81 hours of radio. The main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for and estimated 28.4% of all television viewing; the three main independent channels accounted for 29.5% and the increasingly important other satellite and digital channels for the remaining 42.1%.[1] Sales of newspapers have fallen since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading a daily national newspaper.[2] In 2010, 82.5% of the United Kingdom population were Internet users, the highest proportion amongst the 20 countries with the largest total number of users in that year.[3]

In 2017, European Broadcasting Union research found that people in the United Kingdom trusted the written press least of any European country, by a considerable margin. Trust in television and the radio was closer to the European average, though still below average.[4]

National media centres and organisations

London

London dominates the media sector in the United Kingdom as national newspapers, television and radio networks are largely based there. Notable centres include Fleet Street and BBC Broadcasting House.

Specialist local paper City A.M. is a free, business-focused newspaper published in print Monday to Friday. It is typically available from around 6 am at London commuter stations and is handed out at key points in the City, Canary Wharf and other central London locations.

Greater Manchester

Greater Manchester is also a significant national media hub. Notable centres include MediaCityUK a 200-acre (80ha) media production facility in Salford and Trafford.

The Guardian national newspaper was founded in Manchester in 1821, and was known as the Manchester Guardian until 1959. In the 1950s, coinciding with the growth in television, the Granada Television franchise was set up by Sidney Bernstein. Consequently, the Granada Studios were the first purpose-built television studios in the United Kingdom. The franchise produced television programmes such as Coronation Street and the Up Series. The BBC currently has two of its six major business divisions based here BBC North Group that comprises a number of important departments including BBC Breakfast, BBC Children's, BBC Sport, BBC Radio 5 and BBC North West. The other division is BBC Future Media. In addition ITV has two major divisions of its business based here ITV Studios responsible for UK and international network production and ITV Granada its regional service provider. The University of Salford also has a media campus and research center based at media city.[5]

The United Kingdom is known for its large music industry, along with its new and upcoming artists. In the UK, media is spread through the forms of TV, newspapers, magazines, websites, and radio.

The Daily Mirror was founded in 1903.[6] The Sunday Mirror, the sister paper to the Daily Mirror, was started in 1915.[7]

Other Key centres

Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively.[8]

The BBC, founded in 1922, is the United Kingdom's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates numerous television and radio stations in the United Kingdom and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence.[9][10]

Other major players in the United Kingdom media include ITV plc, which operates 11 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network,[11] and News Corporation, which owns a number of national newspapers through News International such as the tabloid The Sun and "broadsheet" The Times,.[12][13]

Print

The United Kingdom print publishing sector, including books, server, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people. The print media sector is entirely regulating itself and there are no specific statutory rules regulating the print media.[14]

Newspapers

Traditionally British newspapers have been divided into "quality", serious-minded newspapers (usually referred to as "broadsheets" because of their large size) and the more populist, "tabloid" varieties. For convenience of reading many traditional broadsheets have switched to a more compact-sized format, traditionally used by tabloids. In 2008 The Sun had the highest circulation of any daily newspaper in the United Kingdom at 3.1 million, approximately a quarter of the market.[15] Its sister paper, the News of the World, had the highest circulation in the Sunday newspaper market,[15] and traditionally focused on celebrity-led stories until its closure in 2011.[16] The Daily Telegraph, a centre-right broadsheet paper, is the highest-selling of the "quality" newspapers.[15] While The Guardian is a centre-left "quality" broadsheet and the Financial Times is the main business newspaper, printed on distinctive salmon-pink broadsheet paper.[17] In 2018 Reach plc (formerly Trinity Mirror), which operates 240 local and regional newspapers in the United Kingdom as well as the national newspapers Daily Mirror, Sunday Mirror and The People, purchased Northern & Shell which added the Daily Express, Sunday Express, Daily Star and three celebrity magazines to its stable.[18][19]

Scotland has a distinct tradition of newspaper readership (see list of newspapers in Scotland). The tabloid Daily Record has the highest circulation of any daily newspaper, outselling The Scottish Sun by four to one, while its sister paper the Sunday Mail similarly leads the Sunday newspaper market. The leading "quality" daily newspaper in Scotland is The Herald, though it is the sister paper of The Scotsman, and the Scotland on Sunday that leads in the Sunday newspaper market.[20] In November 2014 a new newspaper was launched in Scotland called The National.[21]

In 2018 TheGuardian.com, News UK (The Times, The Sunday Times, The Sun) and The Daily Telegraph created a joint platform for advertisers to buy online adverts across the multiple leading news websites, called The Ozone Project.[22] Later in the year Reach plc joined the platform, bringing nearly all of UK's national newspapers onto the platform.[23]

Magazines

A large range of magazines are sold in the United Kingdom covering most interests and potential topics. British magazines and journals that have achieved worldwide circulation include The Economist, Nature, and New Scientist, Private Eye, Hello!, The Spectator, the Radio Times, and NME.

Books

Broadcasting

Radio

Truetone-Radio
Picture of a Truetone brand radio

Radio in the United Kingdom is dominated by the BBC, which operates radio stations both in the United Kingdom and abroad. The BBC World Service radio network is broadcast in 33 languages globally. Domestically the BBC also operates ten national networks and over 40 local radio stations including services in Welsh on BBC Radio Cymru, Gaelic on BBC Radio nan Gàidheal in Scotland and Irish in Northern Ireland.[24] The domestic services of the BBC are funded by the television licence.[25] The internationally targeted BBC World Service Radio is funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, though from 2014 it will be funded by the television licence.[26] The most popular radio station by number of listeners is BBC Radio 2, closely followed by BBC Radio 4. Advances in digital radio technology have enabled the launch of several new stations by the Corporation.[27]

Rather than operating as independent entities, many commercial local radio stations are owned by large radio groups which broadcast a similar format to many areas. The largest operator of radio stations is Global Radio, owner of the major Heart and Galaxy radio brands. It also owns Classic FM and London's most popular commercial radio station, 95.8 CapitalFM. Other owners are UTV Radio, with stations broadcasting in large city areas and Bauer Radio, holding radio in the North of England. There are also regional stations, like Real Radio and the Century Network, broadcasting in some main parts of England, Wales and Scotland, and a number of licensed community radio stations[28] which broadcast to local audiences.

Television

Channel 4 Building - Horseferry Road - London - 310504
The Channel 4 building in London

The United Kingdom has no analogue television. A free to air digital service is made up of two chartered public broadcasting companies, the BBC and Channel 4 and two franchised commercial television companies, (ITV and Channel 5). In addition to this, the United Kingdom's free-to-air Freeview service runs a large number of Entertainment, Music, Sport and Shopping channels from the likes of CBS, UKTV and Sky. There are five major nationwide television channels: BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4 and Channel 5—currently transmitted by digital terrestrial, free-to-air signals with the latter three channels funded by commercial advertising. The vast majority of digital cable television services are provided by Virgin Media with satellite television available from Freesat or Sky and free-to-air digital terrestrial television by Freeview. The entire country switched to digital (from a previously analogue signal) in 2012.[29]

The BBC operates several television channels in the United Kingdom and abroad. The BBC's international television news service, BBC World News, is broadcast throughout the world. The domestic services of the BBC are funded by the television licence.[25] The international television broadcast services are operated by BBC Worldwide on a commercial subscription basis over cable and satellite services. This commercial arm of the BBC also forms half of UKTV along with Virgin Media.[30]

Channel 4 is similarly chartered to the BBC, with a remit to provide public service broadcasting and schools programs, however it runs commercial advertisements to provide a revenue stream. It produces a number of digital channels, branded as Channel 4, as well as E4, More 4 and Film4.

The commercial operators rely on advertising for their revenue, and are run as commercial ventures, in contrast to the public service operators. The ITV franchise transmits the 3 different networks in different parts of the country. These are known as ITV (in England, Wales, Scottish Borders, Isle of Man and Channel Islands), STV (In Central and Northern Scotland), and UTV in Northern Ireland.

Internet

The UK's country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is .uk. The most visited ".uk" website is the British version of Google, followed by Amazon, eBay, BBC Online and MailOnline.[31]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ofcom "Communication Market Report 2010", 19 August 2010, pp. 97, 164 and 191, retrieved 17 June 2011.
  2. ^ "Social Trends: Lifestyles and social participation", Office for National Statistics, 16 February 2010, archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  3. ^ "Top 20 countries with the highest number of Internet users", Internet World Stats, archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  4. ^ Ponsford, Dominic (26 May 2017). "Survey finds that UK written press is (by some way) the least trusted in Europe". Press Gazette. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  5. ^ UK Campus, Media City. "Courses and Training". Research Center. University of Salford. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  6. ^ Daily Mirror
  7. ^ Sunday Mirror
  8. ^ D. William, UK Cities: A Look at Life and Major Cities in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (Godfrey Mwakikagile, 2010), ISBN 9987-16-021-2, pp. 22, 46, 109 and 145.
  9. ^ Newswire7 (13 August 2009), "BBC: World's largest broadcaster & Most trusted media brand", Media Newsline, archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  10. ^ "TV Licence Fee: facts & figures", BBC Press Office, April 2010, archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  11. ^ "Publications & Policies: The History of ITV", ITV.com, archived from the original on 11 April 2011.
  12. ^ "Publishing", News Corporation, archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  13. ^ "Direct Broadcast Satellite Television", News Corporation, archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  14. ^ "Publishing", Department of Culture, Media and Sport, archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  15. ^ a b c "ABCs: National daily newspaper circulation September 2008". The Guardian. UK. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
  16. ^ Phone-hacking probe: 'Thank you & goodbye', says NoW, BBC News, 10 July 2011, retrieved 11 July 2011.
  17. ^ Lyall, Sarah (24 February 2010). "British Panel Condemns Media Group in Phone Hacking Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  18. ^ "Trinity Mirror plc: Annual Report and Accounts 2010" (PDF), Trinity Mirror, 2010, archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2011.
  19. ^ Tobitt, Charlotte (20 June 2018). "Culture Secretary gives green light to Reach takeover of Express Newspapers". Press Gazette. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  20. ^ Tryhorn, Chris (9 May 2008), "Scottish Sun pulls further ahead of Record", guardian.co.uk, archived from the original on 24 June 2011.
  21. ^ Pro-independence daily paper the National to launch in Scotland. The Guardian. Author - Mark Sweney. Published 21 November 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  22. ^ Waterson, Jim (20 June 2018). "Guardian, News UK and Telegraph launch joint advertising business". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  23. ^ Tobitt, Charlotte (11 September 2018). "Joint advertising platform becomes 'truly cross-industry initiative' as Reach unites with News UK, Guardian and Telegraph". Press Gazette. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  24. ^ "News and Analysis in your language". BBC. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  25. ^ a b "TV Licence Fee: facts & figures". BBC Press Office. Archived from the original on 7 September 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  26. ^ "BBC Funding Settlements: the details". OFCOMWATCH. October 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  27. ^ "BBC7 radio launches with comedy", BBC News, 16 December 2002, retrieved 10 July 2011.
  28. ^ Map of Community radio stations broadcasting in the UK
  29. ^ "What is digital switchover". Directgov. December 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  30. ^ "CHANNELS". BBC Worldwide. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  31. ^ "Top Sites in United Kingdom". Alexa. Retrieved 5 April 2016.

Further reading

  • Euromedia Research Group; Mary Kelly; et al., eds. (2004). "United Kingdom". Media in Europe (3rd ed.). Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-4132-3.
  • Harcourt, Alison (2006). European Union Institutions and the Regulation of Media Markets. London, New York City: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6644-1.

External links

Cybernat

Cybernat is a term used in the media of the United Kingdom to refer pejoratively to online supporters of Scottish independence and the Scottish National Party.The term was apparently coined by Lord Foulkes and was used by Scottish Labour leader Iain Gray in 2009. It gained greater prominence during 2013, after mainstream media sources reported that Sir Chris Hoy had been subject to online abuse for expressing his support for unionism in Scotland.The Scottish edition of the Daily Mail undertook a campaign in January 2014 to "unmask" Cybernats. The Daily Telegraph reported in March 2014 that a retired soldier had received some abusive messages from Cybernats, after SNP politician Roseanna Cunningham posted a message on Twitter showing a letter from the soldier asking for donations to Better Together. In June 2014 the author JK Rowling was subjected to online abuse by Cybernats after donating to Better Together.The Herald stated in February 2013 that: "The problem is not limited to the nationalist side of the referendum debate, with the SNP complaining of Unionist "unitrolls" spreading online abuse." It also reported that the Yes Scotland campaign would monitor blog sites and Twitter in an attempt to police offensive comments by supporters of independence. Christopher Stevenson, a British Unionist and a fire safety technician from Glasgow, was convicted in August 2014 of behaving in a "threatening or abusive manner" for stating on Twitter that he "might assassinate Alex Salmond". Stevenson, who argued in court that his statement was meant as a joke, had sentence deferred for one year.During the 2015 UK general election campaign, Labour called on the SNP to disown their candidate for Edinburgh South, Neil Hay, who had posted abusive comments on Twitter about Scottish unionists and elderly voters. Nicola Sturgeon, the SNP leader, condemned the comments but also pointed out that a Labour activist, Ian Smart, had abused nationalists. Labour subsequently suspended Smart from membership of the party. Charles Kennedy, former leader of the Liberal Democrats, was the target of on-line abuse during the campaign and immediately after the election. One person who had posted comments directed at Kennedy using a personal Twitter account was identified as Brian Smith, an SNP constituency official; the party declared that his comments were inappropriate and Smith quickly resigned.

David Duke

David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a prominent American white supremacist, white nationalist politician, white separatist, antisemitic conspiracy theorist, Holocaust denier, convicted felon, and former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.

A former Republican Louisiana State Representative, Duke was a candidate in the Democratic presidential primaries in 1988 and the Republican presidential primaries in 1992. Duke also ran unsuccessfully for the Louisiana State Senate, United States Senate, United States House of Representatives, and for Governor of Louisiana.

In 2002, Duke pled guilty to felony fraud. Specifically, he defrauded his political supporters by pretending to be in dire financial straits, and asking them for money to help him pay for basic necessities. At the time, Duke was financially secure, and he used his supporters' money for recreational gambling. He subsequently served a 15-month sentence at Federal Correctional Institution, Big Spring in Texas.Duke speaks against what he alleges as Jewish control of the Federal Reserve Bank, the U.S. federal government, and the media. Duke supports the preservation of what he considers to be Western culture and traditionalist Christian family values, as well as abolition of the Internal Revenue Service, voluntary racial segregation, anti-communism, and white separatism.

Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, and merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News (which had been founded in 1884).

The Financial Times has a record paying readership of one million, three-quarters of which are digital subscriptions (as of April 2019). On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m ($1.32 billion) and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015.

Jewish News

The Jewish News is a free newspaper, established in 1997, that serves the Jewish communities of Greater London – specifically Middlesex, Hertfordshire and Essex. It is a former Press Gazette free newspaper of the year.

Liverpool Evening Express

The Liverpool Evening Express was a local newspaper that circulated in Liverpool, England from 1870 to 1958. Originally published by Tinling C & Co. Ltd, the paper merged with the Liverpool Echo in 1958.

Liverpool Mercury

The Liverpool Mercury was an English newspaper that originated in Liverpool, England and circulated for over 200 years. As well as focusing on local news, the paper also reported on both national and international news allowing it to circulate in Lancashire, Wales, Isle of Man and London.

Media in London

London is a major international communications centre with a virtually unrivalled number of media outlets. Almost all of the major media organisations in the UK are based in London. Much of the British media is concentrated in London and is sometimes accused of having a "London bias". All the major television networks are headquartered in London including the BBC, which remains one of the world's most influential media organisations, and the largest Broadcaster in the world. Partly to counter complaints about London bias, the BBC announced in June 2004 that some departments are to be relocated to Manchester. Other networks headquartered in London include ITV, Channel 4, Five, CNN International and BSkyB. Like the BBC, these produce some programmes elsewhere in the UK, but London is their main production centre. Local programming, including news, is provided by the regional services of the main networks: e.g. BBC London News on BBC One and ITV London on ITV.

There is a huge choice of radio stations available in London. Local citywide stations include music-based stations such as Absolute Radio, Capital 95.8, Kiss 100, Magic 105.4, Heart 106.2 and Xfm. Popular news/talk stations include BBC London, LBC 97.3 and LBC News 1152.

The London newspaper market is dominated by London editions of the national newspapers, all of which are edited in London. Until the 1970s, most of the national newspapers were concentrated in Fleet Street, but in the 1980s they relocated to new premises with automated printing works. Most of these are in East London, most famously the News International plant at Wapping. The move was resisted strongly by the printing trade union SOGAT 82, and strike action at Wapping in 1986 led to violent skirmishes. The last major news agency in Fleet Street, Reuters, moved to Canary Wharf in 2005, but Fleet Street is still commonly used as a collective term for the national press.

London has two citywide daily newspaper titles - the Evening Standard and Metro, both of which are available on the streets and at London tube and railway stations. The Evening Standard became a free newspaper in October 2009 after 182 years as a paid-for publication. There is also a freesheet covering financial news, City A.M.. The independent weekly listings guide Time Out Magazine has been providing concert, film, theatre and arts information since 1968. There are a vast number of local newspapers in the London area, often covering a small section of the city as well as two free magazines, Sport and Shortlist

London is at the centre of British film and television production industries, with major studio facilities on the western fringes of the conurbation and a large post-production industry centred in Soho (see Soho media and post-production community). London is one of the two leading centres of English-language publishing alongside New York. Globally important media companies based in London range from publishing group Pearson, to the information agency Reuters, to the world's number one advertising business group, WPP.

Millennial Star

The Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star (usually shortened to Millennial Star) was the longest continuously published periodical of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, being printed in England from 1840 until 1970, when it was replaced by the Church-wide Ensign.

News Chronicle

The News Chronicle was a British daily newspaper. It ceased publication on 17 October 1960, being absorbed into the Daily Mail. Its offices were in Bouverie Street, off Fleet Street, London, EC4Y 8DP, England.

North Wales Chronicle

The North Wales Chronicle is a weekly regional newspaper based in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales, owned by NWN Media. News coverage is mainly concerning north Gwynedd, including the city of Bangor and town of Caernarfon, as well as the Isle of Anglesey.

Established in 1808, it is possibly the oldest weekly newspaper in Wales. It is the only free newspaper in Gwynedd and Anglesey, with a combined weekly readership of 552,127 adults.

Press Association

The Press Association (PA) is a multimedia news agency operating in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

PA is part of PA Group Limited, a private company with 26 shareholders, most of whom are national and regional newspaper publishers. The biggest shareholders include the Daily Mail and General Trust, News UK, and UBM. PA Group also encompasses Globelynx, which provides TV-ready remotely monitored camera systems for corporate clients to connect with TV news broadcasters in the UK and worldwide; TNR, a specialist communications consultancy; Sticky Content, the UK's leading digital copywriting and content strategy agency; and StreamAMG, a video streaming business.

PA, the news agency, delivers a continuous feed of content via a national newswire, including text, images, video and data into newsrooms around the country. This ranges from international sports data and entertainment guides, to TV listings and archived images.

The Group's photography arm, PA Images, has a portfolio comprising more than 20 million photographs online and around 10 million in physical archives dating back 150 years.PA’s customers are varied, consisting of non-media customers, business brands, commercial companies, government and not-for-profit organisations.

Reuters

Reuters () is an international news organization. It is a division of Thomson Reuters and has nearly 200 locations around the world. Until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, which was also a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Urdu, Arabic, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese. It was established in 1851.

The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier.

The Telegraph is widely regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, and will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858.The paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018. The Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories. Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative.The Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, and its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, critics, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers, especially HSBC.

The European (newspaper)

The European, billed as "Europe's first national newspaper", was a British weekly newspaper founded by Robert Maxwell. It was published from 11 May 1990 until December 1998.

The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to owners or shareholders.The current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format. As of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834. The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia (founded in 2013) and Guardian US (founded in 2011). The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion, and its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial (despite the high proportion of privately educated journalists writing for it) has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today.In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what [they] see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company (PAMCo) stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018. It was also reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions; other "quality" brands included The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and the i. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month.Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone. The investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, and subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts. It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most recently in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance.

The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010. The last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions.Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003. Until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues.The daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards.

In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000.

The New European

The New European is a British pro-EU weekly newspaper owned by Archant that began publication on 8 July 2016. Launched as a response to the United Kingdom's 2016 EU referendum, its readership is aimed at those who voted to remain within the European Union, with the newspaper's original tagline being "The New Pop-up Paper for the 48%".It is edited by Matt Kelly, who formerly worked at the Daily Mirror and Local World.

The newspaper's owners stated that The New European was to have an initial lifespan of just four issues, beyond which publication would be reviewed on a week-by-week basis. By the eve of the third edition the paper revealed it had broken even and sold around 40,000 copies. It continued to publish beyond its fourth issue, and is currently still publishing. The circulation was reported in November 2016 to be "about 25,000" and, in February 2017, to be 20,000. The paper also announced in November 2016 that it was moving to become more digitally focussed (it claimed to have more than a million internet page views a month) - in May 2017 it said it only had one permanent staff member and around 40 contributors. The paper announced it was changing from Berliner to Compact format in July 2017.On 30 September 2016, the newspaper won the serial rights to the fifth volume of Alastair Campbell's diaries about the Blair government, which it serialised over three weeks. Subsequently in March 2017 the newspaper announced that it had appointed Campbell as editor-at-large.In March 2017 the Society of Editors awarded the New European the Chairman's award. In May 2017 the New European won prizes at the annual British Media awards for Launch of the Year (Gold), Print Product of the Year (Silver) Content Team of the Year (Bronze) and Pioneer of the Year for the editor Matt Kelly. In July 2017 the Archant Group won the Professional Publishers Association Chairmans award with the launch of the New European cited.

The Shetland Times

The Shetland Times is a weekly newspaper in Shetland, published on Fridays and based in Lerwick, Shetland, Scotland.

The newspaper is owned by The Shetland Times Ltd, a company which also operates a publishing arm, a bookshop and a printing company. The Shetland Times Ltd claims to have 55 employees.Locally known as The Times, the newspaper was established in 1872 and costs £1.30. The newspaper claims a circulation figure of 11,438. It was voted Newspaper of the Year by the (Scottish) Highlands and Islands Media Awards in 2006.

The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, and have only had common ownership since 1967.

In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite:

For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street.

The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution.

The Times is the originator of the widely used Times Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern. The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet.

The Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019; in the same period, The Sunday Times had an average daily circulation of 712,291. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006. It has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning.

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