Mechelen transit camp

The Mechelen transit camp, officially SS-Sammellager Mecheln in German, was a detention and deportation camp established in a former army barracks at Mechelen in German-occupied Belgium. It was managed by the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo-SD),[5] a branch of the SS-Reichssicherheitshauptamt, in order to collect and deport Jews and Romani mainly out of Belgium towards the labor camp of Heydebreck-Cosel[6] and the concentration camps of Auschwitz-Birkenau in German occupied Poland.

During the Second World War, between 4 August 1942 and 31 July 1944, 28 trains left from this Belgian casern and deported over 25,000 Jews and Roma,[1][7] most of whom arrived at the extermination camps of Auschwitz-Birkenau. At the end of war, 1240 of them had survived.[7]

Since 1996, a Holocaust museum has been open near the site of the camp: the Kazerne Dossin – Memorial.

Mechelen transit camp
SS-Sammellager Mecheln
Transit camp
Dossin 2
Modern view of Dossin Barracks which housed the transit camp
Mechelen transit camp is located in Belgium
Mechelen transit camp
Location of the camp in Belgium
Coordinates51°02′02″N 4°28′42″E / 51.03389°N 4.47833°ECoordinates: 51°02′02″N 4°28′42″E / 51.03389°N 4.47833°E
Other namesSS-Sammellager Mecheln
LocationMechelen, Belgium
Operated byNazi Germany
Original useMilitary barracks[Note 1]
First built1756
OperationalJuly 1942 – September 1944
Inmatesmainly Jews and Roma
Number of inmatesJews: 24,916[1]
Roma: 351[2]
Killedc.300 (on-site only)[3]
Liberated byAllied Forces, 4 September 1944
Notable inmatesFelix Nussbaum,[4] Abraham Bueno de Mesquita
Websitewww.kazernedossin.be/en

Background

WW2-Holocaust-Europe
Map of the Holocaust: this map shows all concentration and extermination camps in German-occupied Europe as well as labor camps, prison camps, ghettos, major deportation routes and major massacre sites

German occupation and persecution

Belgium was invaded by Nazi Germany in a rapid military campaign on 10–28 May 1940. It was subsequently placed under a military occupation administration which would endure until July 1944 when the territory briefly passed under a civilian administration, brought to an end by the Liberation of Belgium in September 1944.

As early as September 1940, the German administration established a prison camp (Auffanglager) in Fort Breendonk, a former Belgian military fort. Inmates were largely political prisoners, though a number of Jews were also held in a segregated part of the camp. As part of the Final Solution (Endlösung) after January 1942, it was decided to transport Belgian Jews to concentration and extermination camps in Eastern Europe.

Mechelen transit camp

Approximately 90 percent of Belgium's Jewish population lived in the cities of Antwerp and Brussels in 1942. Accordingly Mechelen, a city with a railway hub located halfway between the two, was chosen as the site of the new transit camp.

The building chosen to house the camp was a former army facility called Dossin Barracks (Caserne Dossin), built in 1756 and named after Lieutenant-General Émile Dossin de Saint-Georges, a hero of the Battle of the Yser during World War I. It was located in the north of the city and provided access to the railway freight dock serving the River Dyle.[8] The three-storey block that completely surrounded a large square yard was fitted with barbed wire. It became operational in July 1942.

Operation

The camp staff was mostly German but was assisted by Belgian collaborationist paramilitaries from the Algemeene-SS Vlaanderen ("General SS Flanders").[5][9] It was officially under the command of Philipp Schmitt, commandant of the Fort Breendonk. The acting commandant at Mechelen was SS officer Rudolph Steckmann.

The first group of people arrived in the camp from Antwerp on 27 July 1942. Between August and December 1942, two transports, each with about 1,000 Jews, left the camp every week for Auschwitz concentration camp. Between the 4 August 1942 and 31 July 1944, a total of 28 trains left Mechelen for Poland, carrying 24,916 Jews and 351 Roma;[1] most of them went to Auschwitz. This figure represented more than half of the Belgian Jews murdered during the Holocaust. In line with the Nazi racial policy that much later became named the Porajmos (or Samudaripen), 351 Belgian Roma were sent to Auschwitz in early 1944.

Conditions at the Mechelen camp were especially brutal. Many Roma were locked in basement rooms for weeks or months at a time without food or sanitary facilities. The Roma had an especially low survival rate.

Mechelen-SS-Sammellager - Dossin Casern
Summer 1942: the Mechelen transit camp after the arrival of those caught during the night.[5]
Breendonk071
Original boxcar used for transport to concentration camps in the collection of Fort Breendonk
Transports from Mechelen to Auschwitz-Birkenau
Deported people per age (above and below 15 years old) and gender.
All deportees were Jews with the exception of those on Transport Z.[1]
Transports Date Men Boys Women Girls Total
Transport 1 4 August 1942 544 28 403 23 998
Transport 2 11 August 1942 459 25 489 26 999
Transport 3 15 June 1942 380 48 522 50 1000
Transport 4 18 August 1942 339 133 415 112 999
Transport 5 25 August 1942 397 88 429 81 995
Transport 6 29 August 1942 355 60 531 54 1000
Transport 7 1 September 1942 282 163 401 154 1000
Transport 8 10 September 1942 388 111 403 98 1000
Transport 9 12 September 1942 408 91 401 100 1000
Transport 10 15 September 1942 405 132 414 97 1048
Transport 11 26 September 1942 562 231 713 236 1742
Transport 12 10 October 1942 310 135 423 131 999
Transport 13 10 October 1942 228 89 259 99 675
Transport 14 24 October 1942 324 112 438 121 995
Transport 15 24 October 1942 314 30 93 39 476
Transport 16 31 October 1942 686 16 94 27 823
Transport 17 31 October 1942 629 45 169 32 875
Transport 18 15 January 1943 353 105 424 65 947
Transport 19 15 January 1943 239 51 270 52 612
Transport 20 19 April 1943 463 115 699 127 1404
Transport 21 31 July 1943 672 103 707 71 1553
Transport 22a 20 September 1943 291 39 265 36 631
Transport 22b 20 September 1943 305 74 351 64 794
Transport 23 15 January 1944 307 33 293 22 655
Transport Z[Note 2] 15 January 1944 85 91 101 74 351
Transport 24 4 April 1944 303 29 275 18 625
Transport 25 19 May 1944 237 20 230 21 508
Transport 26 31 July 1944 280 15 251 17 563
Total August 1942 – July 1944 10,545 2,212 10,463 2,047 25,267

Confrontation

Statue 20th convoy
Monument to the resistance action against the 20th Belgian Jew transport in the railway station of Boortmeerbeek, Belgium.

Some people succeeded in escaping the transports, especially from the Transports 16 and 17 which consisted of men returned from forced labor on the Atlantic Wall to Belgium. Most of these men jumped between Mechelen and the German border. Many were caught and were soon put on subsequent transports but a total of about 500 Jewish prisoners did manage to escape across all the 28 transports. On 19 April 1943 three resistance fighters, acting on their own initiative, stopped Transport 20 near the train station of Boortmeerbeek, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south-east of Mechelen. From this action 17 prisoners managed to flee. More Jews escaped by their own deeds, a total of 231 Jews fled although 90 were eventually recaptured and 26 were shot by guards escorting the train.[10]

The last transport left on 31 July 1944 but Allied forces could not stop it before its destination was reached. When the Allies approached Mechelen by 3 September 1944, the Germans fled the Dossin Barracks, leaving the 527 remaining prisoners behind.[5] Some remaining prisoners escaped that night and the others were freed on the 4th, though soon replaced with suspected collaborators. The lists of deportees were left at Hasselt during the German retreat and were later discovered intact.

Memorial and Museum

In 1948 Dossin Barracks reverted to its original use by the Belgian Army. It was used until 1975 when it was abandoned. Apart from a wing renovated in the 1980s for social housing, the barracks became the site of the Jewish Museum of Deportation and Resistance by 1996. In 2001, the Flemish Government decided to expand the institution by a new complex built opposite the old barracks; the latter closed in July 2011, to become a memorial monument.[11] The Kazerne Dossin – Memorial, Museum and Documentation Centre on Holocaust and Human Rights reopened its doors on 26 November 2012.[12]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresia of Austria, last of the House of Habsburg, ordered the building of the so-called Hof van Habsburg for an infantry regiment in 1756. Later it became a Belgian Army barracks.
  2. ^ Z stands for Zigeuner, or Roma in German

References

Citations
  1. ^ a b c d Schram 2006, De raciale deportatie van België naar Auschwitz vanuit Mechelen
  2. ^ "Kazerne Dossin – History – Dossin barracks: 1942–44". Cicb.be. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  3. ^ Mikhman, Gutman & Bender 2005, pp. xxx
  4. ^ Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. "The Fate of the Jews – Across Europe Murder of the Jews of Western Europe". Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d Schram 2008, Instigators and Perpetrators
  6. ^ Schram 2006, De tewerkstelling van degenen die aan de onmiddellijke uitroeiing ontsnappen
  7. ^ a b "Kazerne Dossin – History – The Transports". Cicb.be. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  8. ^ "Dossinkazerne (voormalige) (ID: 3617)". De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed. Vlaams Instituut voor het Onroerend Erfgoed (VIOE). Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  9. ^ Mikhman 1998, p. 212
  10. ^ Steinberg 1979, pp. 53–56
  11. ^ "Kazerne Dossin (main page of August 2011)" (in Dutch). Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  12. ^ "Kazerne Dossin: History". Retrieved 9 July 2015.
Bibliography
  • Mikhman, Dan (1998). Belgium and the Holocaust: Jews, Belgians, Germans. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-965-308-068-3.
  • Mikhman, Dan; Gutman, Israel; Bender, Sara (2005). The encyclopedia of the Righteous among the Nations: rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Belgium. Yad Vashem. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  • Steinberg, Maxime (1999). "Malines, antichambre de la mort". Un pays occupé et ses juifs Belgique entre France et Pays-Bas (in French). Gerpinnes: Quorum. ISBN 978-2-87399-014-5. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  • Schram, Laurence (2006). "De cijfers van de deportatie uit Mechelen naar Auschwitz. Perspectieven en denkpistes". De Belgische tentoonstelling in Auschwitz. Het boek – L'exposition belge à Auschwitz. Le Livre (in Dutch). Het Joods Museum voor Deportatie en Verzet. ISBN 978-90-76109-03-9. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  • Schram, Laurence (21 February 2008). "The Transit Camp for Jews in Mechelen: The Antechamber of Death". Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. ISSN 1961-9898. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  • Steinberg, Maxime (1979). Extermination, sauvetage et résistance des juifs de Belgique (in French). Brussels: Comité d'hommage des Juifs de Belgique à leurs héros et sauveurs.
  • Steinberg, Maxime; Ward, Adriaens; Schram, Laurence; Ramet, Patricia; Hautermann, Eric; Marquenie, Ilse (2009). Mecheln-Auschwitz, 1942–1944 – The destruction of the Jews and Gypsies from Belgium. Vol. I-IV. Brussels: VUBPress. ISBN 978-90-5487-537-6.
  • Steinberg, Maxime (1981). Dossier Brussel-Auschwitz, De SS-politie en de uitroeiing van de Joden, gevolg door gerechtelijke documenten van de rechtzaak Ehlers, Canaris en Asche bij het Assisenhof te Kiel, 1980 (in Dutch). Brussel: Steuncomité bij de burgerlijke partij proces tegen SS-Officieren Ehlers, Asche, Canris voor wegvoering der joden van België.
  • Steinberg, Maxime; Schram, Laurence (2008). Transport XX : Malines-Auschwitz (in French). Brussels: Éditions du Musée juif de la déportation et de la Resistance. ISBN 978-90-5487-477-5.
  • Steinberg, Maxime (2004). La persécution des Juifs en Belgique (1940–1945) (in French). Bruxelles: Complexe. ISBN 978-2-8048-0026-0. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  • Van Doorslaer, Rudi (2007). La Belgique docile : les autorités belges et la persécution des Juifs en Belgique (in French). Brussels: Luc Pire. ISBN 978-2-87415-848-3.
  • Baes, Ruben. "'La Belgique docile'. Les autorités belges et la persécution des Juifs" [The obedient Belgium – The Belgian authorities and the persecution of the Jews]. Centre for Historical Research and Documentation on War And Contemporary Society (CEGES-SOMA). Retrieved 2 August 2011.
  • The Kazerne Dossin – Memorial, Museum and Documentation Centre on Holocaust and Human Rights web site. (Accessed 31 July 2011)
  • This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL: Mechelen. Holocaust Encyclopedia. (Accessed 31 July 2011).
  • Tammy Bottner (2017). "[1]" Among the Reeds. The true story of how a family survived the Holocaust. Oegstgeest: Amsterdam Publishers. ISBN 9789492371287.

External links

Attack on the twentieth convoy

The Twentieth Convoy (French: Vingtième convoi; Dutch: Twintigste treinkonvooi), also known as the Twentieth Train, was a Holocaust train and prisoner transport in Belgium organized by Nazi Germany during World War II.

On 19 April 1943, members of the Belgian Resistance stopped the train and freed a number of Jewish and Roma civilians who were being transported to Auschwitz concentration camp from Mechelen transit camp in Belgium. In the aftermath of the attack, a number of others were able to jump from the train too. In all, 233 people managed to escape, of whom 118 ultimately survived. The remainder were either killed during the escape or were recaptured soon afterwards. The attack was unusual as an attempt by the resistance to free Jewish deportees and marks the only "mass breakout" by deportees on a Holocaust train.

Belgium in World War II

Despite being neutral at the start of World War II, Belgium and its colonial possessions found themselves at war after the country was invaded by German forces on 10 May 1940. After 18 days of fighting in which Belgian forces were pushed back into a small pocket in the north-east of the country, the Belgian military surrendered to the Germans, beginning an occupation that would endure until 1944. The surrender of 28 May was ordered by King Leopold III without the consultation of his government and sparked a political crisis after the war. Despite the capitulation, many Belgians managed to escape to the United Kingdom where they formed a government and army-in-exile on the Allied side.

The Belgian Congo remained loyal to the Belgian government in London and contributed significant material and human resources to the Allied cause. Many Belgians were involved in both armed and passive resistance to German forces, although some chose to collaborate with the German forces. Support from far right political factions and sections of the Belgian population allowed the German army to recruit two divisions of the Waffen-SS from Belgium and also facilitated the Nazi persecution of Belgian Jews in which nearly 25,000 were killed.

Most of the country was liberated by the Allies between September and October 1944, though areas to the far east of the country remained occupied until early 1945. In total, approximately 88,000 Belgians died during the conflict, a figure representing 1.05 percent of the country's pre-war population, and around 8 percent of the country's GDP was destroyed.

Eggert Reeder

SS-Gruppenführer Eggert Reeder (22 July 1894, Poppenbüll – 22 November 1959, Wuppertal) was a German jurist, civil servant, and district President of several regions. Reeder served as civilian administrator of Wehrmacht occupied Belgium and northern France when Nazi Germany occupied those countries during World War II.

Felix Nussbaum

Felix Nussbaum (11 December 1904 – 9 August 1944) was a German-Jewish surrealist painter. Nussbaum’s artwork gives a rare glimpse into the essence of one individual among the victims of the Holocaust.

Fort Breendonk

Fort Breendonk (Dutch: Fort van Breendonk, French: Fort de Breendonk) is a military fortification situated at Breendonk, near Mechelen, in Belgium which is best known for its role as a Nazi prison camp (Auffanglager) during the German occupation of Belgium during World War II.

Fort Breendonk was originally built for the Belgian army between 1906-13 as part of the second ring of defenses of the National Redoubt protecting the important port-city of Antwerp. It was covered by a five-metre thick layer of soil for defense against bombings, a water-filled moat and measured 656 by 984 feet (200 by 300 m).During World War II, the fort was requisitioned by the Germans as a prison camp for detaining Belgian political dissidents, captured resistance members and Jews. Although technically a prison rather than a concentration camp, the Fort was infamous for its prisoners' poor living conditions and for the use of torture. Most prisoners who were detained at the camp were later transferred to larger concentration camps in Eastern Europe. Of the 3,590 prisoners known to have been imprisoned at Breendonk, 303 died or were executed within the fort itself but as many as 1,741 died subsequently in other camps before the end of the war.Today, the site is a national memorial and museum which is open to the public.

German occupation of Belgium during World War II

The German occupation of Belgium (French: Occupation allemande, Dutch: Duitse bezetting) during World War II began on 28 May 1940 when the Belgian army surrendered to German forces and lasted until Belgium's liberation by the Western Allies between September 1944 and February 1945. It was the second time that Germany had occupied Belgium in under thirty years.

After the success of the invasion, a military administration was established in Belgium, bringing the territory under the direct rule of the Wehrmacht. Thousands of Belgian soldiers were taken as prisoners of war, and many were not released until 1945. The German administration juggled competing objectives of maintaining order while extracting material from the territory for the war effort. They were assisted by the Belgian civil service, which believed that limited co-operation with the occupiers would result in the least damage to Belgian interests. Belgian Fascist parties in both Flanders and Wallonia, established before the war, collaborated much more actively with the occupiers; they helped recruit Belgians for the German army and were given more power themselves toward the end of the occupation. Food and fuel were tightly rationed, and all official news was closely censored. Belgian civilians living near possible targets such as railway junctions were in danger of Allied aerial bombing.

From 1942, the occupation became more repressive. Jews suffered systematic persecution and deportation to concentration camps, as measures were taken against potential political opposition. Despite vigorous protest, the Germans deported Belgian civilians to work in factories in Germany. Meanwhile, the Belgian Resistance, formed in late 1940, expanded vastly. From 1944, the SS and Nazi Party gained much greater control in Belgium, particularly after the military government was replaced in July by a Nazi civil administration, the Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich. In September 1944, Allied forces arrived in Belgium and quickly moved across the country. That December, the territory was incorporated de jure into the Greater German Reich although its collaborationist leaders were already in exile in Germany and German control in the region was virtually non-existent. Belgium was declared fully liberated in February 1945. In total, 40,690 Belgians, over half of them Jews, were killed during the occupation and the country's pre-war gross domestic product (GDP) was reduced by eight percent.

History of Belgium

The history of Belgium extends before the founding of the modern state of that name in 1830. Belgium's history is therefore intertwined with those of its neighbours: the Netherlands, Germany, France and Luxembourg. For most of its history, what is now Belgium was either a part of a larger territory, such as the Carolingian Empire, or divided into a number of smaller states, prominent among them being the Duchy of Brabant, the County of Flanders, the Prince-Bishopric of Liège and County of Luxembourg. Due to its strategic location and the many armies fighting on its soil, since the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), Belgium has often been called the "battlefield of Europe" or the "cockpit of Europe". It is also remarkable as a European nation which contains, and is divided by, a language boundary between Latin-derived French and Germanic Dutch.

Belgium's modern shape can be partly traced back at least as far as the "Seventeen Provinces" within the Burgundian Netherlands. These lands straddled the ancient boundary of the Scheldt that had divided medieval France and Germany, but they were brought together under the House of Valois-Burgundy, and unified into one autonomous territory by their heir Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in his Pragmatic Sanction of 1549. The Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) later led to the split between a northern Dutch Republic and the Southern Netherlands from which Belgium and Luxembourg developed. This southern territory continued to be ruled by the Habsburg descendants of the Burgundian house, at first as the "Spanish Netherlands". Invasions from France under Louis XIV led to the loss of what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais to France, while the remainder finally became the "Austrian Netherlands". The French Revolutionary wars led to Belgium becoming part of France in 1795, bringing the end of the semi-independence of areas which had belonged to the Catholic church. After the defeat of the French in 1814, a new United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created, which eventually split one more time during the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, giving three modern nations, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

The ports and textile industry of Belgium were important back into the Middle Ages, and modern Belgium was one of the first countries to experience an Industrial Revolution, which brought prosperity in the 19th century but also opened a political dichotomy between liberal businessmen and socialist workers. The king set up his own private colonial empire in the Belgian Congo, which the government took over after a major scandal in 1908. Belgium was neutral but its strategic location as a pathway to France made it an invasion target for Germany in 1914 and 1940. Conditions under the occupation were severe. In the postwar period Belgium was a leader in European unification, as a founding member of what has become the European Union. Brussels is now host to the headquarters of NATO and is the de facto capital of the European Union. The colonies became independent in the early 1960s.

Politically the country was once polarized on matters of religion and, in recent decades, it has faced new divisions over differences of language and unequal economic development. This ongoing antagonism has caused far-reaching reforms since the 1970s, changing the formerly unitary Belgian state into a federal state, and repeated governmental crises. It is now divided into three regions: Flanders (Dutch-speaking) in the north, Wallonia (French-speaking) in the south, and bilingual Brussels in the middle. There is also a German-speaking population along the border with Germany that was granted to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna in 1815 but added to Belgium following the 1919 Treaty of Versailles following World War I. German is the third official language of Belgium.

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.Modern historians suggest that without the mass transportation of the railways, the scale of the "Final Solution" would not have been possible. The extermination of people targeted in the "Final Solution" was dependent on two factors: the capacity of the death camps to gas the victims and "process" their bodies quickly enough and the capacity of the railways to transport the victims from the ghettos to extermination camps. The most modern accurate numbers on the scale of the "Final Solution" still rely partly on shipping records of the German railways.

Index of World War II articles (M)

M-1941 Field Jacket

M-24 (Japanese midget submarine)

M B Etheredge

M-class minesweeper (Germany)

M Special Unit

M. A. Yegorov

M. R. D. Foot

M. Z. Kiani

Maori Battalion

Möbelwagen

Möhne Reservoir

Mörser Karl

MÁVAG Heja I/II

M1 bayonet

M1 carbine

M1 Garand rifle

M1 Helmet

M1 mine

M10 tank destroyer

M101 howitzer

M114 155 mm howitzer

M115 203 mm howitzer

M116 howitzer

M12 Gun Motor Carriage

M15/42 tank

M18 Hellcat

M1903 Springfield rifle

M1905 bayonet

M1911 pistol

M1917 Browning machine gun

M1917 Enfield rifle

M1917 revolver

M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle

M1919 Browning machine gun

M1938 mortar

M1941 Johnson machine gun

M1941 Johnson rifle

M1942 bayonet

M2 Browning machine gun

M2 flamethrower

M2 Half Track Car

M2 Hyde

M2 Light Tank

M2 Medium Tank

M22 Locust

M24 Chaffee

M26 Pershing

M29 Weasel

M3 GMC

M3 Half-track

M3 Lee

M3 Scout Car

M3 submachine gun

M36 tank destroyer

M38 Wolfhound

M39 Pantserwagen

M4 Sherman variants

M4 Sherman

M40 Gun Motor Carriage

M42 Truppenfahrad

M50 Reising submachine gun

M6 Fargo

M6 heavy tank

M7 Priest

M8 Greyhound

Ma clique

Ma Zhanshan

MAB Model D pistol

Mabillon (Paris Métro)

MAC 1934

Mac Speedie

MacArthur (film)

Macchi C.200

Macchi C.202

Macchi C.205

Macelj massacre

Machijiri Kazumoto

Machtergreifung

Maciej Aleksy Dawidowski

Maciej Kalenkiewicz

Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion

MacRobert's Reply

Madagascar Plan

Madame de Pompadour

Madeleine (Paris Métro)

Madeleine Damerment

Madeleine Renaud

Madelyn Dunham

Mademoiselle Fleury

Mademoiselle Mars

Madge Oberholtzer

Madonna of Chancellor Rolin

Madsen machine gun

Maeda Ku-1

Maeda Ku-6

Magda Goebbels

Magda Herzberger

Magda Trocmé, see André and Magda Trocmé

Magdolna Purgly

Magenta (Paris RER)

Magic (cryptography)

Maginot Line

Magnar Solberg

Magne Thomassen

Magneto (comics)

Magnum crimen

Magnus von Braun

Mahamadou Dissa

Maiales

Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees

Main Line of Resistance

Main Street Electrical Parade

Main Street, U.S.A.

Mairie d'Issy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Clichy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Montreuil (Paris Métro)

Mairie des Lilas (Paris Métro)

Maison Blanche (Paris Métro)

Maison de la Chimie

Maison de la Mutualité

Maison de Verre

Maison de Victor Hugo

Maisons-Laffitte (SNCF)

Maisons-Laffitte Racecourse

Maisons Jaoul

Maizuru Naval Arsenal

Maizuru Naval District

Maja Bogdanović

Majdanek

Major Zemo

Majors Airport (Texas)

Makan Dioumassi

Makapili

Makin Island raid

Making History (novel)

Making History: The Calm & The Storm

Maks Baće Milić

Maksim Purkayev

Maksymilian Ciężki

Mal Aldrich

Mala Zimetbaum

Malabar Battery

Malakand Field Force

Malaya (film)

Malaya Zemlya

Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army

Malchiel Gruenwald

Malchow concentration camp

Malcolm C. Grow

Malcolm David Wanklyn

Malcolm Lewis Pratt

Malcolm Milne

Malcolm Munthe

Malcolm Nokes

Malcolm Wilson (New York)

Male Call

Malesherbes (Paris Métro)

Malgré-nous

Malinta Tunnel

Malken Mierzynek

Malmedy massacre trial

Malmedy massacre

Malta Conference (1945)

Malta Convoys

Malta Story

Maly Trostenets extermination camp

Malèna

Mamadou Bagayoko

Mamadou Diallo (Malian footballer)

Mamadou Konte

Mamadou Sakho

Mamary Traoré

Mamayev Kurgan

Mamert Stankiewicz

Mamie Eisenhower

Mamoru Oshii

Mamoru Shigemitsu

Man's Search for Meaning

Man Hunt (1941 film)

Man Ray (bar)

Manchester Blitz

Manchukuo Air Force

Manchukuo Film Association

Manchukuo Imperial Army

Manchukuo Imperial Guards

Manchukuo Imperial Navy

Manchukuo National Airways

Manchukuo yuan

Manchukuo

Manchuria national football team

Manchurian Industrial Development Company

Manci Howard, Lady Howard of Effingham

Manfred Eigen

Manfred Freiherr von Killinger

Manfred Roeder

Manfred Schmid

Manfred von Knobelsdorff

Manfred von Richthofen

Manhattan Project

Manhunt (1969 TV series)

Manila American Cemetery and Memorial

Manila massacre

Manley Angell James

Mann (military rank)

Mannerheim Line

Mannert L. Abele

Mannlicher–Schönauer

Manolis Glezos

Manon Batiste

Manpower (1942 film)

Manrico Ducceschi

Manshūkoku Hikōki Seizo KK

Manshuk Mametova

Manson Benedict

Manstein Plan

Manton S. Eddy

Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel de Escandón y Barrón, Marquis of Villavieja

Manuel Gonzales

Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel Perez Jr.

Manuel Prado Ugarteche

Manuel Rosenthal

Manzanar

Mao Zedong

Maquis (World War II)

Maquis de Saffré

Maquis de Saint-Marcel

Maquis de Vabre

Maquis des Glières

Maquis du Limousin

Maquis du Mont Mouchet

Maquis du Vercors

Marama Vahirua

Maraîchers (Paris Métro)

Marburg speech

Marc Alexandre

Marc Bloch

Marc Boegner

Marc Detton

Marc Fumaroli

Marc Girardin

Marc Milner

Marc Mitscher

Marcadet - Poissonniers (Paris Métro)

Marcario Garcia

Marcel-Frédéric Lubin-Lebrère

Marcel-Maurice Carpentier

Marcel Achard

Marcel Albert

Marcel Arland

Marcel Astier

Marcel Berger

Marcel Bigeard

Marcel Bucard

Marcel Desailly

Marcel Domingo

Marcel Déat

Marcel J. E. Golay

Marcel Jacques Boulenger

Marcel L'Herbier

Marcel LeHardy

Marcel Louette

Marcel Marceau

Marcel Pagnol

Marcel Paul

Marcel Petiot

Marcel Pilet-Golaz

Marcel Proust

Marcel Prévost

Marcel Sembat (Paris Métro)

Marcel Tyberg

Marcel Van Crombrugge

Marceli Handelsman

Marcellin Berthelot

Marcellus as Hermes Logios

Marcelo Gallardo

March 10

March Air Reserve Base

March of the Living

March of Time: Inside Nazi Germany

Marché d'Intérêt National de Rungis

Marcinkonys Ghetto escape

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

Marco Simone

Marcos Venâncio de Albuquerque

Marcus Clarke (doctor)

Marcus Dinwiddie

Marcus Klingberg

Marcus Melchior

Marcus Ravenswaaij

Mardasson Memorial

Marder I

Marder II

Marder III

Mareşal tank destroyer

Marek Edelman

Marek Jan Chodakiewicz

Mareth Line

Marfa Army Airfield

Margaret Bourke-White

Margaret Ives Abbott

Margaret Ringenberg

Margaret Utinsky

Margarete Adler

Margarete Gallinat

Margarete Rabe

Margot Dreschel

Margot Frank

Margot Glockshuber

Marguerite Knight

Marguerite Yourcenar

Maria Baida

Maria Callas

Maria F. von Trapp

Maria Fedecka

Maria Francisca of Nemours

Maria Mandel

Maria Rasputin

Maria Restituta

Maria Schneider (actor)

Maria Terwiel

Maria Vierdag

Maria Vittoria del Pozzo della Cisterna

Maria von Trapp

Maria Wittek

Mariage Frères

Marian Damaschin

Marian Gieszczykiewicz

Marian Gołębiewski (soldier)

Marian P. Opala

Marian Pisarek

Marian Rejewski

Mariana and Palau Islands campaign

Marianna Municipal Airport

Marianne Grunberg-Manago

Marie-Anne Chabin

Marie-Christine Barrault

Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier

Marie-Félicité Brosset

Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier

Marie-Guillaume-Alphonse Devergie

Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles

Marie-Madeleine Fourcade

Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette

Marie Angelique Arnauld

Marie Anne de Cupis de Camargo

Marie Bell

Marie Cavallier

Marie Champmeslé

Marie d'Agoult

Marie de' Medici cycle

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné

Marie Dissard

Marie Dubas

Marie François Xavier Bichat

Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville

Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours

Marie Juchacz

Marie Laurencin

Marie Ljalková

Marie Pierre Kœnig

Marie Teresa Rios

Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin

Marie Trintignant

Marie van Goethem

Marie Vassiltchikov

Marie Walewska

Mariechen Wehselau

Marielle de Sarnez

Marietta Alboni

Marietta Blau

Marija Bursać

Marin le Roy de Gomberville

Marina Raskova

Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton

Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point

Marine Corps Air Station Eagle Mountain Lake

Marine Corps Air Station El Toro

Marine Corps Air Station Ewa

Marine Corps Air Station Miramar

Marine Corps Air Station Tustin

Marinus van der Lubbe

Mario Armano

Mario Puzo

Mario Rigoni Stern

Mario Suárez (writer)

Mario Yepes

Marion's Triumph

Marion Alice Orr

Marion Case Cheek

Marion Cotillard

Marion Dönhoff

Marion Eugene Carl

Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano

Marion Freisler

Marion Jessup

Marion Yorck von Wartenburg

Marisol Escobar

Marius Fiil

Mariveles Naval Section Base

Mariya Dolina

Marjatta Kajosmaa

Mark 13 torpedo

Mark 14 torpedo

Mark 15 torpedo

Mark 18 Torpedo

Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo

Mark Aitchison Young

Mark Arnold-Forster

Mark Edward Bradley

Mark Evelyn Heath

Mark Fredriksen

Mark Hanna Crouter

Mark Hatfield

Mark Matthews

Mark Norman

Mark Oliphant

Mark Roseman

Mark Tennyson, 5th Baron Tennyson

Mark Twain Riverboat

Mark Wayne Clark

Mark XIV bomb sight

Markiyan Dimidov

Marko Mesić

Marko Orešković

Marlag und Milag Nord

Marlborough: His Life and Times

Marlene Dietrich

Marmaduke Hussey, Baron Hussey of North Bradley

Marmaduke Pattle

Marmon-Herrington Armoured Car

Marmon-Herrington CTLS

Marne la Vallée-Chessy railway station

Marocchinate

Maroubra Force

Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Sade

Marshal (Japan)

Marshall Carter

Marshall Paul Jones

Marshall Plan

Martha Desrumeaux

Martha Gellhorn

Martha Norelius

Martha Sharp

Martial law in Trondheim in 1942

Martial Robin

Martial van Schelle

Martin-Baker MB 3

Martin-Baker MB 5

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin

Martin Adolf Bormann

Martin Balsam

Martin Baltimore

Martin Bartesch

Martin Bormann

Martin Broszat

Martin Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield

Martin Denny

Martin Deutsch

Martin Drewes

Martin Dunbar-Nasmith

Martin Špegelj

Martin F. Loughlin

Martin Fiebig

Martin Field (Washington)

Martin Flannery

Martin Gauger

Martin Gerken

Martin Gibbs

Martin Gilbert

Martin Gottfried Weiss

Martin Gray (Holocaust survivor)

Martin H. Ray, Jr.

Martin Harlinghausen

Martin Heidegger

Martin James Monti

Martin K. Weiche

Martin Linge

Martin Luther (diplomat)

Martin Manulis

Martin McLaren

Martin Mutschmann

Martin Nielsen (politician)

Martin Niemöller

Martin Norberg

Martin Noth

Martin O. May

Martin Redmayne, Baron Redmayne

Martin Sandberger

Martin Tietze

Martin Weiss

Martin Wiesner

Martti Liuttula

Marty Karow

Marty Robbins

Martín Cardetti

Marvin Griffin

Marvin Lee Ramsden

Marvin Opler

Marvin Zindler

Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg Front

Marx Dormoy (Paris Métro)

Mary Colvin

Mary Coulshed

Mary Hallaren

Mary Herring

Mary Jayne Gold

Mary Katherine Herbert

Mary Previte

Mary Soames, Baroness Soames

Mary Tyrwhitt

Mary Welsh

Mary Yamashiro Otani

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood

Maryan Wisnieski

Marye Anne Fox

Maryland Drydock Company

Maryse Bastié

Marzabotto massacre

Maréchal, nous voilà !

MAS-36 rifle

MAS-38

Masada Action and Defense Movement

Masafumi Arima

Masaharu Homma

Masahiko Amakasu

Masahiko Takeshita

Masaichi Niimi

Masakazu Kawabe

Masaki Kashiwara

Masakichi Inoue

Masanobu Tsuji

Masao Maruyama (Japanese Army officer)

Masao Maruyama (scholar)

Masao Nakamura

Masao Watanabe

Masaomi Yasuoka

Masashi Oguro

Masataka Ida

Masatane Kanda

Masatomi Kimura

Masazumi Inada

Maschinengewehr 08

Masha Bruskina

Mason Welch Gross

Mass racial violence in the United States

Massacre in Ciepielów

Massacre in Rome

Massacre in Trhová Kamenice

Massacre of Brzostowica Mala

Massacre of Kalavryta

Massacre of Lvov professors

Massacres of Poles in Volhynia

Massey Lopes, 2nd Baron Roborough

Massy-Verrières

Massy – Palaiseau (Paris RER)

Master Man (Marvel Comics)

Master race

Masuji Ibuse

Mata Gabin

Matagorda Island AFB

Matanikau Offensive

Mateen Ahmed Ansari

Matej Bor

Matheus Coradini Vivian

Mathias Kouo-Doumbe

Mathieu Bastareaud

Mathieu Berson

Mathieu Blin

Mathieu de Montmorency

Mathieu Kassovitz

Mathieu Tillet

Mathilda May

Mathilde Bonaparte

Mathilde Carré

Mathurin Henrio

Mathurin Jacques Brisson

Matilda Mk I

Matilda tank

Mato Dukovac

Matome Ugaki

Matouqin Nocturne

Matsu-class destroyer

Matsudaira Morio

Matsudaira Taro

Matsuhiro Watanabe

Matsuji Ijuin

Matt Batts

Matt McGrath

Matt Urban

Matthew McKeon

Matthew Meselson

Matthew Ridgway

Matthias Kleinheisterkamp

Matthäus Hetzenauer

Matvei Vainrub

Maubert-Mutualité (Paris Métro)

MAUD Committee

Maurice Abravanel

Maurice Albert Windham Rogers

Maurice Anderson

Maurice Arthur Pope

Maurice Austin

Maurice Bardèche

Maurice Barrès

Maurice Bavaud

Maurice Blitz

Maurice Monney-Bouton

Maurice Britt

Maurice Buckmaster

Maurice Challe

Maurice Delarue

Maurice Druon

Maurice Durquetty

Maurice E. Curts

Maurice Evans (actor)

Maurice F. Weisner

Maurice Faure

Maurice G. Dantec

Maurice Gamelin

Maurice Joseph Manuel

Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont

Maurice Lafont

Maurice Laing

Maurice Larrouy

Maurice Lecoq

Maurice Macmillan

Maurice Martenot

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Maurice Norland

Maurice Paléologue

Maurice Papon

Maurice Peeters

Maurice Petherick

Maurice Raichenbach

Maurice Risch

Maurice Rose

Maurice Roy

Maurice Salomez

Maurice Schlesinger

Maurice Schumann

Maurice Taieb

Maurice Taylor (bishop)

Maurice Thorez

Maurice Tourneur

Maurice Turnbull

Maurice Verdonck

Maurice Villaret

Maurice Wilkins

Maurice Wood

Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie

Mauricio Pochettino

Mauritz Eriksson

Mauritz Johansson

Mauro Bergamasco

Mauro Cetto

Maury Maverick, Jr.

Maus

Mauser C96

Mauser HSc

Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials

Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp

Mašín

Maverick County Memorial International Airport

Mavis (DC Comics)

Mavis Gallant

Max-Günther Schrank

Max-Hellmuth Ostermann

Max Abegglen

Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook

Max Amann

Max Ammermann

Max Born

Max Clifford Stormes

Max Coyne

Max Domarus

Max Décugis

Max Ehrlich

Max Elitcher

Max Ernst

Max Guazzini

Max Hainle

Max Herrmann (theatrologist)

Max Ibel

Max Immelmann

Max Jacob

Max Jaffa

Max Josef Metzger

Max Kögel

Max Kennedy Horton

Max Manus

Max Marcuse

Max Matern

Max Ophüls

Max Page

Max Patkin

Max Sachsenheimer

Max Schöne

Max Schmeling

Max Sievers

Max Silverstein

Max Stotz

Max Thompson (Medal of Honor)

Max Valentiner

Max Varnel

Max Ward (bush pilot)

Max Wielen

Max Winkler

Max Wünsche

Max Wolff (soldier)

Maxence Flachez

Maxie Long

Maxim's Paris

Maxim Kontsevich

Maxim M/32-33

Maxime Bossis

Maxime Du Camp

Maxime Weygand

Maximilian de Angelis

Maximilian Grabner

Maximilian Kolbe

Maximilian Volke

Maximilian von Edelsheim

Maximilian von Herff

Maximilian von Weichs

Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg

Maximiliano Hernández Martínez

Maxwell D. Taylor

Maxwell Kogon

Maxwell Meighen

May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis

May Craig (journalist)

Mayfield Workman

Maynard A. Joslyn

Maynard Harrison Smith

Mazas Prison

Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade

Maîtrise Notre Dame de Paris

McCawley-class attack transport

McClellan Airfield

McClelland Barclay

McCollum memo

McCook Army Airfield

McCoy Reynolds

McDowell Grove Forest Preserve

McHale's Navy

McNary Field

Me 262 Project

Me and the Colonel

Mechanised Transport Corps

Mechelen Incident

Mechelen transit camp

Medal "For the Defence of Kiev"

Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad"

Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"

Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"

Medal "For the Defence of Sevastopol"

Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"

Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus"

Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic"

Medal For the Victory Over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945

Medal "For the Victory over Japan"

Medal of Honor (video game series)

Medal of Honor (video game)

Medal of Honor: Airborne (soundtrack)

Medal of Honor: Airborne

Medal of Honor: Allied Assault

Medal of Honor: European Assault

Medal of Honor: Frontline

Medal of Honor: Heroes 2

Medal of Honor: Heroes

Medal of Honor: Infiltrator

Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault

Medal of Honor: Rising Sun

Medal of Honor: Underground

Medal of Honor: Vanguard

Medal of Honor

Medallions (book)

Medgar Evers

Medhi Bouzzine

Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre

Medium Extended Air Defense System

Medzhybizh

Mefküre

Mefo bills

MEFO

Mehdi Huseynzade

Mehdi Leroy

Mehdi Taouil

Meillerwagen

Mein Kampf

Meinoud Rost van Tonningen

Meinrad von Lauchert

Meir Balaban

Meir Dizengoff

Mel Allen

Mel and George "Do" World War II

Mel Brooks

Mel Hoderlein

Mel Mermelstein

Melchior de Polignac

Melchior de Vogüé

Melchior Wańkowicz

Melford Stevenson

Meliton Kantaria

Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Melville W. Beardsley

Melvin A. Casberg

Melvin Alvah Traylor Jr.

Melvin E. Biddle

Melvin Mayfield

Melvin R. Laird

Melvin Zais

Melvyn Douglas

Members of Hitler's cabinet

Memel Medal

Memoir '44

Mémorial de la Déportation

Memorial to gay and lesbian victims of National Socialism

Memorial to the German Resistance

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

Memphis Belle (B-17)

Memphis Belle (film)

Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress

Men Behind the Sun

Men Bingyue

Men of Timor

Men of War

Men of War

Menachem Birnbaum

Menachem Ziemba

Mengjiang

Menglianggu Campaign

Merauke Force

Mercedes-Benz L3000

Mercer Simpson

Meredith Colket

Merian C. Cooper

Meridian Ridge Campaign

Merlin Minshall

Merril Sandoval

Merrill's Marauders (film)

Merrill's Marauders

Merrill B. Twining

Merrit Cecil Walton

Merritt A. Edson

Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence

Merton Beckwith-Smith

Merville Gun Battery

Mervyn S. Bennion

Merwin Graham

Mesha Stele

Messerschmitt Bf 108

Messerschmitt Bf 109 Survivors

Messerschmitt Bf 109

Messerschmitt Bf 110

Messerschmitt Bf 162

Messerschmitt Me 109TL

Messerschmitt Me 163

Messerschmitt Me 209-II

Messerschmitt Me 210

Messerschmitt Me 261

Messerschmitt Me 262

Messerschmitt Me 263

Messerschmitt Me 264

Messerschmitt Me 265

Messerschmitt Me 309

Messerschmitt Me 310

Messerschmitt Me 321

Messerschmitt Me 323

Messerschmitt Me 328

Messerschmitt Me 329

Messerschmitt Me 409

Messerschmitt Me 410

Messerschmitt Me 509

Messerschmitt Me 609

Messerschmitt Me P.1101

Messerschmitt Me P.1106

Metallurgical Laboratory

Metaxas Line

Metel

Metgethen massacre

Metox

Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh

Mettawee-class gasoline tanker

MF 2000

MF 67

MF 77

MF 88

MG-13

MG 15 machine gun

MG 17 machine gun

MG 81 machine gun

MG30

MG34

MG42

MHDOIF

Miła 18

Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto

Międzyrzec Podlaski

Międzyrzecz Fortified Region

MI10

MI11

MI8

MI9

Miami International Airport

Mian Ghulam Jilani

Miao dao

Miao Peinan

Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski

Michał Klepfisz

Michał Rola-Żymierski

Michał Vituška

Michael A. Hoffman II

Michael Aldridge

Michael Alexander

Michael Allmand

Michael Atiyah

Michael Barker (British Army officer)

Michael Beetham

Michael Berenbaum

Michael Carver, Baron Carver

Michael Collins (American author)

Michael Corleone

Michael Donald

Michael F. Feldkamp

Michael Faraday

Michael Flanders

Michael Floud Blaney

Michael Freund (writer)

Michael Gibson (GC)

Michael Goodliffe

Michael Hamburger

Michael Howard (historian)

Michael Hughes-Young, 1st Baron St Helens

Michael I of Romania

Michael J. Daly

Michael J. Novosel

Michael L. Chyet

Michael Leshing

Michael Lippert

Michael Lucas, 2nd Baron Lucas of Chilworth

Michael Marrus

Michael McCorkell

Michael Melford

Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin

Michael Musmanno

Michael O'Leary (VC)

Michael O'Moore Creagh

Michael Ochiltree

Michael P. W. Stone

Michael Pössinger

Michael Palliser

Michael Phayer

Michael Pollock

Michael R. Anastasio

Michael S. Davison

Michael Seifert (SS guard)

Michael Sinclair (British Army officer)

Michael Stewart, Baron Stewart of Fulham

Michael Strank

Michael Torrens-Spence

Michael Whitney Straight

Michael Willoughby, 11th Baron Middleton

Michael Wilson (writer)

Michael Wittmann

Michael Woodruff

Michael Young (bobsleigh)

Michalis Papazoglou

Michaël Llodra

Michel-Ange - Auteuil (Paris Métro)

Michel-Ange - Molitor (Paris Métro)

Michel-Jean Sedaine

Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély

Michel Arnaud

Michel Bensoussan

Michel Bibard

Michel Champoudry

Michel Corneille the Elder

Michel Corneille the Younger

Michel Debré

Michel Delacroix (painter)

Michel Der Zakarian

Michel Drach

Michel Dupuy

Michel Déon

Michel Foucault

Michel Hollard

Michel Jouvet

Michel Laclotte

Michel le Tellier

Michel Leiris

Michel Lotito

Michel Mayor

Michel Mohrt

Michel Ney

Michel Pastoureau

Michel Petrucciani

Michel Raynaud

Michel Richard Delalande

Michel Serres

Michel Simon

Michel Talagrand

Michel Thomas

Michel Théato

Michel Vermeulin

Michele Carafa

Micheline Presle

Michiel Daniel Overbeek

Michihiko Hachiya

Michinori Shiraishi

Michitarō Komatsubara

Michitaro Totsuka

Mickael Poté

Mickaël Dogbé

Mickaël Landreau

Mickaël Madar

Mickaël Tavares

Mickey Conroy

Mickey Spillane

Micky Burn

Mid-Atlantic gap

Mid-Ocean Escort Force

Middle East Command

Midway (1964 game)

Midway (1991 game)

Midway (1976 film)

Midway Atoll

Midway order of battle

Mieczysław Batsch

Mieczysław Fogg

Mieczysław Kawalec

Mieczysław Niedziałkowski

Mieczysław Smorawiński

Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski

Miep Gies

Mies Boissevain - van Lennep

Mietje Baron

Miguel Ángel Asturias

Miguel García Vivancos

Miguel Serrano

Mihai Antonescu

Mihail Lascăr

Mihail Manoilescu

Mihail Sadoveanu

Mihailo Olćan

Mihajlo Lukić

Mihiel Gilormini

Mike Blyzka

Mike Calvert

Mike Colalillo

Mike Hoare

Mike Holovak

Mike Honda

Mike James (rugby)

Mike Judge (fictional character)

Mike Lithgow

Mike Masaoka

Mike Sandlock

Mike Staner

Mike Wallace

Mikel Arteta

Mikhail Devyatayev

Mikhail Gromov

Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Katukov

Mikhail Kirponos

Mikhail Loginov

Mikhail Minin

Mikhail Surkov

Mikhail Vodopianov

Mikio Hasemoto

Mikio Oda

Miklós Bánffy

Miklós Horthy

Miklós Kállay

Miklós Nyiszli

Miklós Radnóti

Miklós Steinmetz

Miklós Vig

Miklos Kanitz

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

Mikura-class escort ship

Milan (camp)

Milan Nedić

Milan Neralić

Milch Trial

Mildred Gillars

Mildred H. McAfee

Mildred Harnack

Mile Budak

Milena Jesenská

Milentije Popović

Miles Aircraft

Miles Browning

Miles Dempsey

Miles Lerman

Miles M.20

Miles M.35 Libellula

Miles M.39B Libellula

Miles Magister

Miles Martinet

Miles Master

Miles Mohawk

Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk

Miles Whitney Straight

Milford Zornes

Milice

Militarism-Socialism in Showa Japan

Military Administration (Nazi Germany)

Military awards of World War II

Military decorations of the Third Reich

Military description of the Warsaw Uprising

Military engagements of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Military equipment of Axis Power forces in Balkans and Russian Front

Military Geology Unit

Military history of Albania during World War II

Military history of Australia during World War II

Military history of Belarus during World War II

Military history of Bulgaria during World War II

Military history of Canada during the Second World War

Military history of Canada during World War I

Military history of Carpathian Ruthenia during World War II

Military history of Croatia

Military history of Egypt during World War II

Military history of Finland during World War II

Military history of France during World War II

Military history of Gibraltar during World War II

Military history of Greece during World War II

Military history of Italy during World War II

Military history of Latvia during World War II

Military history of Leningrad Oblast during World War II

Military history of New Zealand during World War II

Military history of South Africa during World War II

Military history of the Netherlands during World War II

Military history of the Philippines during World War II

Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II

Military history of the United States during World War II

Military Intelligence Service (United States)

Military Operations in Scandinavia, and Iceland during WW2

Military Order of the Iron Trefoil

Military Organization Lizard Union

Military Policy Committee

Military production during World War II

Military Service Act 1939

Milivoj Ašner

Millard Harmon

Millennium (Hellsing)

Millions Like Us

Millis Jefferis

Mills bomb

Milorad Nedeljković

Milorg

Miloslav Rechcigl, Sr.

Milosz Magin

Miloš Dimitrijević

Miloš Milutinović

Miloš Minić

Milovan Đilas

Milt Schmidt

Milton Ernest Ricketts

Milton Orville Thompson

Milton Reckord

Milton S. Eisenhower

Milton Shapp

Milton Wolff

Mimis Pierrakos

Mimoyecques

Mina Rosner

Minatec

Mineichi Koga

Minekaze-class destroyer

Mineo Ōsumi

Mineral Wells Airport

Mines of Paris

Minesweepers of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Minidoka National Historic Site

Ministries Trial

Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

Ministry of Culture and Enlightenment (Norway)

Ministry of Production

Ministry of the Navy of Japan

Ministry of War of Japan

Minnie Spotted-Wolf

Minnie Vautrin

Minor Butler Poole

Minor sabotage

Minoru Genda

Minoru Ota

Minoru Sasaki

Minoru Yasui

Minsk Offensive Operation

Minás Dimákis

Mirabeau (Paris Métro)

Miracle at Midnight

Miracle at St. Anna

Mircea Eliade

Mirco Bergamasco

Miriam Davenport

Miriam Winter

Mirko Grmek

Miromesnil (Paris Métro)

Miron Constantinescu

Mirosław Żuławski

Mirosław Ferić

Mirosław Vitali

Miroslav Filipović

Miroslav Radman

Mirwais Ahmadzaï

Mirza Mešić

Miscegenation

Mischling

Misha: A Mémoire of the Holocaust Years

Miss Kittin

Missak Manouchian

Mission Accomplished (film)

Mission Albany

Mission Boston

Mission Chicago

Mission Detroit

Mission Elmira

Mission to Moscow

Mistel

Mister Roberts (1955 film)

Mister Roberts (1984 film)

Mister Roberts (novel)

Mister Roberts (play)

Mister Roberts (TV series)

Mister Sinister

Mit brennender Sorge

Mitchell Jenkins

Mitchell Paige

Mitchell Recreation Area

Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.

Mitiţă Constantinescu

Mitry – Claye (SNCF)

Mitsubishi A7M

Mitsubishi B5M

Mitsubishi F1M

Mitsubishi G3M

Mitsubishi G4M

Mitsubishi J2M

Mitsubishi J8M

Mitsubishi Ki-202

Mitsubishi Ki-21

Mitsubishi Ki-30

Mitsubishi Ki-46

Mitsubishi Ki-51

Mitsubishi Ki-57

Mitsubishi Ki-83

Mitsumasa Yonai

Mitsumi Shimizu

Mitsuo Fuchida

Mitsuru Ushijima

Mitsuru Yoshida

Mittelbau-Dora

Mittelwerk

Miura Gorō

Mius-Front

Mizuno Shinryu

Mk 2 grenade

Mk III Turtle helmet

Mladen Delić

Mühldorf subcamp

München-Schwabing labor camp

Mo Johnston

Mo Udall

Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu

Mobile Downtown Airport

Mobile Regional Airport

Mochitsura Hashimoto

Model 24 grenade

Model 39 grenade

Model 43 grenade

Modele 1935 pistol

Modernization of the People's Liberation Army

Modeste M'bami

Modesto Cartagena

Modified Hotchkiss machine gun

Modlin Army

Modèle 1939 (mine)

Moe Berg

Moe Hurwitz

Moffett Federal Airfield

Mogador-class destroyer

Mogami-class destroyer

Mogens Fog

Mogilev Offensive Operation

Mohammad-Ali Ramin

Mohammad Amin al-Husayni

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammed Mahdi Akef

Mohammed Taheri

Mohammed V of Morocco

Mohammed Zahir Shah

Mohan Singh Deb

Moirang

Moisis Michail Bourlas

Mojżesz Presburger

Molch

Molière

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

Molotov Line

Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment

Momčilo Đujić

Moments of Reprieve

Momi-class destroyer

Momo-class destroyer

Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors

Momotaro's Sea Eagles

Mona Islands

Mona Lisa

Monceau (Paris Métro)

Mongolia Garrison Army

Mongolian People's Army tanks and armour of WWII

Monica Sone

Monica tail warning radar

Monique Haas

Monnaie de Paris

Monnet Plan

Monowitz concentration camp

Monroe Schwarzlose

Monsieur Klein

Montagne Sainte-Geneviève

Montagsloch

Montagu Dawson

Montagu Stopford

Montagu Toller

Monte Cervino Battalion

Monte la Difensa

Montelupich Prison

Montevideo Maru

Montgallet (Paris Métro)

Montgomery Atwater

Montgomery Burns

Montmartre Cemetery

Montmartre funicular

Montmartre

Montparnasse - Bienvenüe (Paris Métro)

Montparnasse Cemetery

Montparnasse

Montreal Holocaust Memorial Centre

Montreal Laboratory

Monument to the Women of World War II

Moonstrike

Moonzund Landing Operation

Moore Air Force Base

Moore Army Air Field

Moorook West (Wood Camp)

Mordechaï Podchlebnik

Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Mordechai Frizis

Mordechai Gebirtig

Mordechai Maklef

Mordechai Spiegler

Mordechaj Anielewicz

Morgan D. Peoples

Morgan Line

Morgan Taylor

Morgenrot (film)

Morgenthau Plan

Moritake Tanabe

Morituri

Moritz Rabinowitz

Moriz Seeler

Morley Nelson

Morotai Mutiny

Morrice James, Baron St Brides

Morris C8

Morris Cohen (Soviet spy)

Morris CS9

Morris DePass

Morris E. Crain

Morris Fisher

Morris Light Reconnaissance Car

Morris R. Jeppson

Morse Dry Dock & Repair Company

Morskogen

Mort Walker

Mortimer Wheeler

Mortyr

Morys Bruce, 4th Baron Aberdare

Moscow Armistice

Moscow Conference (1941)

Moscow Conference (1942)

Moscow Conference (1943)

Moscow Conference (1944)

Moscow Conference (1945)

Moscow Declaration

Moscow Peace Treaty

Moscow Strikes Back

Moscow Sun Yat-sen University

Moscow Victory Parade of 1945

Moseley Wanderers

Moses Beckelman

Moses Josef Rubin

Moshe Dayan

Moshe Dovid Winternitz

Moshe Lewin

Moshe Rynecki

Moshe Sanbar

Mosin–Nagant

Mosley Mayne

Moss Christie

Most Secret

Mother Maria

Mothers' Movement

Motives of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Moton Field Municipal Airport

Motoo Furushō

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-121

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-337

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-34

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-41

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-59

Motor Torpedo Boat PT-658

Motor Torpedo Boat PT 105

Motor Torpedo Boat PT 346

Motor Transport Corps

Moša Pijade

Moulin de la Galette

Moulin Rouge

Mount Samat

Mousetrap (weapon)

Mouton-Duvernet (Paris Métro)

Mouvement d'Action Civique

Mouvement Franciste

MP 59

MP 73

MP 89

MP18

MP3008

MP34

MP35

MP40

Mr. and Mrs. America

Mr. Anderson (Beavis and Butt-head)

Mr. Winkle Goes to War

Mrs. Miniver (film)

MS Asama Maru

MS Jutlandia

MS Oslofjord (1938)

MS Rangitane (1929)

MS Rigel

Mária Földes

Mário Silva (football player)

Mário Silva (footballer)

Márton Homonnai

MT-55

MTB 102

Muhammed Akbar Khan

Muhammetnazar Gapurow

Mukaishima, Hiroshima

Mukden Incident

Mulberry harbour

Munich Agreement

Munson Report

Munyo Gruber

Murakami Kakuichi

Muriel Byck

Murphy's War

Mury

Musa Cälil

Muselmann

Museum of Eroticism

Museum of Jewish Heritage

Museum of Lancashire

Museum of Music

Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Moscow

Museum of Tolerance

Music on the Bamboo Radio

Musidora

Mustafa el-Nahhas

Mustang X

Mustapha Dahleb

Mustapha Zitouni

Musée Adzak

Musée Cernuschi

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Musée d'Orsay (Paris RER)

Musée d'Orsay

Musée d’histoire de la médecine

Musée de Cluny

Musée de l'Armée

Musée de l'Homme

Musée de l'Orangerie

Musée de la Contrefaçon

Musée de La Poste

Musée des Arts décoratifs, Strasbourg

Musée des Arts et Métiers

Musée du Luxembourg

Musée du Montparnasse

Musée du quai Branly

Musée du Vin

Musée Dupuytren

Musée Grévin

Musée Jacquemart-André

Musée Marmottan-Monet

Musée national de la Marine

Musée Nissim de Camondo

Musée Picasso

Musée Rodin

Muséum national d'histoire naturelle

Mutt and Jeff (spies)

MV Atheltemplar

MV Brisbane Star

MV Dunedin Star

MV Empire Galahad

MV Empire MacAlpine

MV Empire MacAndrew

MV Empire MacCabe

MV Empire MacCallum

MV Empire MacColl

MV Harpa

MV Joyita

MV Krait

MV Languedoc

MV Mamutu

MV San Demetrio

MVSN Colonial Militia

MVSN original organization

My Early Life

My Gal Sal (aircraft)

My Japan

My Opposition: the Diaries of Friedrich Kellner

My Opposition

Myōkō-class cruiser

Myer Prinstein

Mykola Lemyk

Médaille de la Résistance

Mélissa Theuriau

Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes

Ménilmontant (Paris Métro)

Ménilmontant

Männer gegen Panzer

Jacques Ochs

Jacques Ochs (18 February 1883 – 3 April 1971), was a Jewish Belgian artist and Olympic épée (champion), saber, and foil fencer.

Kazerne Dossin – Memorial

The Kazerne Dossin – Memorial, Museum and Documentation Centre on Holocaust and Human Rights is a museum in Mechelen, Belgium established next to the former Mechelen transit camp from which Belgian Jews and Romani were sent to concentration camps during the Holocaust in World War II.

Mechelen (disambiguation)

Mechelen may refer to:

In Flanders, Belgium

Mechelen, a city in Antwerp province

Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels, an Ecclesiastical Province; the Roman Catholic Primatial See in Belgium

Lordship of Mechelen, and independent Lordship within Habsburg-controlled Low Countries (until 1795); one of the original Seventeen Provinces

Mechelen transit camp, a detention and deportation camp operating during the Nazi occupation

Maasmechelen, a municipality in the province of Limburg

Mechelen-aan-de-Maas, a village within the municipality of Maasmechelen

Mechelen incident, a pre-World War II incident (January 1940) whereby a German bomber made a forced landing in Belgium

Mechelen-Bovelingen, a village in the municipality of Heers, in the province of Limburg

Kwaadmechelen, a village in the municipality of Ham, in the province of LimburgIn the Netherlands

Mechelen, Netherlands, a village in the municipality of Gulpen-Wittem, in the province of Limburg

Mendel Weinbach

Chona Menachem Mendel (Mendel) Weinbach (September 24, 1933 – December 11, 2012) was an Orthodox Jewish rabbi, educator, author, and speaker. As the co-founder and dean of Ohr Somayach Institutions, a Jerusalem-based yeshiva for newly-observant Jewish men, he was considered one of the fathers of the modern-day baal teshuva movement.

Noah Klieger

Noah Klieger (Hebrew: נח קליגר‎; 31 July 1925 – 13 December 2018) was an Israeli journalist and sports administrator. Klieger, a survivor of the Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz, Mittelbau-Dora and Ravensbruck, covered trials of Nazi criminals after the end of World War II, besides working as a sports journalist in Israel. He also was the president of the basketball club Maccabi Tel Aviv and chairman of the FIBA's media council. In 2010 he was awarded the FIBA Order of Merit, and in 2012 became a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur. In 2015, Klieger was inducted into FIBA Hall of Fame for his contributions.

Philipp Schmitt

Philipp Johann Adolf Schmitt (20 November 1902 – 8 August 1950) was a German officer of the Schutzstaffel (SS) who served as commandant of Fort Breendonk, a Nazi prison camp in German-occupied Belgium during World War II. For a year, he was also in charge of Mechelen transit camp but was dismissed for corruption and black marketeering. He later served in occupied Denmark and the Netherlands. After the war, he was convicted of war crimes and was executed in 1950. Schmitt was the last person executed in Belgium.

René Kalisky

René Kalisky (born René Kaliski; French: [ʁəne kaliski], Polish: [kaˈlʲisʲci]; Brussels, 20 July 1936 - died Paris, 6 May 1981) was a Belgian writer of Polish-Jewish descent who is best known for the plays he wrote in the last 12 years of his life.

Kalisky, whose father, Abraham Kaliski was killed at Auschwitz, was himself hidden from harm during World War II.

Stolpersteine in Charleroi

This article describes all Stolpersteine that have been placed in Charleroi, Belgium. Stolpersteine is the German word for stumbling blocks placed all over Europe by German artist Gunter Demnig. They remember the fates of people who were murdered, deported, exiled or driven to suicide by the Nazis.

Generally, the stumbling blocks are placed in front of the building where the victims had their last self-chosen residence. In Wallonia, Stolpersteine are generally called pavés de mémoire (memorial cobblestones). In Dutch they are called Struikelstenen.

The Holocaust in Belgium

The Holocaust in German-occupied Belgium refers to the persecution and attempted extermination of Jews and Roma between 1940 and 1944 during World War II.

At the start of the war, the population of Belgium was overwhelmingly Catholic. Jews made up the largest non-Christian population in the country, numbering between 70–75,000 out of a population of 8 million. Most lived in the cities of Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi and Liège. The vast majority were recent immigrants to Belgium who had fled persecution in Germany and Eastern Europe, and, as a result, only a small minority actually possessed Belgian citizenship.

Shortly after the invasion of Belgium, the Military Government passed a series of anti-Jewish laws in October 1940. The Belgian Committee of Secretary-Generals refused from the start to co-operate on passing any anti-Jewish measures and the Military Government seemed unwilling to pass further legislation. The German government began to seize Jewish-owned businesses and forced Jews out of positions in the civil service. In April 1941, without orders from the German authorities, Flemish collaborators pillaged two synagogues in Antwerp and burned the house of the chief rabbi of the town in the Antwerp Pogrom. The Germans created a Judenrat in the country, the Association des Juifs en Belgique (AJB; "Association of Jews in Belgium"), which all Jews were required to join. As part of the Final Solution from 1942, the persecution of Belgian Jews escalated. From May 1942, Jews were forced to wear yellow Star of David badges to mark them out in public. Using the registers compiled by the AJB, the Germans began deporting Jews to concentration camps in the General Government (the occupied portion of Poland). Jews chosen from the registration lists were required to turn up at the newly established Mechelen transit camp; they were then deported by train to concentration camps, mostly to Auschwitz. Between August 1942 and July 1944, around 25,000 Jews and 350 Roma were deported from Belgium; more than 24,000 were killed before the camps were liberated by the Allies.

From 1942, opposition among the general population to the treatment of the Jews in Belgium grew. By the end of the occupation, more than 40 per cent of all Jews in Belgium were in hiding; many of them were hidden by Gentiles, particularly by Catholic priests and nuns. Some were helped by the organized resistance, such as the Comité de Défense des Juifs (CDJ; "Committee of Jewish Defense"), which provided food and refuge to hiding Jews. Many of the Jews in hiding joined the armed resistance. In April 1943, members of the CDJ attacked the twentieth rail convoy to Auschwitz and succeeded in rescuing some of those being deported.

Timeline of the Holocaust

A timeline of the Holocaust is detailed in the events listed below. Also referred to as the Shoah (in Hebrew), the Holocaust was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators. About 1.5 million of the victims were children. Two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe were murdered. The following timeline has been compiled from a variety of sources including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

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