Mazurka

The mazurka (in Polish mazurek, plural mazurki) is a Polish folk dance in triple meter, usually at a lively tempo, and with "strong accents unsystematically placed on the second or third beat".[2]

Mazurka dance pattern
Mazurka rhythm.[1]

History

The folk origins of the mazurek are two other Polish musical forms which are the slow kujawiak, and the fast oberek. The mazurek is always found to have either a triplet, trill, dotted eighth note (quaver) pair, or an ordinary eighth note pair before two quarter notes (crotchets). In the 19th century, the dance became popular in many ballrooms in different parts of Europe. The Polish national anthem has a mazurek rhythm but is too slow to be considered a mazurek.

In Polish, this musical form is called mazurek—a word derived from mazur, which—until the nineteenth century—denoted an inhabitant of Poland's Mazovia region, and which also became the root for Masuria. In Polish, mazurka is actually the genitive and accusative cases of mazurek.

Several classical composers have written mazurkas, with the best known being the 59 composed by Frédéric Chopin for solo piano. In 1825 Maria Szymanowska wrote the largest collection of piano mazurkas published before Chopin. Henryk Wieniawski also wrote two for violin with piano (the popular "Obertas", Op. 19), Julian Cochran composed a collection of five mazurkas for solo piano and orchestra, and in the 1920s, Karol Szymanowski wrote a set of twenty for piano and finished his composing career with a final pair in 1934. Alexander Scriabin, who was at first conscious of being Chopin's follower, wrote 24 mazurkas.

Chopin first started composing mazurkas in 1824, but his composing did not become serious until 1830, the year of the November Uprising, a Polish rebellion against the Russian Tsar. Chopin continued composing them until 1849, the year of his death. The stylistic and musical characteristics of Chopin's mazurkas differ from the traditional variety because Chopin in effect created a completely separate and new genre of mazurka all his own. For example, he used classical techniques in his mazurkas, including counterpoint and fugue.[3] By including more chromaticism and harmony in the mazurkas, he made them more technically interesting than the traditional dances. Chopin also tried to compose his mazurkas in such a way that they could not be used for dancing, so as to distance them from the original form.

However, while Chopin changed some aspects of the original mazurka, he maintained others. His mazurkas, like the traditional dances, contain a great deal of repetition: repetition of certain measures or groups of measures; of entire sections; and of an initial theme.[4] The rhythm of his mazurkas also remains very similar to that of earlier mazurkas. However, Chopin also incorporated the rhythmic elements of the two other Polish forms mentioned above, the kujawiak and oberek; his mazurkas usually feature rhythms from more than one of these three forms (mazurek, kujawiak, and oberek). This use of rhythm suggests that Chopin tried to create a genre that had ties to the original form, but was still something new and different.

The mazurka began as a dance for either four or eight couples. Eventually, Fokine created a female solo mazurka dance dominated by flying grandes jetés, alternating second and third arabesque positions, and split-leg climactic postures.[5]

Outside Poland

The dance was common as a popular dance in Europe and the United States in the mid- to late nineteenth century.

Cape Verde Islands

In Cape Verde the mazurka is also revered as an important cultural phenomenon played with acoustic bands led by a violinist and accompanied by guitarists. It also takes a variation of the mazurka dance form and is found mostly in the north of the archipelago, mainly in São Nicolau, Santo Antão. In the south it finds popularity in the island of Brava.

Czech Republic and its forerunners

Czech composers Bedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák, and Bohuslav Martinů all wrote mazurkas to at least some extent. For Smetana and Martinů, these are single pieces (respectively, a Mazurka-Cappricio for piano and a Mazurka-Nocturne for a mixed string/wind quartet), whereas Dvořák composed a set of six mazurkas for piano, and a mazurka for violin and orchestra.

France

In France, Impressionistic composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel both wrote mazurkas; Debussy's is a stand-alone piece, and Ravel's is part of a suite of an early work, La Parade. Jacques Offenbach included a mazurka in his ballet Gaîté Parisienne; Léo Delibes composed one which appears several times in the first act of his ballet Coppélia. The mazurka appears frequently in French traditional folk music. In the French Antilles, the mazurka has become an important style of dance and music.

A creolised version of the mazurka is mazouk which—beginning around 1979 in Paris—morphed into the globally popular dance style “zouk” developed in France and popularised by Paris’s Island-creole supergroup Kassav’; mazouk had been introduced to the French Caribbean in the late 1800s. In the 21st century in Brazil and the Afro-Caribbean diaspora, zouk (and its progenitor-band Kassav’) remains very popular. In popular 20th century folk dancing in France, the Polish/classical-piano (see Chopin) mazurka evolved into mazouk, a dance at a more gentle pace (without the traditional 'hop' step on the 3rd beat), fostering more-intimate dancing and associating mazouk with a “seduction” dance (see also tango from Argentina). This “sexy” style of mazurka has also been imported to “balfolk" dancing in Belgium and the Netherlands, hence the name "Belgian Mazurka" or "Flemish Mazurka". Perhaps the most enduring style of intimate dancing music of this origin moved zouk from the 1980s-2000s into its wildly popular (especially in Brazil and Africa) slow-dancing variant called zouk love, which remains a staple of French-Caribbean dance venues in Paris and elsewhere.

Ireland

Mazurkas constitute a distinctive part of the traditional dance music of County Donegal, Ireland. As a couple's dance, it is no longer popular. The Polish dance entered the British Isles in the 1840s, but is not widely played outside of Donegal.[6] Unlike the Polish mazurek, which may have an accent on the second or third beat of a bar, the Irish mazurka (masúrca in the Irish language) is consistently accented on the second beat, giving it a unique feel.[7][8][9][10] Musician Caoimhín Mac Aoidh has written a book on the subject, From Mazovia to Meenbanad: The Donegal Mazurkas, in which the history of the musical and dance form is related.[11][12][13] Mac Aoidh tracked down 32 different mazurkas as played in Ireland.[14]

Italy

Mazurkas are part of Italian popular music including the Ball Liscio style. Typical of Italian mazurkas are groups of triplets, strong dotted rhythms, and phrase endings of two accented quarter notes and a rest, unlike a waltz.

Latin America

Brazil

In Brazil, the composer Ernesto Nazareth wrote a Chopinesque mazurka called "Mercedes" in 1917. Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote a mazurka for classical guitar in a similar musical style to Polish mazurkas.

Cuba

In Cuba, composer Ernesto Lecuona wrote a piece titled Mazurka en Glisado for the piano, one of various commissions throughout his life.

Nicaragua

In Nicaragua, Carlos Mejía Godoy y los de Palacaguina and Los Soñadores de Saraguasca made a compilation of mazurkas from popular folk music, which are performed with a violin de talalate, an indigenous instrument from Nicaragua.

Curaçao

In Curaçao the mazurka was popular as dance music in the nineteenth century, as well as in the first half of the twentieth century. Several Curaçao-born composers, such as Jan Gerard Palm, Joseph Sickman Corsen, Jacobo Palm, Rudolph Palm and Wim Statius Muller, have written mazurkas.

Mexico

In Mexico, composers Ricardo Castro and Manuel M Ponce wrote mazurkas for the piano in a Chopin fashion, eventually mixing elements of Mexican folk dances.

Philippines

In the Philippines, the mazurka is a popular form of traditional dance. The Mazurka Boholana is one well-known Filipino mazurka.

Portugal

In Portugal the mazurka became one of the most popular traditional European dances through the first years of the annual Andanças, a traditional dances festival held nearby Castelo de Vide.

Russia

In Russia, many composers wrote mazurkas for solo piano: Scriabin (26), Balakirev (7), Tchaikovsky (6). Borodin wrote two in his Petite Suite for piano; Mikhail Glinka also wrote two, although one is a simplified version of Chopin's Mazurka No. 13. Tchaikovsky also included mazurkas in his scores for Swan Lake, Eugene Onegin, and Sleeping Beauty.

The mazurka was a common dance at the balls of the Russian Empire and it is depicted in many Russian novels and films. In addition to its mention in Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina as well as in a protracted episode in War and Peace, the dance is prominently featured in Ivan Turgenev's novel Fathers and Sons. Arkady reserves the mazurka for Madame Odintsov with whom he is falling in love. During Russian balls, it was danced elegantly and famously by the Tsarina Maria Feodorovna, the second-to-last tsarina of the Russian empire before its collapse in 1918.[15]

Sweden

In Swedish folk music, the quaver or eight-note polska has a similar rhythm to the mazurka, and the two dances have a common origin. The international version of the mazurka was also introduced under that name during the nineteenth century.

USA

The mazurka survives in some old time fiddle tunes, and also in early Cajun music, though it has largely fallen out of Cajun music now. In the Southern United States it was sometimes known as a “mazuka”.

California

In addition to being part of the repertoire of Irish traditional music sessions, the mazurka has been played by a wide variety of cultural groups in California. The mazurka first came to Alta California during the Spanish period and danced among Californios.[16] Later, the renowned guitarist Manuel Y. Ferrer, who was born in Baja California to Spanish parents and learned guitar from a Franciscan friar in Santa Barbara but made his career in the San Francisco Bay Area, arranged mazurkas for the guitar.[17] During the early 20th century, the mazurka became part of the repertoire of Italian American musicians in San Francisco playing in the ballo liscio style.[18] Pianist Sid LeProtti, an important Oakland-born early jazz musician on the west coast, stated that before jazz took off, he and other musicians in Barbary Coast clubs played mazurkas in addition to waltzes, two-steps, marches, polkas, and schottisches.[19] One mazurka, played on harmonica, was collected by Sidney Robertson Cowell for the WPA California Folk Music Project in 1939 in Tuolumne County.[20]

Media

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p.28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.
  2. ^ Randel, D. M., Ed., The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, Harvard University Press, 1986
  3. ^ Charles Rosen, The Romantic Generation (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1995)
  4. ^ Jeffrey Kallberg, The problem of repetition and return in Chopin's mazurkas, Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  5. ^ Robert Greskovic (1998). Ballet 101: A Complete Guide to Learning and Loving the Ballet. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 354. ISBN 978-0-87910-325-5.
  6. ^ Cooper, P. (1995). Mel Bay's Complete Irish Fiddle Player. Mel Bay Publications, Inc.: Pacific, p. 76-80
  7. ^ Vallely, F. (1999). The Companion to Traditional Irish Music. New York University Press: New York, p. 231
  8. ^ "Rhythm Definitions – Irish Traditional Music Tune Index". Irishtune.info. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  9. ^ "Irish Flute Tunes » Blog Archive » Masúrca Gan Ainm". Irishflute.podbean.com. 5 May 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  10. ^ "Mazurka" (PDF) (Press release). Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  11. ^ "Late session". Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  12. ^ [1] Archived 27 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "9780955903106: From Mazovia to Meenbanad : The Donegal Mazurkas – AbeBooks – Mac Aoidh, Caoimhin: 0955903106". AbeBooks. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Séamus Gibson Caoimhin mac Aoidh Niall Mac Aoidh Martin McGinley... • From Mazovia to Mennbanad • cdtrrracks". Cdtrrracks.com. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  15. ^ Tony Faber (2008). Fabergé's Eggs. Random House. ISBN 9781400065509.
  16. ^ Mende Grey, Vykki (2016). Dance Tunes from Mexican and Spanish California. San Diego, CA: Los Californios.
  17. ^ Back, Douglas (2003). Hispanic-American Guitar. Mel-Bay. p. 9. ISBN 9781610656139.
  18. ^ Mignano Crawford, Sheri (2008). Mandolin Melodies (3rd ed.). Petaluma, CA: Zighi Baci. pp. 11–13. ISBN 0976372231.
  19. ^ Stoddard, Tom (1998). Jazz on the Barbary Coast. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books. p. 12. ISBN 1-890771-04-X.
  20. ^ Cowell, Sidney Robertson. California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties Collected by Sidney Robertson Cowell. Library of Congress https://www.loc.gov/item/2017702061/. Retrieved 11 August 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)

Bibliography

  • Downes, Stephen. "Mazurka" Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 17 Nov 2009.
  • Kallberg, Jeffrey. "The problem of repetition and return in Chopin's mazurkas." Chopin Styles, ed. Jim Samson. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  • Kallberg, Jeffrey. "Chopin's Last Style." Journal of the American Musicological Society 38.2 (1985): 264–315.
  • Michałowski, Kornel, and Jim Samson. "Chopin, Fryderyk Franciszek" Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 17 Nov 2009. (esp. section 6, "Formative Influences")
  • Milewski, Barbara. "Chopin's Mazurkas and the Myth of the Folk." 19th-Century Music 23.2 (1999): 113–35.
  • Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1995.
  • Winokur, Roselyn M. "Chopin and the Mazurka". Diss. Sarah Lawrence College, 1974.

External links

Anatoly Lyadov

Anatoly Konstantinovich Lyadov or Liadov (Russian: Анато́лий Константи́нович Ля́дов; 12 May [O.S. 30 April] 1855 – 28 August [O.S. 15 August] 1914) was a Russian composer, teacher and conductor.

Dances at a Gathering

Dances at a Gathering is a ballet made by New York City Ballet ballet master Jerome Robbins to the music of Frédéric Chopin:

The premiere took place on Thursday, 22 May 1969 at the New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, with costumes by Joe Eula and lighting by Thomas Skelton. Robbins made three other ballets to Chopin's music:

The Concert, 1956; In the Night, 1970; and Other Dances, 1976, made for Mikhail Baryshnikov and Natalia Makarova.

Ein Herz, ein Sinn!

Ein Herz, ein Sinn! (One Heart, one Mind!), opus 323 is a polka-mazurka composed by Johann Strauss II in 1868 belonging to a period of creativity of the composer. Strauss dedicated this piece to 'the Committee of the Citizen's Ball' which was held at the Imperial Redoutensaal on 11 February 1868 where on occasion he had earlier also dedicated his waltz Bürgersinn (op. 295).

Its themes have been selected as material for the operetta Wiener Blut (1899) of which Strauss himself did not compose any new music, instead relying on Adolf Müller Jr. to arrange from Strauss' previous compositions.

Strauss' tranquil polka-mazurka begins in C major with a Trio section in F major. Throughout the piece, the mood is generally happy although these are never outright cheerful nor triumphant and the finale is a gentle affirmation of these. The polka-mazurka has often been transcribed for piano solos.

Gammaldans

Gammaldans (Swedish) or Gammeldans (Danish and Norwegian) (literally "old dance") is a small set of Nordic dances that became broadly popular in the late 19th century. These were also the dances of the Nordic immigrant communities in the United States.

These are still danced socially and in dance groups and clubs and are often taught at some point during a child’s public school years. Most of these dances arose and became widely disseminated first at the beginning of the region's industrialization when communication between cities and smaller communities increased. Despite the name (which translates to "old dance"), gammaldans is a comparatively recent addition to the Nordic folk dance tradition.

Homage to Paderewski

Homage to Paderewski is an album of piano pieces by 17 composers, published in 1942 in honour of the Polish pianist, composer and statesman Ignacy Jan Paderewski.

La mazurka del barone, della santa e del fico fiorone

La mazurka del barone, della santa e del fico fiorone (also known as The Mazurka of the Baron, the Saint and the Early Fig Tree) is a 1975 Italian comedy film directed by Pupi Avati. It is considered one of the most atypical commedia all'italiana films.The film marked Avati's return to filmmaking after a six-year absence, during which he worked as director of TV commercials.

List of compositions by Frédéric Chopin by genre

This is a list of compositions by Frédéric Chopin by genre. There is a separate list by opus number.Most of Chopin's compositions were for solo piano, although he did compose two piano concertos (his concertos No. 1 and No. 2 are two of the romantic piano concerto repertoire's most often-performed pieces) as well as some other music for ensembles.

His larger scale works such as sonatas, the four scherzos, the four ballades, the Fantaisie in F minor, Op. 49, and the Barcarolle in F♯ major, Op. 60 have cemented a solid place within the repertoire, as well as shorter works like his polonaises, mazurkas, waltzes, impromptus and nocturnes taking a substantial portion of recorded and performed music.

Two important collections are the Études, Opp. 10 and 25 (which are a staple of that genre for pianists), and the 24 Preludes, Op. 28 (a cycle of short pieces paired in a major key/relative minor key pattern following the circle of fifths in clockwise steps). In addition, he wrote numerous song settings of Polish texts, and chamber pieces including a piano trio and a cello sonata.

This listing uses the traditional opus numbers where they apply; other works are identified by numbers from the catalogues of Maurice J. E. Brown (B), Krystyna Kobylańska (KK), and Józef Michał Chomiński (A, C, D, E, P, S).

List of compositions by Frédéric Chopin by opus number

This is a list of compositions by Frédéric Chopin by opus number. There is a separate list by genre.Most of Chopin's compositions were for solo piano, although he did compose two piano concertos (his concertos No. 1 and No. 2 are two of the romantic piano concerto repertoire's most often-performed pieces) as well as some other music for ensembles. His larger scale works such as sonatas, the four scherzi, the four ballades, the Fantaisie in F minor, Op. 49, and the Barcarole in F♯ major, Op. 60 have cemented a solid place within the repertoire, as well as shorter works like his polonaises, mazurkas, waltzes, impromptus, rondos, and nocturnes taking a substantial portion of recorded and performed music. Two important collections are the Études, Op. 10 and 25 (which are a staple of that genre for pianists), and the 24 Preludes, Op. 28 (a cycle of short pieces paired in a major key/relative minor key pattern following the circle of fifths in clockwise steps). In addition, he wrote numerous song settings of Polish texts, and chamber pieces including a piano trio and a cello sonata.

This listing uses the traditional opus numbers where they apply; other works are identified by numbers from the catalogues of Maurice J. E. Brown (B), Krystyna Kobylańska (KK), and Józef Michał Chomiński (A, C, D, E, P, S).

The last opus number Chopin used was 65, that allocated to the Cello Sonata in G minor. He expressed a death-bed wish that all his unpublished manuscripts be destroyed. This included the early Piano Sonata No. 1; Chopin had assigned the Opus number 4 to it in 1828, and had even dedicated it to his teacher Elsner, but chose not to publish it. In 1851, Tobias Haslinger published it as Op. 4. Then, at the request of the composer's mother and sisters, Julian Fontana selected 23 other unpublished piano pieces and grouped them into eight opus numbers (Op. 66–73). These works were published in 1855. In 1857, the known 17 Polish songs that had been written at various stages throughout Chopin's life were collected and published as Op. 74, the order of the songs within that opus having little regard for their actual order of composition. Other songs have since come to light, but they are not part of Op. 74. Works that were published or have come to light since 1857 were not given opus numbers, and alternate catalogue designations are used for them.

With 6 flats/6 sharps, four of the works are written G♭ major while four of them are written in F♯ major. Three of the works are written in E♭ minor instead of D♯ minor.

Lob der Frauen

Lob der Frauen (Praise of Women), Op. 315, is a polka-mazurka composed by Johann Strauss II. The composition was first performed at the Vienna Volksgarten at the 1867 Carnival in Vienna. The work was performed alongside other compositions that Strauss had written around that period, including the famous waltzes Blue Danube and Artist's Life.

Mazurka (film)

Mazurka is a 1935 German drama film directed by Willi Forst and starring Pola Negri, Albrecht Schoenhals and Ingeborg Theek. A woman is put on trial for murdering a predatory musician. It takes its name from the Mazurka, a Polish folk dance.

Warner Brothers Studios acquired the U.S. distribution rights but shelved the film in favor of its own scene-by-scene 1937 English language remake, Confession, which starred Kay Francis. The film's sets were designed by the art director Hermann Warm. It was partly shot on location in Warsaw. The film was made by Cine-Allianz whose Jewish owners Arnold Pressburger and Gregor Rabinovitch were dispossessed during pre-production of the film.

Mazurkas, Op. 17 (Chopin)

Mazurkas, Op. 17 is a set of four mazurkas for piano by Frédéric Chopin, composed and published between 1832 and 1833. A typical performance of the set lasts about fourteen minutes.

Mazurkas, Op. 24 (Chopin)

The Op. 24 mazurkas by Frédéric Chopin were published in 1836, when the composer was 26 years old.

Mazurkas, Op. 30 (Chopin)

The Op. 30 mazurkas, by Frédéric Chopin, are a set of 4 mazurkas written and published in 1837:

Mazurka in C minor Op. 30 No. 1

Mazurka in B minor Op. 30 No. 2 (ends in F-sharp minor)

Mazurka in D-flat major Op. 30 No. 3

Mazurka in C-sharp minor Op. 30 No. 4

Mazurkas, Op. 33 (Chopin)

Mazurkas, Op. 33 are a set of four Mazurkas for piano by Frédéric Chopin, composed and published in 1838.

Mazurkas, Op. 41 (Chopin)

Mazurkas, Op. 41 is a set of four mazurkas for piano by Frédéric Chopin, composed and published between 1838 and 1839. A typical performance of the set lasts about nine and a half minutes. The set is dedicated to Chopin's friend Stefan Witwicki, a minor poet, ten of whose poems Chopin set to music as songs.

Mazurkas, Op. 59 (Chopin)

Mazurkas, Op. 59 are a set of three Mazurkas for solo piano by Frédéric Chopin. The set was composed and published in 1845.

Mazurkas, Op. 68 (Chopin)

The Op. 68 mazurkas by Frédéric Chopin are a set of four mazurkas composed around 1830-1846 and posthumously published in 1855. A typical performance of all four mazurkas lasts around nine minutes.

Mazurka in C major, Op. 68, No. 1

Mazurka in A minor, Op. 68, No. 2

Mazurka in F major, Op. 68, No. 3

Mazurka in F minor, Op. 68, No. 4 (often regarded as Chopin's last composition, along with the Mazurka in G minor, Op. 67, No. 2)

Mazurkas, Op. 6 (Chopin)

The Mazurkas, Op. 6 contained four of the first mazurkas that Chopin published.

Poland Is Not Yet Lost

"Mazurek Dąbrowskiego" (Polish pronunciation: [maˈzurɛɡ dɔmbrɔfˈskʲɛɡɔ], English: "Dąbrowski's Mazurka"), also known by its incipit, "Poland Is Not Yet Lost"

("Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła"), is the national anthem of Poland.The lyrics were written by Józef Wybicki in Reggio Emilia, Cisalpine Republic in Northern Italy, between 16 and 19 of July 1797, two years after the Third Partition of Poland erased the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from the map. It was originally meant to boost the morale of Polish soldiers serving under General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski's Polish Legions that served with Napoleon's French Revolutionary Army in the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. "Dabrowski's Mazurka", expressing the idea that the nation of Poland, despite lacking an independent state of their own, had not disappeared as long as the Polish people were still alive and fighting in its name, soon became one of the most popular patriotic songs in Poland.The music is an unattributed mazurka and considered a "folk tune" that Polish composer Edward Pałłasz categorizes as "functional art" which was "fashionable among the gentry and rich bourgeoisie". Pałłasz wrote, "Wybicki probably made use of melodic motifs he had heard and combined them in one formal structure to suit the text".It is "one of the most important songs of the Slavic nations." The text of the hymn was modified to suit new occasions and socio-political contexts" throughout the song's history. When Poland re-emerged as an independent state in 1918, "Dabrowski's Mazurka" became its de facto national anthem. It was officially adopted as the national anthem of the Republic of Poland in 1926. It also inspired similar songs by other peoples struggling for independence during the 19th century, such as the Ukrainian national anthem "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" and the Pan-Slavic song "Hej, Sloveni" which was used as the national anthem of Yugoslavia during that state's existence.

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