The Mayor of London is the executive of the Greater London Authority. The current Mayor is Sadiq Khan, who took up office on 9 May 2016. The position was held by Ken Livingstone from the creation of the role on 4 May 2000, until he was defeated in May 2008 by Boris Johnson, who served two terms before being succeeded by Khan.
The Mayor is scrutinised by the London Assembly and, supported by their Mayoral cabinet, directs the entirety of London, including the City of London (for which there is also the ceremonial Lord Mayor of the City of London). Each London Borough also has a ceremonial Mayor or, in Hackney, Lewisham, Newham and Tower Hamlets, an elected Mayor.
|Mayor of London|
since 9 May 2016
|Style||No courtesy or style ascribed|
Mr Mayor (formally)
|Member of||Greater London Authority|
London Mayoral cabinet
|Reports to||London Assembly|
|Seat||City Hall, London|
|Appointer||Electorate of London|
|Term length||Four years, renewable|
|Inaugural holder||Ken Livingstone|
|Formation||Greater London Authority Act 1999|
|Deputy||Statutory Deputy Mayor of London|
The Greater London Council, the elected government for Greater London, was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Strategic functions were split off to various joint arrangements. Londoners voted in a referendum in 1998 to create a new governance structure for Greater London. The directly elected Mayor of London was created by the Greater London Authority Act 1999 in 2000 as part of the reforms.
The Mayor is elected by the supplementary vote method for a fixed term of four years, with elections taking place in May. As with most elected posts in the United Kingdom, there is a deposit, in this case of £10,000, which is returnable on the candidate's winning at least 5% of the first-choice votes cast.
The most recent London mayoral election was held on 5 May 2016. The results were announced officially on 7 May at 00:30 a.m. after British television news channel Sky News had announced Sadiq Khan as the winner hours earlier. Sadiq Khan, a member of the Labour Party, is the first Muslim to be elected Mayor of London.
Incumbent Mayor Boris Johnson did not run for reelection for a third term in office, as he had been elected the Member of Parliament for the Conservative Party in Uxbridge and South Ruislip in the 2015 general election.
|Mayor of London election 5 May 2016 |
|Party||Candidate||1st round||2nd round|
First round votes Transfer votes
|Total||Of round||Transfers||Total||Of round|
|Liberal Democrat||Caroline Pidgeon||120,005||4.6%||
|Women’s Equality||Sophie Walker||53,055||2.0%||
|Britain First||Paul Golding||31,372||1.2%||
|One Love||Ankit Love||4,941||0.2%||
|Labour gain from Conservative|
(for political parties)
|Name||Portrait||Term of office||Elected||Political party||Previous and concurrent positions|
|Ken Livingstone||4 May 2000||4 May 2008||2000||Independent||Technician at the Chester Beatty cancer research laboratory|
Leader of the Greater London Council (1981–1986)
MP for Brent East (1987–2001)
|Boris Johnson||4 May 2008||9 May 2016||2008||Conservative||Journalist (editor of The Spectator, 1999–2005)|
MP for Henley (2001–2008)
MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip (2015–present)
|Sadiq Khan||9 May 2016||Incumbent||2016||Labour||Human rights lawyer (1997–2005)|
MP for Tooting (2005–2016)
Minister of State for Transport (2009–2010)
Shadow Secretary of State for Justice (2010–2015)
Most powers are derived from the Greater London Authority Act 1999, with additional functions coming from the Greater London Authority Act 2007, the Localism Act 2011 and Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011.
The remaining local government functions are performed by the London borough councils. There is some overlap, for example the borough councils are responsible for waste management, but the mayor is required to produce a waste management strategy. In 2010, the Mayor launched an initiative in partnership with the Multi-academy Trust AET to transform schools across London. This led to the establishment of London Academies Enterprise Trust (LAET) which was intended to be a group of ten academies, but it only reached a group of four before the Mayor withdrew in 2013.
|Service||Greater London Authority||London borough councils|
|Leisure and recreation|
Initiatives taken by Ken Livingstone as Mayor of London included the London congestion charge on private vehicles using city centre London on weekdays, the creation of the London Climate Change Agency, the London Energy Partnership and the founding of the international Large Cities Climate Leadership Group, now known as C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. The congestion charge led to many new buses being introduced across London. In August 2003, Livingstone oversaw the introduction of the Oyster card electronic ticketing system for Transport for London services.
They have also included the London Partnerships Register which was a voluntary scheme without legal force for same sex couples to register their partnership, and paved the way for the introduction by the United Kingdom Parliament of civil partnerships and later still, Same-sex marriage. Unlike civil partnerships, the London Partnerships Register was open to heterosexual couples who favour a public commitment other than marriage.
As Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone was also a supporter of the London Olympics in 2012, and is known to encourage sport in London; especially when sport can be combined with helping charities like The London Marathon and British 10K charity races. However, Livingstone, in a Mayoral election debate on the BBC's Question Time in April 2008 did state that the primary reason he supported the Olympic bid, was to secure funding for the redevelopment of the East End of London. In July 2007, he brought the Tour de France cycle race to London.
In May 2008, Boris Johnson introduced a new transport safety initiative to put 440 high visibility police officers on bus hubs, and the immediate vicinity. A ban on alcohol on underground, bus, Docklands Light Railway, and tram services and stations across the capital was announced.
In 2010, he extended the coverage of Oyster card electronic ticketing to all National Rail overground train services. Also in 2010, he opened a cycle hire scheme (originally sponsored by Barclays, now Santander) with 5,000 bicycles available for hire across London. Although initiated by his predecessor, Ken Livingstone, the scheme rapidly acquired the nickname of "Boris Bikes".
In 2011, Boris Johnson set up the Outer London Fund, a money pot of up to £50 million designed to help facilitate better, more effective local high streets. Areas in London were given the chance to submit proposals for two separate pots of money, which would be granted to them if their bid was successful. Successful bids for Phase 1 included Enfield, Muswell Hill and Bexley Town Centre. The recipients of Phase 2 funding are still to be announced, As of 2011.
In January 2013, he appointed journalist Andrew Gilligan as the first Cycling Commissioner for London. In March 2013, Johnson announced £1 billion of investment in infrastructure to make cycling safer in London, including a 15-mile (24 km) East to West segregated 'Crossrail for bikes'.
At the General Election of 7 May 2015, Boris Johnson was elected as MP for Uxbridge and Ruislip South, with 50.2% of the vote on a turnout of 63.4%, and he continued to serve as Mayor until the mayoral election in May 2016, when Sadiq Khan was elected as his successor.
Sadiq Khan introduced the 'bus hopper' fare on TfL buses, which allows passengers to board a second bus within one hour for the same fare. Under Khan, paper and coin cash transactions became obsolete and the Oyster system is expanded to include debit and credit cards. This initiative was started under his predecessor Mayor Johnson.
But because of the processes involved, he won't be technically in office until just after midnight on Monday.
The Greater London Authority referendum of 1998 was a referendum held in Greater London on 7 May 1998, asking whether there was support for the creation of a Greater London Authority, composed of a directly elected Mayor of London and a London Assembly to scrutinise the Mayor's actions. Voter turnout was low, at just 34.1%. The referendum was held under the provisions of the Greater London Authority (Referendum) Act 1998.2000 London mayoral election
The first election to the office of Mayor of London took place on 4 May 2000.2008 London mayoral election
The London mayoral election, 2008 for the office of Mayor of London, England, was held on 1 May 2008 and was won by Conservative Party candidate Boris Johnson.
It was the third London mayoral election, the previous elections being the first election in May 2000 and the second election in June 2004.
Boris Johnson became the second Mayor of London and the first Conservative to hold the office since its creation in 2000. This became the first London Mayoral election in which the incumbent mayor was defeated by a challenger. The popular vote achieved by Boris Johnson remained the largest polled by winning mayoral candidate until Labour candidate, Sadiq Khan, received 1,148,716 first-preference votes in 2016.2016 London mayoral election
The 2016 London mayoral election was held on 5 May 2016 to elect the Mayor of London, on the same day as the London Assembly election. It was the fifth election to the position of Mayor, which was created in 2000 after a referendum in London. The election used a supplementary vote system.
The election was won by Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for Tooting, Sadiq Khan, who polled 56.8% of the votes in the head-to-head second round of voting over Conservative MP for Richmond Park, Zac Goldsmith. Goldsmith was more than 25% ahead of the next candidate in the first round of voting, as part of a record field of twelve candidates. Of the twelve candidates only Khan, Goldsmith, and Green Party candidate Siân Berry achieved the requisite 5% minimum first round vote share to retain their deposit.This was the first election to not feature either of the two previous holders of the office, Ken Livingstone and Boris Johnson, who had run against each other in 2008 and 2012. Johnson, as incumbent mayor, had chosen not to stand for re-election for a third term in office, having been elected as the Conservative Party MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip at the 2015 general election. The campaign was dominated by the personal battle between Goldsmith and Khan, and their contrasting class and ethnic backgrounds. Through his victory, Khan became the second Labour Party Mayor of London after Livingstone, and the first Muslim mayor of a European Union capital city.The campaign of Goldsmith was marred by accusations of Islamophobia. Senior Muslim figures within the Conservative Party supported the accusations while the Muslim Council of Britain described Goldsmith's campaign as an example of Tory "dog whistle anti-Muslim racism" and called the party to investigate Goldsmith as part of an investigation into alleged Islamophobia in the Conservative party.2020 London mayoral election
The next London mayoral election will be held on 7 May 2020, to elect the Mayor of London. It will occur simultaneously with the elections for the London Assembly. The position of Mayor of London is currently held by Sadiq Khan of the Labour Party, who was elected in 2016 with 44.2% of the first-round votes.Boris Johnson
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), better known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, journalist and popular historian who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having been the MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. He was Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016, and from 2016 to 2018 he served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. A member of the Conservative Party, Johnson identifies as a one-nation conservative and has been associated with both economically and socially liberal policies.
Born in New York City to wealthy upper-middle class English parents, Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School, and Eton College. He read Classics at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was elected president of the Oxford Union in 1986. He began his career in journalism at The Times but was sacked for falsifying a quotation. He later became The Daily Telegraph's Brussels correspondent, with his articles exerting a strong influence on growing Eurosceptic sentiment among the British right-wing. He was assistant editor from 1994 to 1999 before taking the editorship of The Spectator from 1999 to 2005. Joining the Conservatives, he was elected MP for Henley in 2001, and under party leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron he was in the Shadow Cabinet. He largely adhered to the Conservatives' party line but adopted a more socially liberal stance on issues like LGBT rights in parliamentary votes. Making regular television appearances, writing books, and remaining active in journalism, Johnson became one of the most conspicuous politicians in the United Kingdom.
Selected as Conservative candidate for the London mayoral election of 2008, Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone and resigned his seat in the House of Commons. During his first term as Mayor of London, he banned alcohol consumption on much of the capital's public transport, championed London's financial sector, and introduced the New Routemaster buses, cycle hire scheme, and Thames cable car. In 2012, he was reelected to the office, again defeating Livingstone; during his second term he oversaw the 2012 Summer Olympics. In 2015 he was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, stepping down as Mayor of London the following year. In 2016, Johnson became a prominent figure in the successful Vote Leave campaign to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union. He became Foreign Secretary under Theresa May's premiership, but resigned in criticism of May's approach to Brexit and the Chequers Agreement.
Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Supporters have praised him as an entertaining, humorous, and popular figure with appeal beyond traditional Conservative voters. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, who accused him of elitism, cronyism, dishonesty, laziness, and using racist and homophobic language. Johnson is the subject of several biographies and a number of fictionalised portrayals.Deputy Mayor of London
A Deputy Mayor is a member of the London Mayoral cabinet, in the executive of the Greater London Authority, of which the Mayor of London may appoint up to ten. They serve as political advisors with responsibilities and powers corresponding to portfolios delegated by the Mayor. One of them must be designated as the Statutory Deputy Mayor, a member of the London Assembly who serves as the temporary Mayor during a vacancy or temporary incapacity of the Mayor.Directly elected mayors in England and Wales
Directly elected mayors in England and Wales are local government executive leaders who have been directly elected by the people who live in a local authority area. The first such political post was the Mayor of London, created as the executive of the Greater London Authority in 2000 as part of a reform of the local government of Greater London. Since the Local Government Act 2000, all of the several hundred principal local councils in England and Wales are required to review their executive arrangements.
Most local authorities opt for the "leader and cabinet" model where the council leader is selected from the councillors, but in some areas the council proposes to adopt the "mayor and cabinet" model. Following a successful "yes" vote in a local referendum, a directly elected mayor is established to replace the council leader. Since 2007, councils can adopt the elected mayoral model without a referendum. Most authorities with elected mayors already had a ceremonial mayor and the two roles continue to exist concurrently. As of May 2019, 15 council areas are using the "mayor and cabinet" model of governance with a directly elected executive mayor.Greater London
Greater London is a ceremonial county of England that is located within the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts—the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, which is located within the region but is separate from the county. The Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The City of London Corporation is the principal local authority for the City of London, with a similar role to that of the 32 London borough councils.
Administratively, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963. The area was re-established as a region in 1994. The Greater London Authority was formed in 2000.The region covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. The Greater London Built-up Area is used in some national statistics and is a measure of the continuous urban area and includes areas outside the administrative region.Greater London Authority
The Greater London Authority (GLA), also known as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London, with jurisdiction over both counties of Greater London and the City of London. It consists of two political branches: the executive Mayoralty (currently led by Sadiq Khan) and the 25-member London Assembly, which serves as a means of checks and balances on the former. Since May 2016, both branches have been under the control of the London Labour Party. The authority was established in 2000, following a local referendum, and derives most of its powers from the Greater London Authority Act 1999 and the Greater London Authority Act 2007.
It is a strategic regional authority, with powers over transport, policing, economic development, and fire and emergency planning. Three functional bodies — Transport for London, the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, and the London Fire Commissioner — are responsible for delivery of services in these areas. The planning policies of the Mayor of London are detailed in a statutory London Plan that is regularly updated and published.
The Greater London Authority is mostly funded by direct government grant and it is also a precepting authority, with some money collected with local Council Tax. The GLA is unique in the British devolved and local government system, in terms of structure (it uses a presidential system-esque model), elections and selection of powers. The authority was established to replace a range of joint boards and quangos and provided an elected upper tier of local government in London for the first time since the abolition of the Greater London Council in 1986.List of Lord Mayors of London
List of all mayors and lord mayors of London (leaders of the City of London Corporation, and first citizens of the City of London, from medieval times). Until 1354, the title held was Mayor of London. The dates are those of election to office (Michaelmas Day on 29 September, excepting those years when it fell on the Sabbath) and office is not actually entered until the second week of November. Therefore, the years 'Elected' below do not represent the main calendar year of service.
In 2006 the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was devised, for the most part, to avoid confusion with the office of Mayor of London. However, the legal and commonly-used title and style remains Lord Mayor of London.List of mayors of London, Ontario
This is list of mayors of London, Ontario, Canada. London was incorporated as a town in 1848, and became a city in 1855. Originally, mayors were elected on January 1 for one-year terms.
The 73rd and current mayor of the City is Ed Holder.London Assembly
The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power, with a two-thirds majority, to amend the Mayor's annual budget and to reject the Mayor's draft statutory strategies. The London Assembly was established in 2000 and meets at City Hall on the south bank of the River Thames, close to Tower Bridge. The Assembly is also able to investigate other issues of importance to Londoners (transport, environmental matters, etc.), publish its findings and recommendations, and make proposals to the Mayor.London Plan
The London Plan is the statutory spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority.The regional planning document was first published in final form on 10 February 2004. In addition to minor alterations, it was substantially revised and republished in February 2008 and again in July 2011. In October 2013, minor alterations were made to the plan to comply with the National Planning Policy Framework and other changes in national policy.The current London Plan of March 2016 was published, and amended, in January 2017. The current plan has a formal end-date of 2036.London mayoral elections
The London mayoral election for the office of Mayor of London takes place every four years. The first election was held in May 2000, and four subsequent elections have taken place. The latest mayoral election took place in 2016.Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers, rights and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London.
This office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, which is a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area.
In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced, partly to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and commonly used title remains Lord Mayor of London.
The Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, and takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony.
The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office; the Lord Mayor, preceded by a procession, travels to the Royal Courts of Justice at the Strand to swear allegiance to the sovereign before the Justices of the High Court.
One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent, support and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London. Today, these businesses are mostly in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and also has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical.
The Lord Mayor of London typically delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, and attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, also ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and also Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House 'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier.
Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period.The Lord Mayor has an ADC (Aide-de-camp) to act as the aide to the Lord Mayor. From 2017-19 this is Major D. Konstantinious of the Army Cadet Force.Sadiq Khan
Sadiq Aman Khan (; born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as the Mayor of London since 2016. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tooting from 2005 to 2016. He is on the Labour Party's soft left wing and has been ideologically characterised as a social democrat.
Born in Tooting, South London, to a working-class British Pakistani family, Khan earned a law degree from the University of North London. He subsequently worked as a solicitor specialising in human rights and chaired Liberty for three years. Joining the Labour Party, Khan was a Councillor for the London Borough of Wandsworth from 1994 to 2006 before being elected as the Member of Parliament for Tooting at the 2005 general election. Under Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Khan was appointed Minister of State for Communities in 2008, later becoming Minister of State for Transport. A key ally of Ed Miliband, he served in Miliband's Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Secretary of State for Justice, Shadow Lord Chancellor and Shadow Minister for London.
Khan was elected Mayor of London at the 2016 mayoral election, succeeding Conservative Mayor Boris Johnson. He immediately resigned as MP upon his victory at the election. Khan won the largest number of votes in one election of any politician in British history. In office, he introduced reforms to limit charges on London's public transport, backed a Gatwick Airport expansion and focused on uniting the city's varied communities. He was a vocal supporter of the unsuccessful Britain Stronger in Europe campaign to retain UK membership of the European Union. He has been included in the Time 100 list of most influential people in the world.Whittington Stone
The Whittington Stone is an 1821 monumental stone and statue of a cat at the foot of Highgate Hill, a street, in Archway (until some decades after the nearby arched bridge was built in the early 19th century considered the northern part of Upper Holloway).
It marks roughly where it is recounted a forlorn Dick Whittington, returning to his homeland the city as losing faith as a scullion in a scullery, heard Bow Bells ringing from 4 1⁄2 miles (7.2 km) away, prophesying his good fortune leading to the homage "Turn again Whittington, thrice Lord Mayor of London!". This old quotation and a short history of the man covers two faces of the stone. The pub next to it is of the same name.William Billers
Sir William Billers (1689 – 15 October 1745) was an English haberdasher who was Alderman, Sheriff and Lord Mayor of London.He was born in Thorley, Hertfordshire, where the Billers family, who originated from Kirby Bellars in Leicestershire, owned Thorley Hall and manor.
He became a London haberdasher and a member of the Haberdashers' Company, to whom he donated a painting entitled "The Wise Men's Offering" which hung in Haberdashers' Hall.In 1720–21, he was elected joint Sheriff of the City of London and in 1733-34 elected Lord Mayor of London. In 1722 he became an Alderman for Cordwainer Ward.
In 1726 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and was knighted in 1727.He died in 1745 and was buried in Thorley church. He married Anne (c. 1711–1750), daughter of Sir Rowland Aynsworth and Sarah Fleet (daughter of Sir John Fleet, Lord Mayor of London in 1693), by whom he had two sons and four daughters: John, William, Martha, Anne, Elizabeth, and Maria. His two sons and daughter Martha predeceased him. His eldest daughter Anne, who married John Olmius (later Baron Waltham) was his eventual heiress.After his death, his extensive library was auctioned by Christopher Cock at his house in the Great Piazza, Covent Garden on 22 November 1745.
Mayors of London
Governance of Greater London