Mayor–council government

The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government. It is one of the two most common forms of local government in the United States and is also used in Canada. It is the one most frequently adopted in large cities, although the other form, council–manager government, is the local government form of more municipalities.

Characterized by having a mayor who is elected by the voters, the mayorcouncil variant may be broken down into two main variations depending on the relationship between the legislative and executive branches, becoming a weak-mayor or a strong-mayor variation based upon the powers of the office. These forms are used principally in modern representative municipal governments in the United States, but also are used in some other countries.

Weak-mayor form

In a weak-mayor system, the mayor has no formal authority outside the council; the mayor cannot directly appoint or remove officials, and lacks veto power over council votes.[1] As such, the mayor's influence is solely based on personality in order to accomplish desired goals.

The weak-mayor form of government may be found in small towns in the United States that do not use the more popular council–manager form used in most municipalities that are not considered large or major cities, and is frequently seen in small municipalities with few or no full-time municipal employees.

Strong-mayor form

The strong-mayor form of mayor–council government usually consists of an executive branch, a mayor elected by voters, and a unicameral council as the legislative branch.[2]

In the strong-mayor form the elected mayor is given almost total administrative authority and a clear, wide range of political independence, with the power to appoint and dismiss department heads without council approval and little or no public input. In this system, the strong-mayor prepares and administers the city budget, although that budget often must be approved by the council. Abuses in this form led to the development of the council–manager form of local government and its adoption widely throughout the United States.

In some strong-mayor governments, the mayor will appoint a chief administrative officer who will supervise department heads, prepare the budget, and coordinate departments. This officer is sometimes called a city manager; while the term city manager is used in the council–manager form of municipal government, the manager in the strong-mayor variant is responsible only to the mayor.

Most major and large American cities use the strong-mayor form of the mayor–council system, whereas middle-sized and small American cities tend to use the council–manager system.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Saffell, Dave C.; Harry Basehart (2009). State and Local Government: Politics and Public Policies (9th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-07-352632-4.
  2. ^ Kathy Hayes; Semoon Chang (July 1990). "The Relative Efficiency of City Manager and Mayor–Council Forms of Government". Southern Economic Journal. 57 (1): 167–177. doi:10.2307/1060487. JSTOR 1060487.
  3. ^ Edwards III, George C.; Robert L. Lineberry; Martin P. Wattenberg (2006). Government in America. Pearson Education. pp. 677–678. ISBN 0-321-29236-7.
Brossard City Council

The Brossard City Council (in French: Le conseil municipal de Brossard) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Brossard, Quebec in the Montérégie region. The council consists of the mayor and ten councillors.

City commission government

City commission government is a form of local government in the United States. In a city commission government, voters elect a small commission, typically of five to seven members, on a plurality-at-large voting basis.

These commissioners constitute the legislative body of the city and, as a group, are responsible for taxation, appropriations, ordinances, and other general functions. Individual commissioners are also assigned executive responsibility for a specific aspect of municipal affairs, such as public works, finance, or public safety. This form of government thus blends legislative and executive branch functions in the same body.

One commissioner may be designated to function as chairman or mayor, but this largely is a procedural, honorific, or ceremonial designation and typically does not involve additional powers beyond that exercised by the other commissioners. Chairing meetings is the principal role. Such a "mayor" is in many ways similar to the "weak mayor" form of mayor–council government, but without any direct election for the office. However, some cities with this form of government, such as Portland, Oregon, have an elected mayor.

Council–manager government

The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form. Council–manager government form also is used in county governments in the United States. The council–manager form also is used for municipal government in Canada and in Ireland, among many other countries, both for city councils and county councils.

Drummondville City Council

The Drummondville City Council (in French: Conseil municipal de Drummondville) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Drummondville, Quebec in the Centre-du-Québec region. The council consists of the mayor and 12 councillors.

Gatineau City Council

The Gatineau Municipal Council (in French: Le conseil municipal de Gatineau) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. It is composed of 18 city councillors and the mayor. The mayor is elected at large, while each of the councillors represent districts throughout the city. Council members are elected to four year terms with the last election being the 2017 election.

Government and politics in Saint Paul, Minnesota

Saint Paul, Minnesota is the capital of Minnesota. The city is also the largest city and county seat of Ramsey County. Saint Paul has a strong mayor-council government. Seven city council members elected in wards and one mayor elected at large serve the city.

Laval City Council

The Laval City Council is the governing body in the mayor–council government in the city of Laval, Quebec, Canada. It is composed of the mayor and 21 councillors. They are elected to four year terms with the next election scheduled for November 2013. Statutory meetings are held on the first Monday of each month.

Longueuil City Council

The Longueuil City Council (in French: Conseil municipal de la Ville de Longueuil) is the governing body of the mayor–council government in the city of Longueuil on Montreal's south shore, located in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada.

Council meetings are held on the third Tuesday of every month at 7 p.m.

Lévis City Council

The Lévis City Council is the governing body in the mayor–council government in the city of Lévis, Quebec in the Chaudière-Appalaches region. It is composed of the mayor and 15 councillors.

Oakland City Council

The Oakland City Council is an elected governing body representing the City of Oakland, California.

Since 1998, Oakland has had a mayor-council government. The mayor is elected for a four-year term. The Oakland City Council has eight council members representing seven districts in Oakland with one member elected at-large; council members serve staggered four-year terms. The mayor appoints a city administrator, subject to the confirmation by the City Council, who is the chief administrative officer of the city. Other city officers include: city attorney (elected), city auditor (elected), and city clerk (appointed by city administrator). Oakland's Mayor is subject to a tenure limited to two terms. There are no term limits for the city council.

Politics of Shreveport

Founded in 1836 and incorporated in 1871, Shreveport is the third largest city in Louisiana. The city is the parish seat of Caddo Parish. A portion of east Shreveport extends in to Bossier Parish because of the changing course of the Red River.

The city of Shreveport has a mayor-council government. The City's elected officials are: the mayor, and members of the city council.

Under the mayor-council government, the mayor serves as the executive officer of the city. As the city's chief administrator and official representative, the mayor is responsible for the general management of the city and for seeing that all laws and ordinances are enforced.

Current mayor: Adrian Perkins (D)

District A: Willie Bradford (D)

District B: LeVette Fuller (D)

District C: John Nickelson (R)

District D: Grayson Boucher (R)

District E: James Flurry (R)

District F: James Green (D)

District G: Jerry Bowman (D)

Quebec City Council

The Quebec City Council (French: Conseil municipal de Québec) is the governing body in the mayor–council government in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The council consists of a mayor, and of 21 representatives representing the 21 city council districts, with a president by borough in the elected representatives. The current council majority is composed of 16 Équipe Labeaume councillors, led by the mayor Régis Labeaume. The main opposition party is Québec 21 led by Jean-François Gosselin, which has three seats. Démocratie Québec has one seat.

Saguenay City Council

The Saguenay City Council (in French: Conseil municipal de la Ville de Saguenay) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Saguenay, in the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec.

Saint-Georges City Council

The Saint-Georges City Council (in French: Le conseil municipal de Saint-Georges) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Saint-Georges, Quebec in the Chaudière-Appalaches region. The council consists of the mayor and eight councillors.

Sherbrooke City Council

The Sherbrooke City Council (in French: Conseil municipal de Sherbrooke) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Sherbrooke, in the Estrie region of Quebec. The council consists of a mayor and 19 councillors.

The councillors each sit both on the main city council and on separate borough councils, which serve a similar function for business that the city delegates to its boroughs instead of to the primary government. The city's two smallest boroughs, Brompton and Lennoxville, each elect only a single representative to the main city council, and thus each also elect two representatives who serve only as borough councillors and do not sit on the main citywide body. In the four larger boroughs, however, only the borough's regular city councillors sit on the borough council.

Terrebonne City Council

The Terrebonne City Council (in French: Le conseil municipal de Terrebonne) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Terrebonne, Quebec in the Lanaudière region. The council consists of the mayor and 16 councillors.

Trois-Rivières City Council

The Trois-Rivières City Council (in French: Conseil municipal de Trois-Rivières) is the governing body for the mayor–council government in the city of Trois-Rivières, in the Mauricie region of Quebec, Canada.

Yerevan City Council

The Yerevan City Council is the lawmaking body of the city of Yerevan. It has 65 members elected by Party-list proportional representation system, headed by the Mayor of Yerevan. The Council serves as a check against the mayor in a mayor-council government model.

The council monitors performance of city agencies and makes land use decisions as well as legislating on a variety of other issues. The City Council also has sole responsibility for approving the city budget and each member is limited to three consecutive terms in office and can run again after a four-year respite.

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