Mayor

In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior [majˈjɔr], meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board.

History

British Isles

In modern England and Wales, the position of mayor descends from the feudal lord's bailiff or reeve (see borough). The chief magistrate of London bore the title of portreeve for considerably more than a century after the Norman Conquest. This official was elected by popular choice, a privilege secured from King John. By the beginning of the 12th century, the title of portreeve gave way to that of mayor as the designation of the chief officer of London, followed around 1190 by that of Winchester. Other boroughs adopted the title later. In the 19th century, in the United Kingdom, the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, Section 15, regulated the election of mayors. The mayor was to be a fit person elected annually on 9 November by the council of the borough from among the aldermen or councillors or persons qualified to be such. His term of office was one year, but he was eligible for re-election. He might appoint a deputy to act during illness or absence, and such deputy must be either an alderman or councillor. A mayor who was absent from the borough for more than two months became disqualified and had to vacate his office. A mayor was ex officio a justice of the peace for the borough during his year of office and the following year. He received such remuneration as the council thought reasonable. These provisions have now been repealed.

In medieval Wales, the Laws of Hywel Dda codified the mayor (Latin: maior; Welsh: maer) as a position at the royal courts charged with administering the serfs of the king's lands. To maintain its dependence on and loyalty to the Crown, the position was forbidden to the leaders of the clan groups.[1] A separate mayor, known as the "cow dung mayor" (maer biswail), was charged with overseeing the royal cattle.[1] There were similar offices at the Scottish and Irish courts.

The office of mayor in most modern English and Welsh boroughs and towns did not in the 20th century entail any important administrative duties, and was generally regarded as an honour conferred for local distinction, long service on the Council, or for past services. The mayor was expected to devote much of his (or her) time to civic, ceremonial, and representational functions, and to preside over meetings for the advancement of the public welfare. His or her administrative duties were to act as returning officer at parliamentary elections, and as chairman of the meetings of the council. However, since reforms introduced in 2000, 14 English local authorities have directly elected mayors who combine the 'civic' mayor role with that of Leader of the Council and have significantly greater powers than either. The mayor of a town council is officially known as "town mayor" (although in popular parlance, the word "town" is often dropped). Women mayors are also known as "mayor"; the wife of a mayor is sometimes known as the "mayoress". Mayors are not appointed to District Councils which do not have borough status. Their place is taken by the Chairman of Council, who undertakes exactly the same functions and is, like a mayor, the civic head of the district concerned.

In Scotland the post holders are known as Convenors, Provosts, or Lord Provosts depending on the local authority.

Continental Europe

The original Frankish mayors or majordomos were – like the Welsh meiri – lords commanding the king's lands around the Merovingian courts in Austrasia, Burgundy, and Neustria. The mayorship of Paris eventually became hereditary in the Pippinids, who later established the Carolingian dynasty.

In modern France, since the Revolution, a mayor (maire) and a number of mayoral adjuncts (adjoints au maire) are selected by the municipal council from among their number. Most of the administrative work is left in their hands, with the full council meeting comparatively infrequently. The model was copied throughout Europe in Britain's mayors, Italy's sindacos, most of the German states' burgomasters, and Portugal's presidents of the municipal chambers.

In Medieval Italy, the city-states who did not consider themselves independent principalities or dukedoms – particularly those of the Imperial Ghibelline faction – were led by podestàs.

The Greek equivalent of a mayor is the demarch (Greek: δήμαρχος, lit. "archon of the deme").

Scandinavia

In Denmark all municipalities are led by a political official called borgmester, "mayor". The mayor of Copenhagen is however called overborgmester "superior mayor". In that city other mayors, borgmestre (plural), are subordinate to him with different undertakings, like ministers to a prime minister. In other municipalities in Denmark there is only a single mayor.

In Norway and Sweden the mayoral title borgermester/borgmästare has now been abolished. Norway abolished it in 1937 as a title of the non-political top manager of (city) municipalities and replaced it with the title rådmann ("alderman" or "magistrate"), which is still in use when referring to the top managers of the municipalities of Norway. The top elected official of the municipalities of Norway, on the other hand, has the title ordfører, which actually means "word-bearer", i.e. "chairman" or "president", an equivalent to the Swedish word ordförande.

In Sweden borgmästare was a title of the senior judge of the courts of the cities, courts which were called rådhusrätt, literally "town hall court", somewhat of an equivalent to an English magistrates' court. These courts were abolished in 1971. Until 1965 these mayor judges on historical grounds also performed administrative functions in the "board of magistrates", in Swedish known collegially as magistrat. Until 1965 there were also municipal mayors (kommunalborgmästare), who had these non-political administrative roles in smaller cities without a magistrates' court or magistrat. This office was an invention of the 20th century as the smaller cities in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century subsequently lost their own courts and magistrates.

In the 16th century in Sweden, king Gustav Vasa considerably centralised government and appointed the mayors directly. In 1693 king Charles XI accepted a compromise after repeated petitions from the Estate of the Burgesses over decades against the royal mayor appointments. The compromise was that the burgesses in a city could normally nominate a mayor under the supervision of the local governor. The nominee was then to be presented to and appointed by the king, but the king could appoint mayors directly in exceptional cases. This was codified in the Instrument of Government of 1720 and on 8 July the same year Riksrådet ("the Council of the Realm") decided, after a petition from the said Estate, that only the city could present nominees, not the king or anyone else. Thus the supervision of the local governor and directly appointed mayors by the king ceased after 1720 (the so-called Age of Liberty). On 16 October 1723, it was decided after a petition that the city should present three nominees, of whom the king (or the Council of the Realm) appointed one.[2] This was kept as a rule from then on in all later regulations[2] and was also kept as a tradition in the 1809 Instrument of Government (§ 31) until 1965.

In Finland, there are two mayors, in Tampere and Pirkkala. Usually in Finland the highest executive official is not democratically elected, but is appointed to a public office by the city council, and is called simply kaupunginjohtaja "city manager" or kunnanjohtaja "municipal manager", depending on whether the municipality defines itself as a city. The term pormestari "mayor", from Swedish borgmästare confusingly on historical grounds has referred to the highest official in the registry office and in the city courts (abolished in 1993) as in Sweden, not the city manager. In addition, pormestari is also an honorary title, which may be given for distinguished service in the post of the city manager. The city manager of Helsinki is called ylipormestari, which translates to "Chief Mayor", for historical reasons. Furthermore, the term "city manager" may be seen translated as "mayor".

Mayors by country

Australia

On Australian councils, the mayor is generally the member of the council who acts as ceremonial figurehead at official functions, as well as carrying the authority of council between meetings. Mayoral decisions made between meetings are subject to Council and may be confirmed or repealed if necessary. Mayors in Australia may be elected either directly through a ballot for the position of mayor at a local-government election, or alternatively may be elected from within the council at a meeting.

The civic regalia and insignia of local government have basically remained unaltered for centuries. The robes, the mayoral chain and the mace are not intended to glorify the individual, but rather they are a uniform of office and are used to respect and honour the people whom the users serve.

The mayoral robe may be crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed in ermine. The mayor may also wear a lace fall (neck piece) and cuffs.

The deputy-mayoral robe may be crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed with black velvet and bordered with lapin.

Mayors have the title of 'His/Her Worship' whilst holding the position.

In councils where Councillors are elected representing political parties, the mayor is normally the leader of the party receiving the most seats on council. In Queensland the Lord Mayor and Mayors are elected by popular vote at the general council election.

Brazil

Every municipality in Brazil elects a mayor (Portuguese: prefeito/prefeita), for a four-year term, acting as an executive officer with the city council (Portuguese: Câmara Municipal) functioning with legislative powers. The mayor can be re-elected and manage the city for two consecutive terms.

The Brazilian system works similarly to the mayor-council government in the United States.

Canada

The chief executives of boroughs (arrondissements) in Quebec are termed mayors (maires/mairesses in French). A borough mayor simultaneously serves as head of the borough council and as a regular councillor on the main city council.

As is the practice in most Commonwealth countries, in Canada a mayor is addressed as His/Her Worship while holding office.

In some small townships in Ontario, the title reeve was historically used instead of mayor. In some other municipalities, "mayor" and "reeve" were two separate offices, with the mayor retaining leadership powers while the reeve was equivalent to what other municipalities called an "at-large councillor". While most municipalities in the province now designate their elected municipal government heads as mayors, in certain areas of the province, the elected head of the municipality continues to be refereed to as reeve, and the second-in-command is referred to as the deputy reeve. For example, this continues to be the case in the municipalities of Algonquin Highlands, Dysart et al, Highlands East, and Minden Hills, all located within the Haliburton County.

Many municipalities in Alberta continue to use the title reeve to denote the office of mayor or chief elected official in accordance with the Municipal Government Act.

In rural municipalities (RM) in the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the elected head of the RM is still referred to as a "reeve", as are the heads of most counties and district municipalities (DMs) in Alberta.

The scheduling of municipal elections in Canada varies by jurisdiction, as each province and territory has its own laws regarding municipal governance. See also municipal elections in Canada.

Dominican Republic

The mayor of a municipality in the Dominican Republic is called indistinctly alcalde or síndico. The latter name is preferred as to avoid confusing the title with the similarly sounding alcaide (lit. prison warden). Such person is the governor of the municipality whose township elected him (or her) by direct vote for a term of four years. The mayor's office daily duties are restricted to the local governance, and as such, it is responsible for the coordination of waste collection, upkeep of public spaces (parks, undeveloped urban parcels, streets, city ornate, traffic light control, sewage and most public utilities). In practice most of it duties are centered in light street repairing (new or big road projects, like overpasses, bridges, pedestrian crossings, etc. are handled by the Public Works Ministry (Ministerio de Obras Públicas in Spanish) office), under the direct control of the Central Government. Subcontracting garbage collection and management, overseeing the use of public spaces and arbitring neighborhood land use disputes which is managed by the National Property office (Oficina de Bienes Nacionales in Spanish) is also controlled by the mayor's office. Water, electrical supply and public transportation coordination are handled by several Central Government's offices, and as such, are not under control of the mayor.

France

Mayors (maires) in France are elected every six years in local elections.

Germany

In Germany local government is regulated by state statutes. Nowadays only the mayors of the three city-states (Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen) are still elected by the respective city-state parliaments. In all the other states the mayors are now elected directly by the EU citizens living in that area. The post of mayor may be said to be a professional one, the mayor being the head of the local government, and requiring, in order to be eligible, a training in administration. In big cities (details are regulated by state statutes) the official title is Oberbürgermeister (Lord Mayor). In these cities a "simple" mayor is just a deputy responsible for a distinct task (e.g., welfare or construction works). Big cities are usually kreisfrei ("free of district"). That means that the city council also has the powers and duties of a rural district council. The leader of a rural district council is called Landrat ("land counsellor"). In that case the chief mayor has also the duties and powers of a Landrat. The term Oberbürgermeister is not used in the three city-states, where the mayors are simultaneously head of state governments, but Regierender Bürgermeister (Governing Mayor of Berlin), Erster Bürgermeister (First Mayor of the city-state of Hamburg) and Präsident des Senats und Bürgermeister (President of the Senate and Mayor of Bremen) are used.

Greece

Mayors in Greece were elected every four years in local elections and are the head of various municipal governments in which the state is divided. Starting from 2014, mayors are elected for a 5-year term. Local administration elections for the new, consolidated municipalities and peripheries will henceforth be held together with the elections for the European Parliament.

Local administration in Greece recently underwent extensive reform in two phases: the first phase, implemented in 1997 and commonly called the "Kapodistrias Project", consolidated the country's numerous municipalities and communities down to approximately 1000. The second phase, initially called "Kapodistrias II" but eventually called the "Callicrates Project", was implemented in 2010, further consolidated municipalities down to 370, and merged the country's 54 prefectures into 13 peripheries. The Callicratean municipalities were designed according to several guidelines; for example each island (except Crete) was incorporated into a single municipality, while the majority of small towns were consolidated so as to have an average municipal population of 25,000.

India

In India, the mayor is leader of the council and has a number of roles, both legislative and functional. The legislative requirements are outlined in Section 73 and 73AA of Local Government Act 1989. In most Indian states mayors are elected indirectly among the council members themselves except in eight states Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand; where mayors are elected directly by the public.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, mayor (Indonesian: wali kota, formerly called walikotamadya and walikota) is a regional head of a city or town. A mayor has the same level as a regent (Indonesian: bupati), head of a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten). Basically, a mayor has duties and authority to lead the implementation of the policies established by the region along with the city council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Kota, DPRD Kota; formerly called Tier 2-DPRD (DPRD tingkat II)). A mayor is elected in a pair with a vice mayor through direct elections and is a political office, except in Jakarta. There, mayoralty is a civil-service career position with limited authority and is designated by the Governor of Jakarta. Their region are called administration cities (Indonesian: kota administrasi).

Before 1999, there were administrative cities (Indonesian: kota administratif, id) which were headed by administrative mayors.

Iran

In Iran, the mayor is the executive manager of city and elected by the Islamic City Council. The mayor is elected for a four-year term.

Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, the head of a borough corporation was called "mayor" from the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 until boroughs were abolished by the Local Government Reform Act 2014. The Local Government Act 2001 allowed county councils to style their chairperson as "mayor" and most do so. City council chairs are "mayor" (or "lord mayor" in the cases of Dublin and of Cork). Since 2000 there have been proposals for a directly elected mayor of the Dublin Metropolitan Area.

Italy

In Italy the mayor is called sindaco, or informally primo cittadino ("first citizen"). Every municipality (Italian: Comune) has its mayor who represents the local government. The mayor is elected every five years by the inhabitants of the municipality, but he cannot be re-elected after two terms (except in small towns).[3]

Japan

Japan's Local-Autonomy Law of 1947 defines the structure of Japanese local governments, which were strengthened after World War II. It gives strong executive power to the mayor in the local politics like strong mayors in large cities in the United States of America. The titles that are translated as "mayor" by the governments are those of the heads of cities shichō (市長), towns chōchō (町長), villages sonchō (村長), and Tokyo's special wards kuchō (区長). (The head of the Tokyo prefecture is the Governor (知事 Chiji).) A mayor is elected every four years by direct popular votes held separately from the assembly. A mayor can be recalled by a popular initiative but the prefectural and the national governments cannot remove a mayor from office. Towards the assembly the mayor prepares budgets, proposes local acts and has vetoes on local acts just approved by the assembly which can be overridden by two-thirds assembly support. A mayor can resolve the assembly if the assembly passes a motion of no confidence or if the mayor thinks the assembly has no confidence in fact.

Kazakhstan

In Kazakhstan, the mayor is called Akim who is the head of an akimat, a municipal, district, or provincial government (mayorat), and serves as the Presidential representative. Akims of provinces and cities are appointed to the post by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Meanwhile, the akims of other administrative and territorial units are appointed or selected to the post in an order defined by the President. He may also dismiss akims from their posts. Powers of akims ends with the introduction into the post of new-elected president of the republic. Thus, the akim continues to fulfill the duties before appointment of corresponding akim by the President of Kazakhstan.

Malaysia

The mayor functions as the head of the local government of the cities in Malaysia. To date, there are 14 officially-recognised cities in the country.

In cities which lie within the jurisdiction of any one of the 13 Malaysian states, the mayor is appointed by the state government.[4] Kuala Lumpur, the country's capital, is a notable exception, as it forms part of the Federal Territories which come under the purview of the Malaysian federal government, via the Ministry of Federal Territories. Thus, the mayor of Kuala Lumpur is selected by, and subordinate to, the Minister of Federal Territories.[5]

Following the 2018 general election, which saw the country undergoing its first ever regime change, there have been calls to revive local government elections, which had been the practice in certain cities such as Kuala Lumpur, George Town, Ipoh and Melaka until their abolishment in 1965.[4][6][7] The reinstatement of local government elections would lead to the mayoral position being elected, instead of being appointed as per the current system.

Malta

In Malta, the mayor (In Maltese: Sindku) is the leader of the majority party in the Local Council. The members of the Local Councils are directly elected and collectively serve as a basic form of local government.

Moldova

The Mayor of the municipality in Moldova is elected for four years. In Chişinău, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the mayor (in Dutch: burgemeester) is the leader of the municipal executives ('College van Burgemeester en Wethouders'). In the Netherlands, burgermeesters are de facto appointed by the national cabinet, de jure by the monarch. They preside both the municipal executive and the legislative ('gemeenteraad'). The title is sometimes translated as burgomaster, to emphasize the appointed, rather than elected, nature of the office. The appointment procedure was brought for discussion in the early 2000s (decade), as some of the political parties represented in parliament regarded the procedure as undemocratic. Generally, mayors in the Netherlands are selected from the established political parties. Alternatives proposed were direct election of the mayor by the people or appointment by the city council (gemeenteraad). A constitutional change to allow for this failed to pass the Senate in March 2005.

Nepal

Mayors in Nepal are elected every Five years in the Local elections.

New Zealand

Mayors in New Zealand are elected every three years in the local body elections.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, a city is headed by the District Nazim (the word means "supervisor" in Urdu, but is sometimes translated as Mayor) and assisted by Naib Nazim who is also speaker of District Council. District Nazim is elected by the nazims of union councils, union councillors and by tehsil nazims, who themselves are elected directly by the votes of the local public. Council elections are held every four years.

Philippines

In the Philippines, mayors (Tagalog: Punong Bayan / Punong Lungsod) are the head of a municipality or a city, with the vice mayor as the second highest position in the city. They are elected every three years during the midterm and national elections, and they can serve until three terms of office. As of - September 2012, there are 1,635 mayors in the Philippines.

Poland

Mayors in Poland are directly elected by inhabitants of their respective municipality. The mayor is the sole chief of the executive branch of the municipality and he cannot serve on the municipal council (city council) or in the parliament. The mayor may appoint a deputy mayor if needed. In Poland, a mayor is called a burmistrz or, in towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants or other municipalities that traditionally use the title, prezydent ("president", for example "President of Warsaw", instead of "Mayor of Warsaw"). The equivalent title in a rural community ("gmina") is "wójt".

The mayor is elected for a four-year term concurrently with the four-year term of the municipal council, and his/her service is terminated at the end of the municipal council's term. Mayors cannot be dismissed by the municipal council, but they can be removed from the office by the citizens of their municipality in a referendum. A mayor can also be dismissed by the Prime Minister in case of persistent transgression of the law. Citizens having a criminal record cannot run for mayor, but only if sentenced for intentional offense ex officio.

The mayor manages the municipal estate, issues minor regulations, and incurs liabilities within limits set by the municipal council. The mayor presents a budget to the municipal council, that may then be amended by the council. After the municipal council passes the budget in a form of resolution, the mayor is responsible for its realization. The mayor is the head of the town hall and the register office (he/she may appoint deputies for these specific tasks). Mayors legally act as employers for all of the officials of the town hall. Mayors in Poland have wide administrative authority: the only official that he/she cannot appoint or dismiss is a city treasurer, who is appointed by a city council. Although mayors in Poland do not have veto power over city council resolutions, their position is relatively strong and should be classified as a mayor-council government.

Portugal

In Portugal and many other Portuguese-speaking countries the mayor of a municipality is called the Presidente da Câmara Municipal (President of the Municipal Chamber).

Romania

In Romania the mayor of a commune, town or city is called primar. He is elected for a period of four years. In carrying out his responsibilities he is assisted by an elected local council (consiliu local). Bucharest has a general mayor (primar general) and six sector mayors (primar de sector), one for each sector. The responsibilities of the mayor and of the local council are defined by Law 215/2001 of the Romanian Parliament.[8]

Russia

In Russia, the Мэр, from fr Maire (en transcription = Mer - not to be confused to the NATO OF-3 rank Майор - en: Major), is one of possible titles of the head of the administration of a city or municipality. This title is equivalent to that of the head of a Russian rural district. Exceptionally, the mer of Moscow, Saint-Petersburg and Sevastopol are equivalent to governors in Russia, since these three federal cities are equivalent to Russian federations.

Except for those just-named three large cities, the governance system of a Russian municipality (city, county, district or town) is subordinate to the representative council of the federation in which it is located. The mer, is either directly elected in municipal elections (citywide referendum) or is elected by the members of the municipality's representative council. Election by council members is now more widespread because it better integrates with the Russian federal three-level vertical governance structure:

  1. National government:
    1. President (executive)
    2. Federal Assembly
  2. Federation governments:
    1. Heads of federation (commonly governors)
    2. Regional representative councils
  3. Local governments:
    1. Heads of administration (who have the official title of mer, whether or not local law defines it as such)
    2. Local representative councils

The typical term of office of a mer in Russia is four years. The mer's office administers all municipal services, public property, police and fire protection, and most public agencies, and enforces all local and state laws within a city or town.

According to Medialogy,[9] the mer of Novosibirsk, Edward Lokot', is mentioned in the media more than any other Russian mayor. The mer of Kazan, Il'sur Metshin, is the most popular in Russia, scoring 76 out of 100, according to the Russian People's Rating of Mers.[10]

Serbia

In Serbia, the mayor is the head of the city or a town. He acts on behalf of the city, and performs an executive function. The position of the mayor of Belgrade is important as the capital city is the most important hub of economics, culture and science in Serbia. Furthermore, the post of the mayor of Belgrade is the third most important position in the government after the Prime Minister and President.

Spain and Hispanic America

Alcalde is the most common Spanish term for the mayor of a town or city. It is derived from the Arabic: al-qaḍi (قاضي‎), i.e., "the (Sharia) judge," who often had administrative, as well as judicial, functions. Although the Castilian alcalde and the Andalusian qaḍi had slightly different attributes (the qaḍi oversaw an entire province, the alcalde only a municipality; the former was appointed by the ruler of the state but the latter was elected by the municipal council), the adoption of this term reflects how much Muslim society in the Iberian Peninsula influenced the Christian one in the early phases of the Reconquista. As Spanish Christians took over an increasing part of the Peninsula, they adapted the Muslim systems and terminology for their own use.

Today, it refers to the executive head of a municipal or local government, who usually does not have judicial functions. The word intendente is used in Argentina and Paraguay for the office that is analogous to a mayor.

In larger cities in Mexico, the chief executive is known as the presidente municipal or "municipal president".

Sweden

The Swedish title borgmästare (burgomaster) was abolished in the court reform of 1971 when also the towns of Sweden were officially abolished. Since the middle of the 20th century, the municipal commissioner – the highest-ranking politician in each municipality – is informally titled "mayor" in English.

Switzerland

The function and title for mayor vary from one canton to another. Generally, the mayor presides an executive council of several members governing a municipality.

The title is:

  • in Italian: Sindaco (Ticino), Podestà (Grigioni)
  • in French: Maire (Geneva, Jura, Bern), Syndic (Vaud, Fribourg), Président du Conseil municipal (Valais), Président du Conseil communal (Neuchâtel)
  • in German: e.g. Stadtpräsident, Stadtammann, Gemeindepräsident, Gemeindeammann

Taiwan

In the Republic of China in Taiwan the mayor is the head of city's government and its city's council, which is in charge of legislative affairs. The mayor and city council are elected separately by the city's residents.

Turkey

Mayors (Turkish:Belediye Başkanı) in Turkey are elected by the municipal councill. As a rule, there are municipalities in all province centers and district centers as well as towns (Turkish: belde) which are actually villages with a population in excess of 2000. However beginning by 1983, a new level of municipality is introduced in Turkish administrative system. In big cities Metropolitan municipalities (Turkish: Büyükşehir belediyesi) are established. (See Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey) In a Metropolitan municipality there may be several district municipalities (hence mayors).

Ukraine

In Ukraine the title Mer was introduced for the position of the head of the municipal state administration in the federal cities of Kiev and Sevastopol. In the rest of the urban and rural settlements the position is unofficial and simply refers to the head of a local council who at the moment of such assignment cannot be affiliated with any party of the council.

United States

The mayor is the leader in most United States municipalities (such as cities, townships, etc.). In the United States, there are several distinct types of mayors, depending on the system of local government. Under council-manager government, the mayor is a first among equals on the city council, which acts as a legislative body while executive functions are performed by the appointed manager. The mayor may chair the city council, but lacks any special legislative powers. The mayor and city council serve part-time, with day-to-day administration in the hands of a professional city manager. The system is most common among medium-sized cities from around 25,000 to several hundred thousand, usually rural and suburban municipalities.

In the second form, known as mayor-council government, the mayoralty and city council are separate offices. Under a strong mayor system, the mayor acts as an elected executive with the city council exercising legislative powers. They may select a chief administrative officer to oversee the different departments. This is the system used in most of the United States' large cities, primarily because mayors serve full-time and have a wide range of services that they oversee. In a weak mayor or ceremonial mayor system, the mayor has appointing power for department heads but is subject to checks by the city council, sharing both executive and legislative duties with the council. This is common for smaller cities, especially in New England. Charlotte, North Carolina and Minneapolis, Minnesota are two notable large cities with a ceremonial mayor.

Many American mayors are styled "His Honor" or "Her Honor" while in office.

Multi-tier local government

In several countries, where there is not local autonomy, mayors are often appointed by some branch of the federal or regional government. In some cities, subdivisions such as boroughs may have their own mayors; this is the case, for example, with the arrondissements of Paris, Montreal, and Mexico City. In Belgium, the capital, Brussels, is administratively one of the federation's three regions, and is the only city subdivided, without the other regions' provincial level, into 19 rather small municipalities, which each have an elected—formally appointed—Burgomaster (i.e., Mayor, responsible to his / her elected council); while Antwerp, the other major metropolitan area, has one large city (where the boroughs, former municipalities merged into it, elect a lower level, albeit with very limited competence) and several smaller surrounding municipalities, each under a normal Burgomaster as in Brussels.

In the People's Republic of China, the Mayor (市長) may be the administrative head of any municipality, provincial, prefecture-level, or county-level. The Mayor is usually the most recognized official in cities, although the position is the second-highest-ranking official in charge after the local Communist Party Secretary. In principle, the Mayor (who also serves as the Deputy Communist Party Secretary of the city) is responsible for managing the city administration while the Communist Party Secretary is responsible for general policy and managing the party bureaucracy, but in practice the roles blur, frequently causing conflict.

Acting mayor

Acting mayor is a temporary office created by the charter of some municipal governments.

In many cities and towns, the charter or some similar fundamental document provides that in the event of the death, illness, resignation, or removal from office of the incumbent mayor, another official will lead the municipality for a temporary period, which, depending on the jurisdiction, may be for a stated period of days or months until a special election can be held, or until the original end of the term to which the vacating mayor was elected.

Some cities may also provide for a deputy mayor to be temporarily designated as "acting mayor" in the event that the incumbent mayor is temporarily unavailable, such as for health reasons or out-of-town travel, but still continues to hold the position and is expected to return to the duties of the office. In this latter capacity, the acting mayor's role is to ensure that city government business can continue in the regular mayor's absence, and the acting mayor is not deemed to have actually held the office of mayor.

The position of acting mayor is usually of considerably more importance in a mayor-council form of municipal government, where the mayor performs functions of day-to-day leadership, than it is in a council-manager form of government, where the city manager provides day-to-day leadership and the position of mayor is either a largely or entirely ceremonial one.

In some jurisdictions, the mayor's successor is not considered to be an acting mayor but rather fully mayor in his or her own right, much in the manner that the Vice President of the United States is not styled or considered to be Acting President following the death or resignation of the President, but rather President in every sense.

See also

Concepts:

Local government:

Historical

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b Wade-Evans, Arthur. Page:Welsh Medieval Law.djvu/447|Welsh Medieval Law]]. Oxford Univ., 1909. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.
  2. ^ a b The article Borgmästare (in Swedish) in Nordisk Familjebok.
  3. ^ (in Italian) No ai tre mandati dei sindaci. Principio di legalità batte disobbedienti.
  4. ^ a b "Elect local leaders". www.thesundaily.my. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  5. ^ "Teresa Kok: Federal Territories Ministry should be abolished". The Edge Markets. 2018-06-13. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  6. ^ "Non-partisan local elections the way forward, says Ipoh NGO | Malay Mail". www.malaymail.com. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  7. ^ "Local elections to begin as soon as economy stabilises". The Edge Markets. 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  8. ^ APD-Timisoara. "Legea nr. 215/2001". resurse-pentru-democratie.org.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2014-06-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Регионы России: Рейтинг Мэров (Май, 2014)". russia-rating.ru.
Bibliography
  • A. Shaw, Municipal Government in Continental Europe
  • J – A. Fairlie, Municipal Administration
  • S. and B. Webb, English Local Government
  • Redlich and Hirst, Local Government in England
  • A. L. Lowell, The Government of England.

External links

Bill de Blasio

Bill de Blasio (; born Warren Wilhelm Jr.; May 8, 1961) is an American politician who is currently serving as the 109th Mayor of New York City. Prior to his first election to the position of Mayor, he served as New York City's public advocate from 2010 to 2013.

Born in Manhattan, he graduated from New York University and Columbia University before a brief stint as a campaign manager for Charles Rangel and Hillary Clinton. He started his career as an elected official by serving on the New York City Council representing the 39th district in Brooklyn from 2002 to 2009. His tenure as public advocate saw a reformation of various educational, housing, and campaign finance policies. He was elected Mayor of New York City in the landslide 2013 election and retained his office in 2017, another landslide election.

He initiated new de-escalation training for officers, reduced prosecutions for cannabis possession, implemented the usage of police body cameras, and ended the post-9/11 surveillance program of Muslim residents. He passed free universal Pre-K in the city, although his effort to start a millionaire tax was rejected by New York governor Andrew Cuomo. De Blasio attempted to install an unprecedented rent-freeze citywide for rent-stabilized apartments in 2015.

A self-identified populist, de Blasio has expressed concern with the stark level of economic inequality in New York City, which he has called the "tale of two cities." He has publicly supported a socially liberal, progressive, and neoliberal discourse on the city's economy, urban planning, public education, police relations, and privatization. De Blasio has maintained mixed approval rates and levels of public support throughout his tenure, albeit slightly lower than his predecessor, Michael Bloomberg.

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), better known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian, and journalist. He has been the Member of parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015. He had previously been the MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. He was Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016, and from 2016 to 2018 he served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. A member of the Conservative Party, Johnson identifies as a one-nation conservative and has been associated with both economically and socially liberal policies.

Born in New York City to wealthy upper-middle class English parents, Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School, and Eton College. He studied Classics at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was elected president of the Oxford Union in 1986. He began his career in journalism at The Times but was sacked for falsifying a quotation. He later became The Daily Telegraph's Brussels correspondent, with his articles exerting a strong influence on growing Eurosceptic sentiment among the British right-wing. He was assistant editor from 1994 to 1999 before taking the editorship of The Spectator from 1999 to 2005. Joining the Conservatives, he was elected MP for Henley in 2001, and under party leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron he was in the Shadow Cabinet. He largely adhered to the Conservatives' party line but adopted a more socially liberal stance on issues like LGBT rights in parliamentary votes. Making regular television appearances, writing books, and remaining active in journalism, Johnson became one of the most conspicuous politicians in the United Kingdom.

Selected as Conservative candidate for the London mayoral election of 2008, Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone and resigned his seat in the House of Commons. During his first term as Mayor of London, he banned alcohol consumption on much of the capital's public transport, championed London's financial sector, and introduced the New Routemaster buses, cycle hire scheme, and Thames cable car. In 2012, he was reelected to the office, again defeating Livingstone; during his second term he oversaw the 2012 Summer Olympics. In 2015 he was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, stepping down as Mayor of London the following year. In 2016, Johnson became a prominent figure in the successful Vote Leave campaign to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union. He became Foreign Secretary under Theresa May's premiership, but resigned in criticism of May's approach to Brexit and the Chequers Agreement.

Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Supporters have praised him as an entertaining, humorous, and popular figure with appeal beyond traditional Conservative voters. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, who accused him of elitism, cronyism, dishonesty, laziness, and using racist language. Johnson is the subject of several biographies and a number of fictionalised portrayals.

Brooklyn

Brooklyn () is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens, at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn also has several bridge connections to the boroughs of Manhattan (across the East River) and Staten Island (across the Verrazzano Narrows Bridge). Since 1896, the borough has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U.S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after the county of New York (which is coextensive with the borough of Manhattan).With a land area of 71 square miles (180 km2) and water area of 26 square miles (67 km2), Kings County is New York's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U.S. after Los Angeles and Chicago.

Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city (and previously an authorized village and town within the provisions of the New York State Constitution) until January 1, 1898, when, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities, boroughs, and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs. The borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength".

In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, and a decrease in housing affordability. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design.

Burgomaster

Burgomaster (alternatively spelled burgermeister, literally master of the town, master of the borough, master of the fortress, or master of the citizens) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or executive of a city or town. The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign (or partially or de facto sovereign) city-state, sometimes combined with other titles, such as Hamburg's First Mayor and President of the Senate). Contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as mayor.

Cory Booker

Cory Anthony Booker (born April 27, 1969) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from New Jersey since 2013 and a member of the Democratic Party. The first African-American U.S. Senator from New Jersey, he was previously the 36th Mayor of Newark from 2006 to 2013. Before that Booker served on the Newark City Council for the Central Ward from 1998 to 2002.

Booker was born in Washington, D.C. and raised in Harrington Park, New Jersey. He attended Stanford University where he received an undergraduate and master's degree in 1991 and 1992, respectively. He studied abroad at the University of Oxford on a Rhodes Scholarship before attending Yale Law School. He won an upset victory for a seat on the Municipal Council of Newark in 1998 where he staged a 10-day hunger strike and briefly lived in a tent to draw attention to urban development issues in the city. He ran for mayor in 2002, but lost to incumbent Sharpe James; he ran again in 2006 and won against deputy mayor Ronald Rice. His first term saw to the doubling of affordable housing under development and the reduction of the city budget deficit from $180 million to $73 million. He was re-elected in 2010. He ran against Steve Lonegan in the 2013 U.S. Senate special election and subsequently won reelection in 2014 against Jeff Bell.

During his five years in office, Booker co-sponsored and voted for the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (2013), tougher sanctions against Iran, sponsored the Bipartisan Budget Act (2013), voted for the National Defense Authorization Act (2014) and co-sponsored the Respect for Marriage Act (2014). In 2017, he became the first sitting senator to testify against another when he testified against Attorney General nominee Jeff Sessions during his confirmation hearing. In April 2018, following the FBI raid on the offices of Michael Cohen–U.S. President Donald Trump's personal attorney–Booker together with Chris Coons, Lindsey Graham, and Thom Tillis, introduced the Special Counsel Independence and Integrity Act to limit the executive powers of Trump.

As mayor, he was described as a New Democrat and as a political moderate, known for defending Bain Capital during the 2012 presidential election and for supporting school vouchers. As senator, his voting record was measured as the third most liberal. Considered a social liberal, Booker supports women's rights, affirmative action, same-sex marriage and single-payer healthcare. When asked about his desire to run for executive roles in American government he has stated, "life is about purpose, not position," neither confirming nor denying potential runs for President.

Deputy mayor

Deputy mayor is an elective or appointive office of the second-ranking official in many local governments.

Dianne Feinstein

Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (; born Dianne Emiel Goldman, June 22, 1933) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from California. She took office on November 4, 1992. A member of the Democratic Party, Feinstein was Mayor of San Francisco from 1978 to 1988.Born in San Francisco, Feinstein graduated from Stanford University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. In the 1960s, she worked in city government, and she was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1969. She served as the board's first female president in 1978, during which time the assassinations of Mayor George Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk drew national attention. Feinstein succeeded Moscone as Mayor of San Francisco and became the first woman to assume the position. During her tenure, she led the renovation of the city's cable car system, and oversaw the 1984 Democratic National Convention.

After losing a race for governor in 1990, Feinstein won a 1992 special election to the U.S. Senate. Feinstein was first elected on the same ballot as her peer Barbara Boxer, and the two women became California's first female U.S. Senators. Feinstein has been re-elected five times since then, and in the 2012 election, she received 7.75 million votes--the most popular votes in any U.S. Senate election in history.Feinstein was the author of the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban which expired in 2004. In 2013, she introduced a new assault weapons bill which failed to pass. Feinstein is the first and only woman to have chaired the Senate Rules Committee (2007–2009) and the Select Committee on Intelligence (2009–2015). To date, she is also the only woman to have presided over a U.S. presidential inauguration. At the age of 85, Feinstein is the oldest sitting U.S. Senator. Upon the retirement of Barbara Mikulski in January 2017, Feinstein became the longest-tenured female U.S. Senator currently serving in the Senate. Having won reelection in 2018 to a six-year term expiring in January 2025, Feinstein will become the longest serving woman Senator in history should she serve her full term.

Ed Koch

Edward Irving Koch ( KOTCH; December 12, 1924 – February 1, 2013) was an American lawyer, politician, political commentator, movie critic and television personality. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977 and was mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989.

Koch was a lifelong Democrat who described himself as a "liberal with sanity". The author of an ambitious public housing renewal program in his later years as mayor, he began by cutting spending and taxes and cutting 7,000 employees from the city payroll. As a congressman and after his terms as mayor, Koch was a fervent supporter of Israel. He crossed party lines to endorse Rudy Giuliani for mayor of New York City in 1993, Michael Bloomberg for mayor of New York City in 2001, and George W. Bush for president in 2004.A popular figure, Koch rode the New York City Subway and stood at street corners greeting passersby with the slogan "How'm I doin'?" A lifelong bachelor with no children, Koch rebuffed speculation about his sexuality and refused to publicly discuss his romantic relationships. After his retirement from politics, he declared that he was heterosexual.

Koch was first elected mayor of New York City in 1977, and he won reelection in 1981 with 75% of the vote. He was the first New York City mayor to win endorsement on both the Democratic and Republican party tickets. In 1985, Koch was elected to a third term with 78% of the vote. His third term was fraught with scandal regarding political associates (although the scandal never touched him personally) and with racial tensions, including the murder of Yusuf Hawkins a month before the 1989 mayoral primary. In a close race, Koch lost the 1989 Democratic primary to his successor, David Dinkins.

Gavin Newsom

Gavin Christopher Newsom (born October 10, 1967) is an American politician and businessman who is the 40th and current governor of California. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 49th lieutenant governor of California from 2011 to 2019 and as the 42nd mayor of San Francisco from 2004 to 2011. He was sworn in as Governor of California on January 7, 2019. He is a national progressive figure who was a prominent early advocate for same-sex marriage, immigrant rights, universal health care, gun control, and the legalization of cannabis.Newsom attended Redwood High School, and graduated from Santa Clara University. After graduation, he founded the PlumpJack wine store with family friend Gordon Getty as an investor. The PlumpJack Group grew to manage 23 businesses, including wineries, restaurants, and hotels. Newsom began his political career in 1996, when San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown appointed him to serve on the city's Parking and Traffic Commission, and as a member of the Board of Supervisors the following year.

In 2003, Newsom was elected the 42nd mayor of San Francisco, the city's youngest in a century. Newsom was re-elected in 2007 with 72 percent of the vote. He was elected Lieutenant Governor of California in 2010, alongside Jerry Brown, and was re-elected in 2014. In February 2015, Newsom announced his candidacy for Governor of California in the 2018 election. On June 5, 2018, he finished in the top two of the non-partisan blanket primary, and defeated Republican John H. Cox in the general election on November 6.Newsom was formerly married to former Fox News on-air personality Kimberly Guilfoyle, and has four young children with his second wife, film-maker Jennifer Siebel Newsom. He hosted The Gavin Newsom Show on Current TV, and wrote the 2013 book Citizenville.

Greater London

Greater London is a ceremonial county of England that is located within the London region. This region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts—the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, which is located within the region but is separate from the county. The Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The City of London Corporation is responsible for the local government of only the City of London.

Administratively, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963. The area was re-established as a region in 1994. The Greater London Authority was formed in 2000.The region covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. The Greater London Built-up Area is used in some national statistics and is a measure of the continuous urban area and includes areas outside the administrative region.

Julian Castro

Julian Castro ( HOO-lee-AHN, Spanish: [xuˈljan]; born September 16, 1974) is an American Democratic politician who served as the 16th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under President Barack Obama from 2014 to 2017, the youngest member of the Obama Cabinet.

Castro served as the mayor of his native San Antonio, Texas from 2009 until he joined Obama's cabinet in 2014. He was mentioned as a possible running mate for Hillary Clinton during the 2016 presidential campaign. Castro is the twin brother of Congressman Joaquín Castro.

On January 12, 2019, Castro launched his campaign for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in 2020 in San Antonio.

Lord Mayor of London

The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers, rights and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London.

This office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, which is a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area.

In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced, partly to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and commonly used title remains Lord Mayor of London.

The Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, and takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony.

The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office; the Lord Mayor, preceded by a procession, travels to the Royal Courts of Justice at the Strand to swear allegiance to the sovereign before the Justices of the High Court.

One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent, support and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London. Today, these businesses are mostly in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and also has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical.

The Lord Mayor of London typically delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, and attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, also ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and also Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House 'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier.

Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period.

Mayor of London

The Mayor of London is the executive of the Greater London Authority. The current Mayor is Sadiq Khan, who took up office on 9 May 2016. The position was held by Ken Livingstone from the creation of the role on 4 May 2000, until he was defeated in May 2008 by Boris Johnson, who served two terms before being succeeded by Khan.

The role, created in 2000 after the London devolution referendum in 1998, was the first directly elected mayor in the United Kingdom.

The Mayor is scrutinised by the London Assembly and, supported by their Mayoral cabinet, directs the entirety of Greater London, including the City of London (for which there is also the ceremonial Lord Mayor of the City of London). Each London Borough also has a ceremonial Mayor or, in Hackney, Lewisham, Newham and Tower Hamlets, an elected Mayor.

Mayor of New York City

The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property, police and fire protection, most public agencies, and enforces all city, state and federal laws within New York City.

The budget, overseen by New York City Mayor's Office of Management and Budget, is the largest municipal budget in the United States at $82 billion a year. The city employs 325,000 people, spends about $21 billion to educate more than 1.1 million students (the largest public school system in the United States) and levies $27 billion in taxes. It receives $14 billion from the state and federal governments.

The mayor's office is located in New York City Hall; it has jurisdiction over all five boroughs of New York City: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Staten Island and Queens. The mayor appoints a large number of officials, including commissioners who head city departments, and his deputy mayors. The mayor's regulations are compiled in title 43 of the New York City Rules. According to current law, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break. It was changed from two to three terms on October 23, 2008, when the New York City Council voted 29–22 in favor of passing the term limit extension into law. However, in 2010, a referendum reverting the limit back to two terms passed overwhelmingly.The current mayor is Democrat Bill de Blasio, who was elected on November 5, 2013 and reelected to a second term on November 7, 2017.

Mayor–council government

The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government. It is one of the two most common forms of local government in the United States and is also used in Canada. It is the one most frequently adopted in large cities, although the other form, council–manager government, is the local government form of more municipalities.

Characterized by having a mayor who is elected by the voters, the mayor–council variant may be broken down into two main variations depending on the relationship between the legislative and executive branches, becoming a weak-mayor or a strong-mayor variation based upon the powers of the office. These forms are used principally in modern representative municipal governments in the United States, but also are used in some other countries.

Michael Bloomberg

Michael Rubens Bloomberg KBE (born February 14, 1942) is an American businessman, politician, author, and philanthropist. As of June 2018, his net worth was estimated at $51.8 billion, making him the 8th-richest person in the United States and the 11th richest person in the world. He has joined The Giving Pledge, whereby billionaires pledge to give away at least half of their wealth. To date, Bloomberg has given away $8.2 billion, including his November 2018 $1.8 billion gift to Johns Hopkins University — the largest private donation ever made to a higher education institution.Bloomberg is the founder, CEO, and owner of Bloomberg L.P., a global financial services, mass media, and software company that bears his name, and is notable for its Bloomberg Terminal, a computer software system providing financial data widely used in the global financial services industry. He began his career at the securities brokerage Salomon Brothers, before forming his own company in 1981 and spending the next twenty years as its chairman and CEO. Bloomberg also served as chair of the board of trustees at his alma mater, Johns Hopkins University, from 1996 to 2002.

Bloomberg served as the 108th Mayor of New York City, holding office for three consecutive terms, beginning his first in 2001. A Democrat before seeking elective office, Bloomberg switched his party registration in 2001 to run for mayor as a Republican. He defeated opponent Mark Green in a close election held just weeks after the September 11 terrorist attacks. He won a second term in 2005, and left the Republican Party two years later. Bloomberg campaigned to change the city's term limits law, and was elected to his third term in 2009 as an Independent on the Republican ballot line.

Bloomberg was frequently mentioned as a possible centrist candidate for the U.S. Presidential elections in 2008, and 2012, as well as for Governor of New York in 2010. He declined to seek either office, opting to continue serving as the mayor of New York City. His final term as mayor ended on January 1, 2014.

After a brief stint as a full-time philanthropist, Bloomberg re-assumed the position of CEO at Bloomberg L.P. by the end of 2014. On March 7, 2016, Bloomberg announced that he would not run as a third party candidate in the 2016 U.S. presidential election despite widespread speculation that he would, and later endorsed Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton for president. Bloomberg has been reported to be weighing a potential presidential run in 2020, following his rejoining the Democratic Party.

National University of San Marcos

The National University of San Marcos (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM) is a public research university in Lima, capital of Peru. Also known as the "Dean university of the Americas", it is the first officially established (privilege by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and the longest continuously operating university in the Americas.It is widely regarded as an influential institution of higher-education in the country. It consistently ranks among the top two universities in the country. Its main campus, the University City, is located in Lima. It was chartered on May 12, 1551, by a royal decree signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, which makes it the oldest officially established university in the Americas.

San Marcos has 60 academic-professional schools, organized into 20 faculties, and 6 academic areas. All of the faculties offer undergraduate and graduate degrees. The student body consists of over 30,000 undergraduate and 4,000 graduate students from all the country, as well as some international students. The university has a number of public institutions under its government such as the San Marcos Cultural Center and the Museum of Natural History of Lima.

It is also the only university in Peru with a Nobel Prize laureate among its alumni: Mario Vargas Llosa (Literature). San Marcos is also recognized for the quality of its curricular contents, a competitive admissions process, as well as for being a center of scientific research. Several Peruvian and Latin American influential thinkers, researchers, scientists, politicians and writers have studied there, which underscores San Marcos' leading role as an educational institution in the history of Peru and the world.

Rudy Giuliani

Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (, Italian: [dʒuˈljaːni]; born May 28, 1944) is an American politician, attorney, businessman and public speaker who served as the 107th Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. He currently acts as an attorney to President Donald Trump. Politically a Democrat, then an Independent in the 1970s and a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani served as United States Associate Attorney General from 1981 to 1983. That year he became the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, holding the position until 1989. He prosecuted cases against the American Mafia and against corrupt corporate financiers.

When Giuliani took office as Mayor of New York City, he appointed a new police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations create a permissive atmosphere that leads to further and more serious crimes that can threaten the safety of a city. Within several years, Giuliani was widely credited for making major improvements in the city's quality of life and lowering the rate of violent crimes. While Giuliani was still Mayor, he ran for the United States Senate in 2000; however, he withdrew from the race upon learning of his prostate cancer diagnosis. Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001, and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by Queen Elizabeth II for his leadership in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001.

In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners (consulting), acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors (investment banking), and joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani (legal services). Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was considered the early front runner in the race, before withdrawing from the race to endorse the eventual nominee, John McCain. Giuliani was considered a potential candidate for New York Governor in 2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012. Giuliani declined all races, and instead remained in the business sector. In April 2018, Giuliani became one of President Trump's personal lawyers. Since then, he has appeared in the media in defense of Trump.

San Bernardino, California

San Bernardino () is a city located in the Riverside–San Bernardino metropolitan area (sometimes called the "Inland Empire") and that serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. As one of the Inland Empire's anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles (210 km2) on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley and as of 2017 has a population of 216,995. San Bernardino is the 17th-largest city in California and the 102nd-largest city in the United States. San Bernardino is home to numerous diplomatic missions for the Inland Empire, being one of four cities in California with numerous consulates (the other three being Los Angeles, San Diego, and the greater metropolitan San Francisco Bay Area including San Jose and San Francisco). The governments of Guatemala and Mexico have also established their consulates in the downtown area of the city.California State University, San Bernardino is located in the northwestern part of the city. The university also hosts the Coussoulis Arena. Other attractions in San Bernardino include ASU Fox Theatre, the McDonald's Museum, which is located on the original site of the world's first McDonald's, California Theatre, the San Bernardino Mountains, and San Manuel Amphitheater, the largest outdoor amphitheater in the United States. In addition, the city is home to the Inland Empire 66ers baseball team; they play their home games at San Manuel Stadium in downtown San Bernardino.In August 2012, San Bernardino became the largest city to file for protection under Chapter 9 of the U.S. Bankruptcy code; this has been superseded by Detroit's filing in July 2013. San Bernardino's case was filed on August 1. On December 2, 2015, a terrorist attack left 14 people dead and 22 seriously injured.

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