Maybelle Carter

"Mother" Maybelle Carter (born Maybelle Addington; May 10, 1909 – October 23, 1978) was an American country musician.[1] She is best known as a member of the historic Carter Family act in the 1920s and 1930s and also as a member of Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters.[2]

Maybelle Carter
Birth nameMaybelle Addington
BornMay 10, 1909
Nickelsville, Virginia
DiedOctober 23, 1978 (aged 69)
Hendersonville, Tennessee
GenresCountry Folk, Gospel, Americana
InstrumentsGuitar "1928 Gibson L-5", Gibson L-1 banjo, autoharp
Years active1927–1978

Biography

Maybelle Carter was born Maybelle Addington on May 10, 1909, in Nickelsville, Virginia. She was the daughter of Margaret Elizabeth (née Kilgore; 1879 – 1960) and Hugh Jackson Addington (1877 – 1929). According to family lore, the Addington family of Virginia is descended from former British prime minister Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth.[3]

On March 13, 1926, Maybelle married Ezra Carter. They had three daughters, Helen, June and Anita.[2]

She was a member of the original Carter Family, which was formed in 1927 by her brother-in-law, A. P. Carter, who was married to her cousin, Sara, also a part of the trio. The Carter Family was one of the first commercial rural country music groups. Maybelle, who played autoharp and banjo as well as being the group's guitarist, created a unique sound for the group with her innovative 'scratch' style of guitar playing, where she used her thumb to play melody on the bass and middle strings, and her index finger to fill out the rhythm.[2] Perhaps the most remarkable of Maybelle's many talents was her skill as a guitarist. She revolutionized the instrument's role by developing a style in which she played melody lines on the bass strings with her thumb while rhythmically strumming with her fingers. Her innovative technique, to this day known as the Carter Scratch, influenced the guitar's shift from rhythm to lead instrument.[4].

She was widely respected and loved by the Grand Ole Opry community of the early 1950s, and was popularly known as "Mother Maybelle" and a matriarchal figure in country music circles although only in her forties at the time. Maybelle and her daughters toured from the 1940s through the 1960s as "Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters" but after the death of A. P. Carter in 1960 the group revived the name "The Carter Family", frequently touring with Johnny Cash (her son-in-law from 1968 on); the group were regular performers on Cash's weekly network variety show from 1969–71. Maybelle briefly reunited with former Carter Family member, Sara Carter, during the 1960s folk music craze, with Sara singing lead and Maybelle providing harmony as before.

Maybelle Carter made occasional solo recordings during the 1960s and 1970s, usually full-length albums. Her final such work, a two-record set released on Columbia Records, placed on Billboard's best-selling country albums chart in 1973 when she was 64. Maybelle was also featured on The Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's 1972 recording Will the Circle Be Unbroken.

Maybelle Carter died in 1978 after a few years of poor health, and was interred next to her husband, Ezra, in Hendersonville Memory Gardens, Hendersonville, Tennessee. All three of their daughters, "The Carter Sisters" – Helen, June, and Anita – are buried nearby in the same cemetery.[5]

Musicianship

Maybelle Carter played a variety of stringed instruments but her primary instruments in terms of public performance were guitar, autoharp, guitaro and banjo.

According to statements made by Carter during a transcribed public performance, she began studying guitar at age 13 when she acquired an instrument[6]. She is often cited as a pioneering musician, being both an early female guitarist with national exposure and with regard to use of the guitar as a lead instrument in country music[7][8]. Writers have identified at least three or four styles played by Maybelle Carter. She tuned her guitar down, sometimes as many as five frets, but utilized a capo to increase the instrument's range[9][10]. Her most famous and widely record style is sometimes called "the Carter Scratch" or "thumb lead style." This technique involved playing a melody on the instrument's three bass strings while simultaneously strumming the three treble strings for rhythm. She utilized thumb and finger picks while playing. Another style, later popularized by other musicians, was essentially the reverse of the thumb lead style. In this style Carter finger-picked a melody on the three treble strings while brushing a rhythm on the bass strings with her thumb. It is often said that she first saw this style being played by African American musician Lesley Riddle. A third style of Carter's guitar playing involved rapid flatpicking in a country-blues rhythm. Her most obscure style was utilized on a few recordings by the Original Carter Family in the 1920s and early 1930s. It may be described as a Hawaiian-influenced slide technique that sometimes sounded like a modern dobro. Finally, if other musicians were playing a lead instrument, Maybelle would often strum chords on the guitar to accompany them[11][12][13]. A little known bit of historical trivia may be found in the fact that Maybelle Carter filled in for Jimmie Rodgers during a recording session, perfectly mimicking his guitar playing style, in 1932. Rodgers was ill with tuberculosis at that time and had waning stamina during the session[14].

It is beyond the scope of this article to offer a detailed analysis of Maybelle Carter's guitar playing. Only a few of her numerous recordings with the instrument will be listed in an effort to help educate readers about her style. She recorded her signature guitar piece, "Wildwood Flower" on numerous occasions beginning with the original 1928 version. "The Cannon Ball" recorded with the Original Carter Family in 1930, is a good illustration of Carter's fingerpicking style with thumb/bass fill. Her final recording in the slide guitar style was "My Old Cottage Home" in 1931. "Coal Miner's Blues," recorded for Decca, is an excellent flat-picking illustration.[15][16]. Interesting use of the guitar by Maybelle on recordings she made with the Carter Sisters include "Fourteen Karat Nothing," "I'm Working on a Building," "Take Good Care of Him," a rapid tempo re-recording of "Waves on the Sea" as well as a contemporary-sounding revision of "I'll be All Smiles Tonight." Carter also utilized the guitar on many of her solo recordings. "Cumberland Gap," "Victory Rag" "Red Wing" and "Sweet Allie Lee" are good instrumental examples from her various solo albums[17][18].

Autoharp

In the earliest days of recorded country music the autoharp was quite obscure. The Original Carter Family often used the instrument for rhythm but it was played by Maybelle Carter's cousin and band mate, Sara Carter, in her own intricate style[19]. To the degree that the autoharp is currently played in country and roots music, Maybelle Carter is widely credited with its popularity[20]. The autoharp was actually Maybelle's first instrument. She began tinkering with it as early as the age of four but did not turn a serious focus toward the instrument until around 1940[21]. Traditionally the autoharp was strummed as a rhythm instrument[22]. Maybelle developed (alone or perhaps independently of other musicians who did the same) a "pinch and pluck" technique that forms the basis of most modern autoharp playing styles[23]. This technique allows for playing melodic lead notes on the instrument. Carter's style later evolved to add fill-in rhythm, similar to her guitar technique. While playing the autoharp, Maybelle would often press cord bars between notes. The effect was a sort of note slurring, a sound similar to that produced by a guitar hammer-on. It has been said that famed pianist Floyd Cramer was especially interested in these embellishments to Maybelle's playing and that they helped to shape his piano technique[24][25]. As she began to feature her autoharp playing more and more in concerts and radio work, Carter became frustrated with trying to steady the instrument close enough to a microphone that was often shared by others. She utilized tables and music stands at first but later got the idea of holding the instrument, upside down, across her chest and playing along what was essentially the head of the harp (nearest the tuning pegs). Prior to that time musicians played below the cord bars at the opposite end. She discovered that this technique allowed more space for her complicated playing style and that it produced a sweeter tone. During at least one public performance Maybelle reluctantly and modestly admitted that autoharps began to be manufactured differently to accommodate the playing style she popularized[26][27][28]. Maybelle Carter taught at least one workshop on autoharp playing in conjunction with her various appearances at New Port Folk Festivals[29]. A moderator at the workshop noted that Maybelle should be credited with the first finger-picked autoharp solo to be captured on commercial recording, referencing "Fair and Tender Ladies" recorded by the Carter Sisters and Mother Maybelle on Columbia Records about 1950[30]. She often played the auotoharp in that group. Other examples include a simplistic but moving solo she added to "Mountain Lady" on the family's final album before her death. In addition to recordings with the Carter Sisters which featured her autoharp playing, Maybelle Carter often featured the instrument in her solo work. On her earliest solo album, in fact, she offered an old fiddle tune, "Liberty" which she claimed to have "worked up" specifically for the session [31][32]. Later, Smash records issued a beautifully produced album of autoharp solos by Maybelle Carter, which included a few backing musicians and subtle background vocals by the Stephen Scott Singers. "Green Valley Waltz" and "Barbara Allen" were included along with 10 other titles. The bulk of her final solo album (from 1973) was composed of autoharp solos in which she was accompanied by a full band of studio musicians.[33][34].

Mother Maybelle frequently found studio work with other artists anxious to capture the fresh sound she had created. She recorded at least two songs with Johnnie & Jack and at least two with the Wilburn Brothers. The later collaboration registered a top ten hit (on which Maybelle Carter was not credited) "Go Away with Me". She played autoharp on Carl Smith's "Sunday Down South" gospel album. A similar pairing with Flatt & Scruggs led to the "Songs of the Famous Carter Family" album on which Maybelle contributed mostly through her autoharp playing. In the 1960s Maybelle helped record an instructional record that was sold with an autoharp through a mail-order chain store. She contributed demonstration of the instrument and a small amount of dialogue[35][36].

Singing

Mother Maybelle Carter added her voice to many records she made with the Original Carter Family, with her later group known as the Carter Sisters and Mother Maybelle (and later known as the Carter Family) and with other versions of the family group. She made many solo recordings featuring both her singing and playing. Finally she collaborated with a few other artists as a singer and musician.

Original Carter Family

The moniker "Original Carter Family" actually predates the breakup of the original group by several years in that it was used during the period of their radio programs on Mexican border stations. Apparently, other groups were using the name "Carter Family" so adding "Original" helped distinguish the trio. Later the name "Original Carter Family" has helped to differentiate between the original trio and later versions of the group, particularly Maybelle and her daughters.[37]. Maybelle Carter worked with the Original Carter Family from about 1926 until about 1943 (when the group officially disbanded) on personal appearances, radio shows and commercial recordings[38]. The group reunited for a performance in May, 1953 at the first Jimmie Rodgers Memorial Festival. They sang two songs with A. P. Carter serving as emcee for their portion of the program. The performance was captured on a home movie camera but the film deteriorated in storage. An audio recording of the performance does survive[39]. Maybelle sang harmony on two or three of the first six songs recorded by the family in 1927. Her vocal contributions to the group were subdued in the beginning but she gradually took on a more prominent role. It became routine for her to harmonize with the whole trio. She and Sara Carter frequently sang duets without A. P. In 1937 the two recorded a duet on "Hello Stranger" which featured both voices equally in an unusual call-and-response vocal arrangement. Maybelle sang opening phrases for all verses on the group's 1940 recording of "I'll Never Forsake You". During their final commercial session Maybelle's voice was slightly dominant to Sara's on selections such as "Why Do You Cry Little Darling," "You Tied a Love Knot in My Heart," and "You're Gonna be Sorry You let Me Down." On radio shows she would rarely sing lead for the group but sometimes played and sang solos. In the mid 1960s through the early 1970s, Maybelle and Sara would periodically reunite for personal appearances and television work. They recorded an album for Columbia during this time as well[40][41][42].

Carter Sisters and Mother Maybelle

Following A. P. Carter's death in 1960, the group previously known as the "Carter Sisters and Mother Maybelle" assumed "Carter Family" as their official band name[43]. Maybelle Carter performed with this group, mostly with her three daughters but in various other versions of the group as well, from the late 1930s and early 1940s almost until her death in 1978. They toured, did many radio programs and TV appearances, and made a number of commercial recordings together[44]. As the Carter Sisters & Mother Maybelle the group made their first commercial recordings for RCA Victor in 1949. The sales were better than average but produced no major hits at the time. Some of the songs have long endured as favorites among fans and have demonstrated significant influence over time. Those recordings were among the very first to be issued on the new 45-rpm single format. Maybelle sang lead on a number of the RCA recordings including "My Darling's Home at Last," "Why do You Weep Dear Willow," "Walk a Little Closer," "Don't Wait," and "I've Got a Home up in Glory." One of the more popular recordings of that era to feature Maybelle was "Someone's Last Day." On a radio transcription the emcee notes that "she gets more requests for it than any of them"[45]. By the early 1950s the group changed labels to Columbia. In that era Maybelle frequently sang a verse on a song with her daughters singing others. Likely the most popular recording from that era was a single featuring "Fair and Tender Ladies" one side and "Foggy Mountain Top" on the other[46].

In the early 1960s the group featuring Maybelle and her daughters (now simply called the "Carter Family") moved to the Liberty label where they had an album and at least one single released. Shortly thereafter they returned to Columbia where the group remained under contract throughout Maybelle's life. It was on Columbia that most all the group's significantly successful discs were released. Maybelle's role as a vocal soloist was diminished during this time but she did a lot of harmony singing on those recordings and would periodically sing whole songs or verses within songs. Examples include "Homestead on the Farm" on the group's "The Country Album," "Picture on the Wall" from the "Three Generations" collection and a particularly enduring rendition of "Will the Circle be Unbroken" on their "Keep on the Sunny Side" Album[47].

Solo career

The first commercial recording to feature Maybelle as a headliner was the album "Mother Maybelle Carter" on the Briar label. It was recorded in 1959 but was not released until a couple of years later[48]. Maybelle recruited the help of her daughters Helen and Anita as backing vocalists. Group members often utilized other family members on their various solo recordings. Some singles were released from the album. Further, a slightly edited version of the album was later released under the title "Queen of the Autoharp" on the Kapp label. That transaction offered more robust distribution. Maybelle sang several interesting selections including "Sweeter than the Flowers" and "My Native Home." Someone had the idea of adding the Carter Scratch to a reverberating electric guitar on some of the tracks. The strange effect was a sort of "Carter Family beach music" sound. Maybelle filled out the album with other vocal performances and some interesting instrumentals[49][50][51].

In the early to mid 1960s Maybelle Carter's solo work was recorded by Mercury Records and released on its subsidiary labels Smash and Cumberland. There were three albums and at least one non-album single. Representative solo vocals from those recordings include "Faded Coat of Blue," "Flowers Blooming in the Wildwood," and "Nobody's Darling on Earth." A single "Strumming My Guitaro" also featured Maybelle's work on a new autoharp-like instrument called the guitaro. Finally, "Foggy Mountain Top," an album cut, stands out as being apparently the only commercial recording Maybelle sang with her own banjo accompaniment[52][53].

By the late 1960s Maybelle Carter and the entire family had re-signed with Columbia records. The label released another solo album on Maybelle, "Living Legend," shortly thereafter. Vocal examples from that album include "Give Me Your Love and I'll Give You Mine," "We All Miss You Joe," and "Letter from Home." One single from the album "I Told them What You were Fighting For" was a small chart hit[54][55][56]. A double album of instrumentals, discussed above, was also released.

Collaborations with other artists

As part of the Carter Family, and as a soloist, Maybelle often sang and/or played as a guest on other artists' recordings. Many times she went uncredited on the label. Likely her most commercially successful venture in this realm was her collaboration on the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's album "Will the Circle be Unbroken" from the early 1970s. Maybelle contributed dialogue during the sessions. She also sang lead and played on "Thinking Tonight of my Blue Eyes" and "Wildwood Flower." On the album's title track she played throughout the song and sang the first solo verse. She received a Grammy nomination and her only gold record for the performances. The album was a commercial success, peaking at number 4 on the country charts, as well as making a respectable showing on the pop charts. It was eventually certified at platinum sales. Maybelle and Johnny Cash released a top 40 single in 1973. "Pick the Wildwood Flower" featured her guitar playing and brief dialogue. The single's B side, "Diamonds in the Rough" was a vocal duet accompanied by Maybelle's guitar playing[57][58].

"Songsmithing"

Maybelle Carter is credited with writing, co-writing, arranging and collecting numerous songs throughout her lengthy career. To help readers understand the processes by which she amassed her song catalog it may be helpful to review how her brother-in-law and Original Carter Family bandleader (A. P. Carter) amassed his. Many scholars, family members and music industry insiders have documented the fact that A. P. Carter dealt with songwriting and collecting at every possible graduation along a continuum. At one end of the continuum he would often file for copyrights on songs he collected which were clearly written by others. At the opposite end of the spectrum, A. P. Carter would compose and copyright songs that were entirely, wholly original. If pressed for details about a particular song, A. P. would openly and freely tell everything he knew about its origins.[59][60][61][62]. All indications are that Maybelle Carter followed A. P. Carter's pattern in her "songsmithing." Also of note is the fact that she often took on the role of arranging songs for recording prior to a session[63][64][65].

In interviews Maybelle noted that, as far as the catalog of the Original Carter Family was concerned, most of the songs were written or collected by A. P. Carter. She did add that she and Sara Carter collaborated with him on several titles but were usually not credited on record labels or copyright filings[66]. An illustration may be found in the Carter Family classic "You Are My Flower" which is widely credited to A. P. Carter. During an interview, at which Sara Carter was present, Maybelle explained that she and Sara found a set of printed words or poetry called "The Grass is Just as Green" from which lyrics to "You Are My Flower" were derived. She said that the two of them "picked out and put together" the song's verses using the sheet of printed words. Next, Maybelle explained, she wrote an original tune to accompany the lyrics[67]. It is interesting to note a trend that some Carter Family songs have been credited to all three group members in recent years[68].

An interviewer, who had obviously seen a writer's credit for Maybelle on "Wildwood Flower," asked her about the song: "Didn't you write "Wildwood Flower?" "No, I didn't. My grandmother sang "Wildwood Flower." Maybelle hesitated, then added "Now, some of the words we probably did."[69] Other interviewers, asking about different songs got answers like "I wrote them [the lyrics and music]. That IS mine....I just took that from scratch...the words and everything"[70]. Maybelle's own evaluation of her songwriting skills was that writing lyrics was not her strength but writing music was[71]. In the early years of Carter Sisters and Mother Maybelle group, Carter followed a common practice of the day[72] in which she would purchase lyrics from writers (such as Arthur Q. Smith or Ruby Moody), write accompanying music and then copyright the resulting song in her name[73].

Examples of songs from Maybelle Carter's "songsmithing" catalogue include "Fair and Tender Ladies," "Kneeling Drunkard's Plea," "I've Got a Home up in Glory," "Just You and I," "Troublesome Waters," and "Letter from Home" among dozens of others. From recent years it is of note that one of Maybelle Carter's titles "In the Highways" found its way onto the multi-million selling soundtrack from the movie "O Brother Where Art Thou" while another "Jukebox Blues" (cowritten with her daughter Helen Carter) was used in the "Walk the Line" movie soundtrack[74]

Awards and recognition

At a public appearance in 1954, A. P. Carter noted that the Original Carter Family had sold approximately 50,000,000 records[75]. Despite that success, Maybelle Carter received very little in the way of tangible accolades during her lifetime[76]. Instead she endured having her name misspelled on her own album covers. Examples included such errors as Maybell, Mary-Bell and Mabel[77]. Her first major award from an organized music body came in 1966. She was lured to the speaker's podium under the cover story that she was to present an award to another artist. Maybelle wept profusely as she explained that the Music City News Award she was receiving marked her first award after 39 years in the music business. The trophy read "Mother of Country Music"[78].

Maybelle Carter was elected with the Original Carter Family to the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1970. She and band-mate Sara Carter became the first female performers to be inducted (simultaneously) into the institution[79][80].

The Carter Family (Maybelle, Helen, June, and Anita) received the "Favorite Country Group" trophy from the American Music Awards in 1973. The following year Maybelle was individually honored with the first Tex Ritter Award by the International Fan Club Organization at Fan Fair in Nashville TN[81][82].

The Smithsonian Institution recorded Maybelle, her daughter Helen and grandson David Carter Jones in 1975[83][84]

Legacy

Gibson L-5 (1928), Maybelle Carter, CMHF
Carter's Gibson guitar, accompanied by a photograph of Carter at the Country Music Hall of Fame

Maybelle Carter was inducted as part of The Original Carter Family in the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1970.[85]

Following Maybelle Carter's death the CBS network aired a television special called "The Unbroken Circle: A Tribute to Maybelle Carter" in 1979. The following year she and her daughters were given the "Gospel Act of the Year" by the Music City News Cover Awards Show. Maybelle received the "Acoustic Pioneer Award" from Frets Magazine in 1986[86].

By 1992 Carter was inducted into the Autoharp Hall of Fame[87][88]

In 1993, her image appeared on a U.S. postage stamp honoring the Carter Family. She would rank No. 8 in CMT's 40 Greatest Women of Country Music in 2002. In 2005, she was portrayed by Sandra Ellis Lafferty in the Johnny Cash biographical film Walk the Line. Actress Frances Conroy portrayed her in the 2013 TV Movie "Ring of Fire"[89]. Carter has also been depicted in musicals such as "Keep on the Sunny Side and "Wildwood Flowers: The June Carter Story" by actresses and singers such as Joy Lynn White, Gina Stewart and Teresa Williams[90]

She was the subject of her granddaughter Carlene Carter's 1990 song "Me and the Wildwood Rose". Her death was the subject of Johnny Cash's song "Tears in the Holston River". Numerous other tribute songs have been written and recorded about Maybelle Carter[91].

The Original Carter Family (with Maybelle) were inducted into the International Bluegrass Association's Hall of Honor in 2001[92] and were -given a Lifetime Achievement Grammy Award in 2005[93].

In 2007 Carter was honored as one of the Library of Virginia's "Virginia Women in History" because of her musical career.[94]

In 2010, Lipscomb University in Nashville named the stage in Collins Alumni Auditorium after her.

The A. P. and Sara Carter House, A. P. Carter Homeplace, A. P. Carter Store, Maybelle and Ezra Carter House, and Mt. Vernon Methodist Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places as components of the Carter Family Thematic Resource.[95][96]

Partial discography

Year Title Peak Position Label & Album
1960 Gold Watch & Chain (b/w Liberty Dance) _ Top Rank (Mother Maybelle Carter: Briar 101)
1961 Wildwood Flower (b/w Liberty Dance) _ Briar (Mother Maybelle Carter: Briar 101)
1963 Suns Gonna Shine in My Backdoor Someday (b/w Bells of St. Mary's) _ Briar (Mother Maybelle Carter: Briar 101)
1964 Strumming My Guitaro (b/w Sail Away Ladies) _ Smash; non-album single
1966 I Told Them What You're Fighting For (b/w San Antonio Rose) 97 Columbia (A Living Legend)
1974 Picture on the Wall (b/w Sweet Memories by Anita Carter) _ Columbia (The Carter Family: Three Generations)

Albums

Year Album US Country Label Notes
1961 Mother Maybelle Carter _ Briar Edited and issued by Kapp (1962) as Queen of the Autoharp
1962 Mother Maybelle Carter & her Autoharp Plays Famous Folk Songs _ Smash with Stephen Scott Singers
1963 Pickin' & Singin' _ Smash
1965 Mother Maybelle Carter Sings Carter Family Favorites _ Cumberland subsidiary label of Mercury Records
1966 A Living Legend _ Columbia
1966 An Historic Reunion _ Columbia with Sara Carter
1973 Mother Maybelle Carter 44 Columbia double record album (a third album of interviews was simultaneously issued to radio stations)
1960s ?? Mother Maybelle Carter and Dixie Darling _ Ambassador and Mountain Dew These two albums, varying only slightly in song selections, are both reissues of Mercury material previously released on Smash & Cumberland labels
1976 Mother Maybelle Carter _ Pickwick/Hilltop Reissue of Mercury/Smash/Cumberland material from previous albums
1997 Wildwood Pickin' _ Vanguard Contains material from live concert appearances and workshops at Newport Folk Festivals

Guest singles

Year Title, Label & Artist Peak Position Notes
1956 Go Away with Me (Decca) Wilburn Brothers 6 plays autoharp; uncredited
1957 Nothing at All (Decca) Wilburn Brothers _ plays autoharp; uncredited; later issued on compilation album
1973 Pick the Wildwood Flower (b/w Diamonds in the Rough) Johnny Cash with Maybelle Carter 34 plays guitar with dialogue on A side; plays guitar & vocal duet on B side

Guest albums

Year Album Title & Primary Artist Peak Position Label Notes
1957 Sunday Down South (Carl Smith) _ Columbia Credited as session musician; plays autoharp
1961 Songs of the Famous Carter Family (Flatt & Scruggs) _ Columbia Credited as "Featuring Mother Maybelle Carter"; plays autoharp on all songs; guitar on one song
1964 Old Time Music at Newport (Recorded Live at the Newport Folk Festival 1963) Various Artists _ Vanguard Sings & Plays "Storms are on the Ocean"
1972 Will the Circle be Unbroken (Nitty Gritty Dirt Band and others) 4 United Artists Credited as "Featuring Mother Maybelle Carter...." (other artists listed); Sings & Plays on three titles; Gold & Platinum certifications
1962 Carefree Moments (Wilburn Brothers) _ Vocalion Musician (autoharp) on one song

References

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  2. ^ a b c Zwonitzer, Mark; Hirshberg, Charles (2004). Will You Miss Me When I'm Gone?: The Carter Family & Their Legacy in American Music. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-4382-X.
  3. ^ Cash, John Carter. Anchored in Love: An Intimate Portrait of June Carter Cash (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2007), 10.
  4. ^ George-Warren, Holly (1997). "Hillbilly Fillies: The Trailblazers of C&W" quoted in Reddington, Helen (2007). The Lost Women of Rock Music, p.179. ISBN 0-7546-5773-6.
  5. ^ Carter, "Mother" Maybelle. "Mabelle Carter's Final resting place". Canyouhearmenow. Find A Grave. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  6. ^ Carter, M., et al., (1975) Transcription of Smithsonian Institute Concert
  7. ^ Kyle, D. (nd). The First Guitar of Country Music. Vintage Guitar Magazine
  8. ^ Bunch, W. (2009). Mother Maybelle Carter Lauded as a True Trailblazer. Timesnews.net
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  10. ^ Sokolow, F. (nd). The Carter Family Collection: 32 Songs from the Royal Family of Country Music. Hal-Leonard Corporation
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  12. ^ Seeger, M. & Carter, J. (2000). Guitary Styles of the Carter Family. (printed insert booklet) Homespunvideo
  13. ^ 2
  14. ^ Wheeler, B. E. (1976). Mother Maybelle Carter: Her Career Spans Half a Century. unknown publisher
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  23. ^ Carter Family Fan Club Journal.(1994)
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  28. ^ Carter Family Fan Club Journal. (1994)
  29. ^ Carter Family Fan Club News. (2011)
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  47. ^ Various CD, album and single liner notes, labels and credits
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  49. ^ Various CD, album and single liner notes, labels and credits
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  63. ^ Carter, M., et al., (1975) Transcription of Smithsonian Institute Concert
  64. ^ Wheeler, B. E. (1976). Mother Maybelle Carter: Her Career Spans Half a Century. unknown publisher
  65. ^ J. (1983). Living With Memories. Carter Family Memorial Music Center
  66. ^ Carter, M., et al., (1975) Transcription of Smithsonian Institute Concert
  67. ^ Seeger, M. & Kahn, E. (1963). Interview with Sara Carter, Maybelle Carter & Coy Bayes. in In the Shadow of Clinch Mountain. (2000). Bear Family Records [sound recording]
  68. ^ Various CD, album and single liner notes, labels and credits
  69. ^ Carter, M., et al. (1973). Mother Maybelle Carter Interview. Columbia Records
  70. ^ Seeger, M. & Kahn, E. (1963). Interview with Sara Carter, Maybelle Carter & Coy Bayes. in In the Shadow of Clinch Mountain. (2000). Bear Family Records [sound recording]
  71. ^ Carter, M., et al., (1975) Transcription of Smithsonian Institute Concert
  72. ^ 2
  73. ^ Interview with Sara Carter, Maybelle Carter & Coy Bayes. in In the Shadow of Clinch Mountain. (2000). Bear Family Records [sound recording]
  74. ^ Various CD, album and single liner notes, labels and credits
  75. ^ Transcription of A. P. Carter Concert appearance in 1954 issued as "A. P. Carter & the Phipps Family. (nd). Mountain Eagle Recording Company
  76. ^ 2
  77. ^ Various CD, album and single liner notes, labels and credits
  78. ^ Anonymous. (1966). DJ Convention Ends on Happy Note. Music City News, 4(5)
  79. ^ Anonymous. (1993). Historic Dates in the Career of the Carter Family. Published by Carter Family Fan Club
  80. ^ 2
  81. ^ Cash, J. C. (1979). Among My Klediments. Zondervan Publishing House
  82. ^ 2
  83. ^ Carter, M., et al., (1975) Transcription of Smithsonian Institute Concert
  84. ^ Anonymous. (1993). Historic Dates in the Career of the Carter Family. Published by Carter Family Fan Club
  85. ^ Wolfe, Charles. "Carter Family". Country Music Hall of Fame & Museum. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  86. ^ Anonymous. (1993). Historic Dates in the Career of the Carter Family. Published by Carter Family Fan Club
  87. ^ Anonymous. (1993). Historic Dates in the Career of the Carter Family. Published by Carter Family Fan Club
  88. ^ Carter Family Fan Club Journal. (1994)
  89. ^ Ring of Fire. (2013). IMDb.com
  90. ^ Carter Family Fan Club News. (2002; 2005; 2007)
  91. ^ Various CD, album and single liner notes, labels and credits
  92. ^ Carter Family Fan Club News. (2001)
  93. ^ Carter Family Fan Club. (2006)
  94. ^ "Virginia Women in History: Maybelle Addington Carter (1909-1978), Scott County, Musician". Library of Virginia. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  95. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  96. ^ Carter Family TR

External links

Sources

  • Wolfe, Charles. (1998). "Carter Family". In The Encyclopedia of Country Music. Paul Kingsbury, Editor. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 84–85.
  • Zwonitzer, Mark with Charles Hirshberg. (2002). Will You Miss Me When I'm Gone?: The Carter Family and Their Legacy in American Music. New York: Simon & Schuster.
A Living Legend

A Living Legend is the fifth album by Mother Maybelle Carter.

Carter Family

The Carter Family is a traditional American folk music group that recorded between 1927 and 1956. Their music had a profound impact on bluegrass, country, Southern Gospel, pop and rock musicians as well as on the U.S. folk revival of the 1960s. They were the first vocal group to become country music stars, and were the first group to record commercially produced country music in recorded history. Their first recordings were made in Bristol, Tennessee under producer Ralph Peer on August 1st, 1927, the day before country singer Jimmie Rodgers also made his initial recordings under Peer. Their recordings of songs such as "Wabash Cannonball", "Can the Circle Be Unbroken", "Wildwood Flower", "Keep On the Sunny Side" and "I'm Thinking Tonight of My Blue Eyes" made these songs country standards. The latter's tune was used for Roy Acuff's "The Great Speckled Bird", Hank Thompson's "The Wild Side of Life" and Kitty Wells' "It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels", making the song a hit all over again in other incarnations.The original group consisted of A.P. Carter, his wife Sara Carter, and his sister-in-law Maybelle Carter. Maybelle was married to A.P.'s brother Ezra Carter (Eck), and was also Sara's first cousin. All three were born and raised in Southwest Virginia, where they were immersed in the tight harmonies of mountain gospel music and shape note singing.

Throughout the group's career, Sara Carter sang lead vocals and played rhythm guitar or autoharp; Maybelle sang harmony and played lead guitar; on some songs A.P. did not perform at all but at times sang harmony and background vocals and, once in a while, lead vocal. Maybelle's distinctive guitar playing style became a hallmark of the group and her Carter Scratch (a method for playing both lead and rhythm on the guitar) has become one of the most copied styles of guitar playing. The group (in all its incarnations, see below) recorded for a number of companies including Victor, RCA, ARC group, Columbia, Okeh and various imprint labels.

Carter Family Fold

The Carter Family Fold is a musical performance and concert venue located near Hiltons, Virginia. It is dedicated to the preservation and performance of old time country and bluegrass music. It is named in honor of the original Carter Family, A.P., Sara, and Maybelle, who were among the earliest recording artists in country music, with their first records on RCA Victor being released in 1927. The Fold was founded by Janette Carter, daughter of A.P. and Sara Carter, in 1979.The Fold presents weekly concerts. To stay true to musical preservation, no electric instruments are allowed (although this rule was often set aside for performances by singer Johnny Cash, a Carter family in-law). Smoking and drinking are prohibited in the venue.

Most of the participating performers at the Fold are not famous outside the communities of bluegrass and old-time country music. However, Johnny Cash performed at the Fold many times, and played his last concert there on July 5, 2003, a few months before his death. Cash's wife, June Carter Cash, was a daughter of Maybelle Carter.

The Fold has a dance floor where Appalachian clogging, a local form of folk dancing, is seen weekly.

The concert venue, the "Fold," is the centerpiece of the Carter Family Memorial Music Center, Inc., a non-profit organization. This includes the 1880s cabin where A. P. Carter was born. The cabin was moved from its original location to a site next to the Fold, refurbished and rededicated before Janette Carter's death in 2006. Singer Marty Stuart, formerly a member of the Johnny Cash band, was instrumental in raising funds for the cabin's relocation and restoration.

The Carter Store, built by A. P. Carter and friends in the late 1940s and where he conducted daily business, is the site of the Carter Family Museum. This building was renovated in September, 2009. After the renovation, part of the large collection of Carter Family memorabilia that it had housed was moved back and redisplayed. A large crowd witnessed the rededication of the museum, which featured the cutting of a ceremonial red ribbon by Rita Forrester (daughter of Janette Carter) and Marty Stuart, who later performed at a special concert with his band, the Fabulous Superlatives.

Also in 2009, the organization purchased property across the road, which includes a three bedroom house that will be converted to office space. The accompanying grounds will be used for additional parking.

The Carter Family Fold and Museum is located in the Poor Valley region of southern Virginia at the foot of Clinch Mountain, in a settlement once known as Maces Spring. Maces Spring was home to A.P. and Sarah Carter's family, as well as Ezra and Maybelle Carter and their daughters. Since Maces Spring no longer has a post office, it is considered part of the area of Hiltons.

Capacity at the Fold is 842 seats. Those wishing to attend a Saturday night show will usually find ample seating. However, for gospel and other special shows, it is advisable to request tickets well in advance.

Carter Family picking

Carter Family picking, also known as the thumb brush, the Carter lick, the church lick, or the Carter scratch, is a style of fingerstyle guitar named after Maybelle Carter of the Carter Family's distinctive style of rhythm guitar in which the melody is played on the bass strings, usually low E, A, and D while rhythm strumming continues above, on the treble strings, G, B, and high E. This often occurs during the break. The style bears similarity to the frailing style of banjo playing and is the rhythm Bill Monroe adapted for bluegrass music two decades later.With this technique, Carter, who "was among the first" to use it as such, "helped to turn the guitar into a lead instrument". It is unclear how Maybelle developed her then-unique style.

It is known that Maybelle first learned the blues fingerpicking technique around 1930 from Lesley Riddle, an African-American guitarist who used to frequent the Carter family household. Carter can be heard playing in this style on a number of Carter Family recordings. She also played slide guitar and, later, with a flat-pick.

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Hendersonville Memory Gardens

Hendersonville Memory Gardens located at 353 East Main Street in Hendersonville, Tennessee, United States was formerly known as Woodlawn Memorial Park East. Located a few miles northeast of Nashville, it is the burial site of Johnny Cash as well as several members of the singing Carter Family and other stars from the country music world.

Single Girl, Married Girl

Single Girl, Married Girl is a folk song made famous by The Carter Family, about the differences in lifestyle between the two title characters. The song was originally released on Victor Records in 1928 as the a-side of Victor 20937, the Carter Family’s second 78-rpm record for the label. It was recorded on August 2, 1927, the second day of their first session with producer and engineer Ralph Peer, and released in January 1928. This version was later included in Harry Smith’s Anthology of American Folk Music, Vol. 3. Notably, the song does not feature A.P. Carter, but is instead a solo by Sara Carter playing autoharp accompanied by her cousin Maybelle Carter playing lead guitar (Maybelle used an inexpensive Stella guitar during the August 1-2, 1927 sessions).

The song was re-recorded during the last months of Sara and A.P. Carter’s marriage, on May 8, 1935, during a 4-day recording session with Ralph Peer. The tempo of this version is much slower, and Sara Carter sings at a much lower pitch. This version was first released on Arc Records, along with the song “No Other’s Bride I’ll Be,” as ARC 8733.

The Carter Sisters

The Carter Sisters, (also known as the second version of The Carter Family) were an American singing quartet consisting of Maybelle Carter and her daughters June Carter Cash, Helen Carter, and Anita Carter. Formed during World War II, the group recorded and performed into the 1990s.

The Johnny Cash Family Christmas

The Johnny Cash Family Christmas is the 41st overall and second Christmas album by country singer Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in 1972. It is his second Christmas album, the first one being the 1963 release entitled The Christmas Spirit. The album includes less original Cash material than its predecessor and contains narrations and dialogue featuring his family and friends, between tracks. In all, three songs were written or co-written by Cash, while two, "Christmas as I Knew It" and "Silent Night", had been featured on The Christmas Spirit ("Silent Night" would, in fact, be featured on all four Johnny Cash Christmas albums). June Carter Cash, Marshall Grant, Tommy Cash, Harold Reid, Larry Butler (who was both Cash's piano player and record producer at this time), Maybelle Carter, Anita Carter, Carl Perkins and Lew DeWitt are among those featured on the album.

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