Maxwell D. Taylor

General Maxwell Davenport "Max" Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer and diplomat of the mid-20th century.[1] He served with distinction in World War II, most notably as commander of the 101st Airborne Division, nicknamed "The Screaming Eagles". After the war he served as the fifth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, having been appointed by President John Kennedy. He was the father of biographer and historian John Maxwell Taylor and military historian and author Thomas Taylor.

Maxwell D. Taylor
Maxwell D Taylor official portrait
Chair of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board
In office
February 29, 1968 – May 1, 1970
PresidentLyndon Johnson
Richard Nixon
Preceded byClark Clifford
Succeeded byGeorge Anderson
United States Ambassador to South Vietnam
In office
July 14, 1964 – July 30, 1965
PresidentLyndon Johnson
Preceded byHenry Cabot Lodge
Succeeded byHenry Cabot Lodge
Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
In office
October 1, 1962 – July 1, 1964
PresidentJohn F. Kennedy
Lyndon Johnson
Preceded byLyman Lemnitzer
Succeeded byEarle Wheeler
Chief of Staff of the Army
In office
June 30, 1955 – June 30, 1959
PresidentDwight Eisenhower
DeputyWilliston Palmer
Lyman Lemnitzer
Preceded byMatthew Ridgway
Succeeded byLyman Lemnitzer
Governor of the Ryukyu Islands
In office
April 1, 1955 – June 5, 1955
PresidentDwight Eisenhower
Preceded byJohn Hull
Succeeded byLyman Lemnitzer
Personal details
Born
Maxwell Davenport Taylor

August 26, 1901
Keytesville, Missouri, U.S.
DiedApril 19, 1987 (aged 85)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
EducationU.S. Military Academy (BS)
Metropolitan Community College, Missouri
Military service
Nickname(s)"Max"
AllegianceUnited States
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service1922–1959
1961–1964
RankGeneral
UnitEngineer Branch
Field Artillery Branch
CommandsChairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
United States Military Academy
101st Airborne Division
82nd Airborne Division Artillery
12th Field Artillery Battalion
Battles/warsWorld War II
Korean War
AwardsDistinguished Service Cross
Army Distinguished Service Medal (4)
Silver Star (2)
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star Medal
Purple Heart

Early life and start of career

Born in Keytesville, Missouri, and raised in Kansas City, Taylor graduated from Northeast High School and attended Kansas City Polytechnic Institute. In 1918, he passed competitive examinations for Congressional appointment by William Patterson Borland to either the United States Military Academy or United States Naval Academy, and then passed the USMA entrance examination. Taylor attended West Point, graduated fourth in his class in 1922, and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. He served in Hawaii with the 3rd Engineers from 1923 to 1926.

Taylor transferred to the Field Artillery and from 1926 to 1927 served with the 10th Field Artillery, receiving promotion to first lieutenant. Having demonstrated a facility for foreign languages, he studied French in Paris and was then assigned to West Point as an instructor in French and Spanish. In 1933 he graduated from the Field Artillery School, and he completed the course at the United States Army Command and General Staff College in 1935.

Taylor was promoted to captain in August 1935 and served at the American embassy in Tokyo from 1935 to 1939, including attaché duty in China in 1937. He graduated from the United States Army War College in 1940 and was promoted to major in July 1940.

World War II

Early assignments

Taylor served on the War Plans Division staff in 1940 and took part in a defense cooperation mission to Latin American countries. He commanded the 12th Field Artillery Battalion from 1940 to 1941, and then served in the Office of the Secretary of the General Staff until 1942. He received temporary promotions to lieutenant colonel in December 1941, colonel in February 1942, and brigadier general in December 1942.

Combat in Italy

In 1942, Taylor became chief of staff of the 82nd Airborne Division, followed by command of the 82nd Airborne Division Artillery, and took part in combat in Sicily and Italy. In 1943, during the planning for the Allied invasion of Italy, Taylor's diplomatic and language skills resulted in his secret mission to Rome to coordinate an 82nd air drop with Italian forces. General Dwight D. Eisenhower later said that "the risks he ran were greater than I asked any other agent or emissary to take during the war."[2]

Hundreds of miles behind the front lines of battle, Taylor was forced by the rules of engagement to wear his American military uniform, so that if captured he could not be shot as a spy. He met with the new Italian Prime Minister, Marshal Pietro Badoglio and General Carboni. The air drop near Rome to capture the city was called off at the last minute when Taylor realized that German forces were already moving in to cover the intended drop zones. Transport planes were already in the air when Taylor's message canceled the drop, preventing the mission. These efforts behind enemy lines got Taylor noticed at the highest levels of the Allied command.

101st Airborne Division

After the campaigns in the Mediterranean, Taylor was assigned to become the Commanding General (CG) of the 101st Airborne Division, nicknamed "The Screaming Eagles", which was then training in England in preparation for the Allied invasion of Normandy, after the division's first commander, Major General William Lee, suffered a heart attack. Taylor received temporary promotion to major general in May 1944.

Operation 'market Garden' (the Battle For Arnhem)- 17 - 25 September 1944 B6543
Taylor, pictured here on the left, receiving the Distinguished Service Order from General Sir Bernard Montgomery for gallantry in action at Carentan, France, June 12, 1944.

Taylor took part in the division's parachute jump into Normandy on June 6, 1944 (D-Day), the first Allied general officer to land in France on D-Day. He subsequently commanded the 101st in the Battle of Normandy, including in the capture of Carentan on June 13, and the division continued to fight in the campaign as regular infantry. The 101st Airborne Division was pulled out of the line in late June, having been in almost continuous action for nearly a month and, in early July, returned to England to rest and refit and absorb replacements, after having suffered over 4,600 casualties.

Having been brought up to strength, Taylor led the 101st in Operation Market Garden in the Netherlands in September 1944. He was not present for the division's action during the Siege of Bastogne as part of the Battle of the Bulge, as he was attending a staff conference in the United States. The Divisional Artillery commander, Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe, exercised command in his absence. Taylor called the defense of Bastogne the 101st Airborne Division's "finest hour" of the war and stated that his absence was one of his greatest disappointments of the war.[3] After Bastogne Taylor's 101st saw little further service in the war and was sent to the United States in late 1945, where it was deactivated in November.

Post-World War II

TheCadetHonorCodeMonument
Honor Monument at West Point

From 1945 to 1949 Taylor was superintendent of West Point. In 1947, he drafted the first official Honor Code publication marking the beginning of the written "Cadet Honor Code" at West Point.[4] Afterwards he was the commander of allied troops in Berlin from 1949 to 1951. In July 1951 he was promoted to lieutenant general and assigned as the U.S. Army Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Administration at the Pentagon.

In June 1953, he was sent to Korea, where he commanded the Eighth United States Army during the final combat operations of the Korean War. From 1955 to 1959, he was the Army Chief of Staff, succeeding his former mentor, Matthew B. Ridgway. During his tenure, Taylor attempted to guide the service into the age of nuclear weapons by restructuring the infantry division. Observers such as Colonel David Hackworth have written that the effort gutted the role of US Army company and field grade officers, rendering it unable to adapt to the dynamics of combat in Vietnam.

During 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered Taylor to deploy 1,000 troops from the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock, Arkansas to enforce federal court orders to desegregate Central High School during the Little Rock Crisis.

As Army Chief of Staff, Taylor was an outspoken critic of the Eisenhower Administration's "New Look" defense policy, which he viewed as dangerously over-reliant on nuclear arms and neglectful of conventional forces; he also criticized the inadequacies of the Joint Chiefs of Staff system. Frustrated with the administration's failure to heed his arguments, General Taylor retired from active service in July 1959. He campaigned publicly against the "New Look," culminating in the publication in January 1960 of a highly critical book entitled The Uncertain Trumpet.

Return to duty

As the 1960 presidential campaign unfolded, Democratic nominee John F. Kennedy criticized Eisenhower's defense policy and championed a muscular "flexible response" policy intentionally aligned with Taylor's views as described in The Uncertain Trumpet. After the April 1961 failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Kennedy, who felt the Joint Chiefs of Staff had failed to provide him with satisfactory military advice, appointed Taylor to head a task force to investigate the failure of the invasion.

Both President Kennedy and his brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, had immense regard for Taylor, whom they saw as a man of unquestionable integrity, sincerity, intelligence, and diplomacy. The Cuba Study Group met for six weeks from April to May 1961 to perform an "autopsy" on the disastrous events surrounding the Bay of Pigs Invasion. In the course of their work together, Taylor developed a deep regard and a personal affection for Robert F. Kennedy, a friendship that was wholly mutual and which remained firm until RFK's assassination in 1968.

Taylor spoke of Robert Kennedy glowingly: "He is always on the lookout for a 'snow job,' impatient with evasion and imprecision, and relentless in his determination to get at the truth." In January, 1965 Robert Kennedy named his last son Matthew Maxwell Taylor Kennedy (better known as an adult as "Max").

Shortly after the investigation concluded, the Kennedys' warm feelings for Taylor and the President's lack of confidence in the Joint Chiefs of Staff led John Kennedy to recall Taylor to active duty and install him in the newly created post of military representative to the president. His close personal relationship with the President and White House access effectively made Taylor the President's primary military adviser, cutting out the Joint Chiefs. On October 1, 1962, Kennedy ended this uncomfortable arrangement by appointing Taylor as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a position in which he served until 1964.

The Vietnam War

Taylor was of crucial importance during the first weeks and months of the Vietnam War. Whereas initially President Kennedy told Taylor that "the independence of South Vietnam rests with the people and government of that country," Taylor soon recommended that 8,000 American combat troops be sent to the region at once. After making his report to the Cabinet and the Chiefs of Staff, Taylor reflected on the decision to send troops to South Vietnam: "I don't recall anyone who was strongly against, except one man, and that was the President. The President just didn't want to be convinced that this was the right thing to do... It was really the President's personal conviction that U.S. ground troops shouldn't go in."[5]

Taylor opposed the 1963 South Vietnamese coup that overthrew and killed President Ngo Dinh Diem.

A series of short-lived juntas followed, and after Taylor was made ambassador in 1964, he frequently clashed with General Nguyen Khanh and helped to engineer his removal, having supported Khanh's deposal of General Duong Van Minh.

Criticisms

Taylor received fierce criticism in Major (later Lieutenant General and National Security Advisor) H.R. McMaster's book Dereliction of Duty. Specifically, Gen. Taylor was accused of intentionally misrepresenting the views of the Joint Chiefs to Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, and cutting the Joint Chiefs out of the decision-making process.[6]

Whereas the Chiefs felt that it was their duty to offer unbiased assessments and recommendations on military matters, Gen. Taylor was of the firm belief that the chairman should not only support the president's decisions but also be a true believer in them. This discrepancy manifested itself during the early planning phases of the war, while it was still being decided what the nature of American involvement should be. McNamara and the civilians of the office of the secretary of defense were firmly behind the idea of graduated pressure—that is, to escalate pressure slowly against North Vietnam in order to demonstrate U.S. resolve. The Joint Chiefs, however, strenuously disagreed with this and believed that if the US got involved further in Vietnam, it should be with the clear intention of winning and through the use of overwhelming force. McMaster contends that using a variety of political maneuvering, including liberal use of outright deception, Gen. Taylor succeeded in keeping the Joint Chiefs' opinions away from the President and helped set the stage for McNamara to begin to dominate systematically the U.S. decision making process on Vietnam.

Taylor was also criticized by Tom Ricks, in his book The Generals (2012): "Maxwell Taylor arguably was the most destructive general in American history. As Army chief of staff in the 1950s, he steered the US military toward engaging in 'brushfire wars.' As White House military adviser during the early 1960s, he encouraged President John F. Kennedy to deepen American involvement in Vietnam. As chairman of the Joint Chiefs, he poisoned relations between the military and civilian leadership. He was also key in picking Gen. William Westmoreland to command the war there."

Second retirement

Taylor again retired and became Ambassador to South Vietnam from 1964 to 1965, succeeding Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. He was Special Consultant to the President and Chairman of the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (1965–1969) and President of the Institute for Defense Analyses (1966–1969).

Afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, informally called "Lou Gehrig's disease"), Taylor spent his last three months at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C., and died at 85 years of age on April 19, 1987.[1] He was interred at Arlington National Cemetery.

Personal life

In 1925, Taylor married the former Lydia Gardner Happer (1901–1997). They had two sons: John Maxwell Taylor and Thomas Happer Taylor, the latter being a West Point graduate and Army officer.

Dramatic portrayals

Awards

Cp2j
Distinguished Service Cross ribbon
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
U.S. Army Distinguished Service Medal ribbon
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Silver Star Medal ribbon
Legion of Merit ribbon
Bronze Star Medal ribbon Purple Heart ribbon
Bronze oak leaf cluster
AF Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon
World War I Victory Medal ribbon
Bronze star
American Defense Service Medal ribbon
American Campaign Medal ribbon
Arrowhead
Silver star
Bronze star
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon
World War II Victory Medal ribbon
Army of Occupation ribbon
Bronze star
National Defense Service Medal ribbon
Bronze star
Bronze star
Korean Service Medal ribbon
Legion Honneur Commandeur ribbon
Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon Croix de guerre 1939–1945 stripe bronsepalme PHL Legion of Honor - Chief Commander BAR Order of the Cloud and Banner 2nd
Order of the Holy Trinity (Ethiopia) - ribbon bar Grand Officer Ordre de Leopold BEL Kroonorde Grootofficier BARUK MID 1920-94.svg Grand Officer Boyacá
GRE Order of George I - Commander BAR Order of the Bath UK ribbon Order of the British Empire (Military) Ribbon Dso-ribbon
Gugseon Security Medal RibbonSilver-service-star-3d.pngSilver-service-star-3d.png Commendatore OMRI BAR BRA Ordem do Merito Militar Comendador United Nations Service Medal Korea ribbon

United States decorations and medals

Foreign orders, decorations and medals

(General Taylor also received a number of other foreign honors.)

Dates of rank

No insignia Cadet, United States Military Academy: November 6, 1918
US-O1 insignia.svg Second Lieutenant, Regular Army: June 13, 1922
US-O2 insignia.svg First Lieutenant, Regular Army: February 13, 1927
US-O3 insignia.svg Captain, Regular Army: August 1, 1935
US-O4 insignia.svg Major, Regular Army: July 1, 1940
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel, Army of the United States: December 24, 1941
US-O6 insignia Colonel, Army of the United States: February 1, 1942
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General, Army of the United States: December 4, 1942
US-O8 insignia Major General, Army of the United States: May 31, 1944
US-O5 insignia.svg Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: June 13, 1945
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier General, Regular Army: January 24, 1948
(Later changed to June 27, 1944.)
US-O8 insignia Major General, Regular Army: July 29, 1951
US-O9 insignia Lieutenant General, Army of the United States: August 3, 1951
US-O10 insignia General, Army of the United States: June 23, 1953
US-O10 insignia General, Regular Army, Retired List: July 1, 1959

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Gen. Taylor, war hero, ex-ambassador, dies". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. April 21, 1987. p. A1.
  2. ^ Krebs, Albin (1987-04-21). "Maxwell D. Taylor, Soldier and Envoy, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
  3. ^ Cole C. Kingseed (September 1, 2003). "An American Soldier: the Wars of General Maxwell Taylor – Book Review'". Infantry Magazine.
  4. ^ West Point
  5. ^ Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy: His Life and Times pg. 705
  6. ^ McMaster, H. R. (1998). Dereliction of duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the lies that led to Vietnam (Reprint, illustrated ed.). HarperPerennial. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-06-092908-4. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  7. ^ Casting Band of Brothers

References

  • For Bay of Pigs and Vietnam War material – "Robert F. Kennedy and His Times", Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.
  • "The Chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff." Ronald H. Cole, Lorna S. Jaffe, Walter S. Poole, Willard J. Webb. Joint History Office, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1995. Section II, pp. 77–84.
  • "An American Soldier: the Wars of General Maxwell Taylor" John M. Taylor, Presidio Press, 1989

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
William Lee
Commanding General 101st Airborne Division
1944–1945
Post deactivated
Preceded by
Francis Wilby
Superintendent of the United States Military Academy
1945–1949
Succeeded by
Bryant Moore
Preceded by
James Van Fleet
Commanding General Eighth Army
1953–1955
Succeeded by
Lyman Lemnitzer
Preceded by
Matthew Ridgway
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1955–1959
Preceded by
Lyman Lemnitzer
Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
1962–1964
Succeeded by
Earle Wheeler
Political offices
Preceded by
John Hull
Governor of the Ryukyu Islands
1955
Succeeded by
Lyman Lemnitzer
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Henry Cabot Lodge
United States Ambassador to South Vietnam
1964–1965
Succeeded by
Henry Cabot Lodge
Government offices
Preceded by
Clark Clifford
Chair of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board
1968–1969
Succeeded by
George Anderson
1901

1901 (MCMI)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1901st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 901st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1901, the Gregorian calendar was

13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

December 1964 South Vietnamese coup

The December 1964 South Vietnamese coup took place before dawn on December 19, 1964, when the ruling military junta of South Vietnam led by General Nguyễn Khánh dissolved the High National Council (HNC) and arrested some of its members. The HNC was an unelected legislative-style civilian advisory body they had created at the request of the United States—South Vietnam's main sponsor—to give a veneer of civilian rule. The dissolution dismayed the Americans, particularly the ambassador, Maxwell D. Taylor, who engaged in an angry war of words with various generals including Khánh and threatened aid cuts. They were unable to do anything about the fait accompli that had been handed to them, because they strongly desired to win the Vietnam War and needed to support the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Instead, Taylor's searing verbal attacks were counterproductive as they galvanized the Vietnamese officers around the embattled Khánh. At the time, Khánh's leadership was under threat from his fellow generals, as well as Taylor, who had fallen out with him and was seeking his removal.

The genesis of the removal of the HNC was a power struggle within the ruling junta. Khánh, who had been saved from an earlier coup attempt in September 1964 by the intervention of some younger generals dubbed the Young Turks, was indebted to them and needed to satisfy their wishes to stay in power. The Young Turks disliked a group of older officers who had been in high leadership positions but were now in powerless posts, and wanted to sideline them completely. As a result, they decided to hide their political motives by introducing a policy to compulsorily retire all general officers with more than 25 years of service. The chief of state Phan Khắc Sửu, an elderly figure appointed by the military to give a semblance of civilian rule, did not want to sign the decree without the agreement of the HNC, which mostly consisted of old men. The HNC recommended against the new policy, and the younger officers, led by I Corps commander General Nguyễn Chánh Thi and Air Marshal Nguyễn Cao Kỳ, disbanded the body and arrested some of its members along with other politicians.

As a result of this event, Taylor summoned Khánh to his office. Khánh sent Thi, Kỳ, the commander of the Republic of Vietnam Navy Admiral Chung Tấn Cang and IV Corps commander General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, and after beginning with "Do all of you understand English?", Taylor harshly berated them and threatened cuts in aid. While angered by Taylor's manner, the officers defended themselves in a restrained way. The next day Khánh met Taylor and the Vietnamese leader made oblique accusations that the U.S. wanted a puppet ally; he also criticized Taylor for his manner the previous day. When Taylor told Khánh he had lost confidence in his leadership, Taylor was threatened with expulsion, to which he responded with threats of total aid cuts. Later however, Khánh said he would leave Vietnam along with some other generals he named, and during a phone conversation, asked Taylor to help with travel arrangements. He then asked Taylor to repeat the names of the would-be exiles for confirmation, and Taylor complied, not knowing that Khánh was taping the dialogue. Khánh then showed the tape to his colleagues out of context, misleading them into thinking that Taylor wanted them expelled from their own country to raise the prestige of his embattled leadership.

Over the next few days, Khánh embarked on a media offensive, repeatedly criticizing U.S. policy and decrying what he saw as an undue influence and infringement on Vietnamese sovereignty, explicitly condemning Taylor and declaring the nation's independence from "foreign manipulation". Khánh and the Young Turks began preparations to expel Taylor before changing their minds; however, Khánh's misleading tactics had rallied the Young Turks around his fragile leadership for at least the short-term future. The Americans were forced to back down on their insistence that the HNC be restored and did not carry through on Taylor's threats to cut off aid, despite Saigon's defiance.

Eighth United States Army

The Eighth United States Army (EUSA) is a U.S. field army which is the commanding formation of all United States Army forces in South Korea. It commands U.S. and South Korean units and is headquartered at the United States Army Garrison-Humphreys, in the Anjeong-ri of Pyeongtaek, South Korea.

Far East Command (United States)

Far East Command (FECOM) was a United States military command from 1947 until 1957, functionally organised to undertake the occupation of Japan. It was created on 1 January 1947, and abolished, with functions transferred to Pacific Command, effective 1 July 1957, pursuant to Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) 1259/378. From 1947–51 it was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, who was then succeeded by Generals Matthew Ridgway and Mark Clark. Later commanders were Generals John E. Hull, Maxwell D. Taylor, and finally Lyman Lemnitzer.

Its initial army forces in 1947 comprised Eighth Army, XXIV Corps/U.S. Army Forces in Korea, and the Ryukyus, Philippines and Marianas-Bonins Commands (MARBO). There was no overall headquarters for the ground elements within the Far East Command, and the five separate ground commands reported directly to CINCFE. Far East Air Forces and Naval Forces Far East also reported directly to CINCFE, initially giving MacArthur seven subordinate military headquarters.

The Marianas-Bonins Command (MARBO) was established in January 1947 as result a major reorganization of U.S. military forces in the Asia/Pacific region. The MARBO SSI was approved on 8 August 1948. Whether to place the Bonin and Mariana Islands under PACOM or FECOM became a bone of contention. The Navy saw all Pacific islands as one strategic entity, while the Army insisted that FECOM be able to draw upon military resources in the Bonin-Marianas during an emergency. Accordingly, the Commander in Chief, Far East (CINCFE), was given control over local forces and facilities in these islands, while naval administration and logistics there fell under Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC).

Following signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, 2 September 1945, the Ryukyu Islands were administered by the Department of the Navy, 21 September 1945 – 30 June 1946, with Commanding Officer, Naval Operating Base, Okinawa functioning as chief military government officer under authority of Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Transfer of administration from the Department of the Navy to the War Department was authorized by Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) approval, 1 April 1946. Pursuant to implementing instructions of General Headquarters U.S. Army Forces in the Pacific (GHQ AFPAC), the Okinawa Base Command was redesignated Ryukyus Command, effective 1 July 1946, by General Order 162, Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, and made responsible for administration under a Deputy Commander for Military Government. The Ryukyu Islands was administered successively by Ryukyus Command, 1 July – 30 November 1946; and Philippines-Ryukyus Command, 1 December 1946 – 31 July 1948; and Ryukyuan Command, 1 August 1948 – 15 December 1950. All were seemingly headquartered at Fort Buckner.

The PHILRYCOM marriage of convenience did not last out 1948, as the command was separated into a Philippine Command (PHILCOM) and a Ryukyus Command (RYCOM) on 1 August 1948 (SCAP, GHQ General Order Number 18, 9 July 1948).In June 1950 GHQ, FEC, located in Tokyo, Japan, with main offices in the Dai Ichi Building, had Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond as chief of staff and Maj. Gen. Doyle O. Hickey as deputy chief of staff. The major subordinate Army commands were Eighth Army, commanded by Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker; Headquarters and Service Group, GHQ, commanded by Maj. Gen. Walter L. Weible; the Ryukyus Command (RYCOM) under Maj. Gen. Josef R. Sheetz; and the Marianas-Bonins Command (MARBO) headed by Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler. In the Philippines, the Thirteenth Air Force controlled U.S. installations through PHILCOM (AF), a small and rapidly diminishing headquarters commanded by Maj. Gen. Howard M. Turner USAF. Naval Forces, Far East, were commanded by Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy. Far East Air Forces came under Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer. FEAF and NavFE headquarters were located in Tokyo in buildings separate from GHQ, FEC. XVI Corps was activated in April 1951 as the command reserve.In 1951, during the Korean War, the Joint Chiefs of Staff shifted responsibility for the Bonins and Marianas as well as the Philippines and Taiwan from FECOM to PACOM.The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR) was established, effective 15 December 1950, by a directive of Headquarters Far East Command. That directive ordered Commander-in-Chief Far East, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, to organize a civil administration for the Ryukyu Islands in accordance with JCS 1231/14 October 4, 1950. USCAR continued to function under the Department of the Army (formerly the War Department) from 1950 to 1971.

George Whelan Anderson Jr.

George Whelan Anderson Jr. (December 15, 1906 – March 20, 1992) was an admiral in the United States Navy and a diplomat. Serving as the Chief of Naval Operations between 1961 and 1963, he was in charge of the US blockade of Cuba during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.

Kehlsteinhaus

The Kehlsteinhaus (known as the Eagle's Nest in English-speaking countries) is a Third Reich-era building erected atop the summit of the Kehlstein, a rocky outcrop that rises above the Obersalzberg near the town of Berchtesgaden. It was used exclusively by members of the Nazi Party for government and social meetings. It was visited on 14 documented instances by Adolf Hitler, who disliked the location due to his fear of heights, the risk of bad weather, and the thin mountain air. Today it is open seasonally as a restaurant, beer garden, and tourist site.

Keytesville, Missouri

Keytesville is a small town in, and county seat of, Chariton County, Missouri, United States. The population was 471 as of the 2010 census. Keytesville is the hometown of two notable American generals, Maxwell D. Taylor and Sterling Price.

List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name (T)

The following is a list of some notable Légion d'honneur recipients by name. The Légion d'honneur is the highest order of France. A complete, chronological list of the members of the Legion of Honour nominated from the very first ceremony in 1803 to now does not exist. The number is estimated at one million including about 3,000 Grand Cross.

List of commanders of 101st Airborne Division

This is a list of commanders of the US 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army

MG William C. Lee August-42 – February-44

BG Don F. Pratt 6-February-44 – 14-March-44

MG Maxwell D. Taylor March-44 – August-45

BG Anthony C. McAuliffe 5-December-44 – 26-December-44

BG William N. Gillmore August-45 – September-45

BG Gerald St. C. Mickle September-45 – October-45

BG Stuart Cutler October-45 – November-45

MG William R. Schmidt July-48 – May-49

MG Cornelius E. Ryan August-50 – May-51

MG Ray E. Porter May-51 – May-53

MG Paul DeWitt Adams May-53 – December-53

MG Riley F. Ennis May-54 – October-55

MG Frank S. Bowen October-55 – March-56

MG Thomas L. Sherburne, Jr. May-56 – March-58

MG William C. Westmoreland April-58 – June-60

MG Ben Harrell June-60 – July-61

MG C.W.G. Rich July-61 – February-63

MG Harry H. Critz February-63 – March-64

MG Beverly E. Powell March-64 – March-66

MG Ben Sternberg March-66 – July-67

MG Olinto M. Barsanti July-67 – July-68

MG Melvin Zais July-68 – May-69

MG John M. Wright May-69 – May-70

MG John J. Hennessey May-70 – February-71

MG Thomas M. Tarpley February-71 – April-72

MG John H. Cushman April-72 – August-73

MG Sidney Bryan Berry August-73 – July-74

MG John W. McEnery August-74 – February-76

MG John A. Wickham, Jr. March-76 – March-78

MG John N. Brandenburg March-78 – June-80

MG Jack V. Mackmull June-80 – August-81

MG Charles W. Bagnal August-81 – August-83

MG James E. Thompson Jr. August-83 – June-85

MG Burton D. Patrick June-85 – May-87

MG Teddy G. Allen May-87 – August-89

MG J. H. Binford Peay III August-89 – June-91

MG John E. Miller June-91 - July-93

MG John M. Keane July-93 – March-95

MG George A. Crocker March-95 - November-96

MG William F. "Buck" Kernan November-96 – February-98

MG Robert T. Clark February-98 – June-00

MG Richard A. Cody June-00 – July-02

MG David H. Petraeus July-02 – May-04

MG Thomas R. Turner II May-04 – November-06

MG Jeffrey J. Schloesser November-06 – July-09

MG John F. Campbell July-09 – August-11

MG James C. McConville August-11 – June-14

MG Gary J. Volesky June-14 – January-17

MG Andrew P. Poppas January-17 – February-19

MG Brian E. Winski February-19 – Present

List of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

This is a list of notable people who have or had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Raymond Abrashkin – author

Zeca Afonso – Portuguese folk singer and anti-fascist politician

Derek Bailey – British avant-garde guitar virtuoso

Ady Barkan – American lawyer and political activist

Jason Becker – American guitar virtuoso

Lead Belly – blues singer and guitarist

Stefano Borgonovo – Italian football player

Rob Borsellino – Des Moines Register columnist and author of So I'm Talkin' to This Guy...

Scott Brazil – American television producer and director

O.J. Brigance – American football player and Advisor

Donna Britt – Newscaster At WAFB in Baton Rouge Louisiana for more than 30 years

Harry Browne – best-selling author and 2-time Libertarian U.S. presidential candidate

Ben Byer – American playwright and subject of the film Indestructible, documenting his life post-diagnosis

Jeff Capel II – American collegiate and professional basketball coach

Paul Cellucci – politician and diplomat; 69th Governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Ambassador to Canada

Ezzard Charles – boxer; former world heavyweight champion

Leonard Cheshire – notable RAF pilot and charity worker

Marián Čišovský – Slovak football player

Dwight Clark – American football player

Preston Cloud – eminent American earth scientist

Sid Collins – radio personality; radio voice of the Indianapolis 500

Luca Coscioni – Italian researcher, political activist and advocate for euthanasia

Ronnie Corbett – British comedian and actor

Neale Daniher – former AFL player (Essendon) & coach (Melbourne)

Stephen Darby – former footballer for Bolton Wanderers

Dennis Day – singer, comedian, actor

Dieter Dengler – Vietnam era Air Force pilot who escaped from Laotian POW camp

Michael Donnelly – Gulf War veteran

Peter Doohan – Australian tennis player

Ann Downer – Author of books for children and teenagers

Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis – Greek architect, urban planner and visionary

John Drury – longtime ABC7 Chicago news anchor

Bruce Edwards – PGA Tour caddie for golfer Tom Watson

Jenifer Estess – theatre producer; star of HBO documentary Three Sisters, subject of HBO film Jennifer; founding member of Project ALS

Hal Finney – computer scientist

Jay S. Fishman – Chairman of the Board and former CEO of The Travelers Companies

Roberto Fontanarrosa – Argentine cartoonist

Pete Frates – former Boston College baseball star, founder and inspiration behind the viral ALS Ice Bucket Challenge (Summer 2014)

Steven Gey- law professor and expert on the separation of church and state and freedom of speech; former on-air analyst for ABC during the 2000 presidential recount

Lou Gehrig – baseball player, after whom the disease is commonly referred

Richard Glatzer – writer and director; director of Still Alice

Steve Gleason – American football player for the New Orleans Saints 2000-2007

Jérôme Golmard – French tennis player

Tim Green – Former NFL player and broadcaster.

Stanislav Gross – former Prime Minister of the Czech Republic

Marc Harrison – designer

Pro Hart – Australian painter

Stephen Hawking – theoretical physicist and author of several books on astrophysics, including A Brief History of Time

Bob Haymes – actor, singer, pianist and songwriter of the Great American Songbook ballad "That's All"

Stephen Heywood – carpenter; subject of So Much So Fast and His Brother's Keeper

Stephen Hillenburg – marine biologist and cartoonist; creator of SpongeBob SquarePants

Jim "Catfish" Hunter – baseball player

Jörg Immendorff, German painter

Jacob K. Javits, U.S. Senator from New York

Axel Jensen – writer

Jimmy Johnstone, Scottish international footballer

Tony Judt – historian and writer

Hans Keller – Austrian-born British musicologist and music critic.

Motoo Kimura – Japanese population geneticist

Suna Kıraç, Turkish businesswoman and philanthropist

Dan Klein – Singer of The Frightnrs

Mao Zedong – Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party

Denny Miller- actor

Charles Mingus – jazz bass player

Glenn Montgomery – NFL football player for the Houston Oilers and Seattle Seahawks

Augie Nieto – fitness guru; founder and retired chief executive of Life Fitness and the chairman of Octane Fitness

David Niven – actor

Krzysztof Nowak – Polish footballer

Richard K. Olney – neurologist; ALS physician and researcher

Sidney Preston Osborn – former governor of Arizona

Neon Park – American artist

Mike Porcaro – American bassist, Toto

Diane Pretty – British "right to die" advocate

Tony Proudfoot – CFL player, teacher, coach, broadcaster and journalist.

Don Revie – English football player and manager

Fernando Ricksen – Dutch football player

Sue Rodriguez – Canadian "right to die" advocate

Franz Rosenzweig – philosopher and religious thinker

Ayan Sadakov – Bulgarian football player and manager

Stanley Sadie – British musicologist, music critic and editor of the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

Ed Sadowski – baseball catcher and coach

Washington César Santos – Brazilian Footballer.

Michael Schwartz – key conservative political strategist in the U.S. Congress; American "right to life" advocate; chief of staff to U.S. Senator Tom Coburn, M.D. (R-Okla.)

Morrie Schwartz – educator

Raúl Sendic – Uruguayan Marxist and leader of the Tupamaros

Sam Shepard – American actor and playwright

Gianluca Signorini – Italian football player

Lane Smith – actor

Konrad Spindler – archaeologist, involved in the analysis of the Ötzi glacier mummy

Jon Stone – creator of Sesame Street

Maxwell D. Taylor – former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Orlando Thomas- NFL safety for the Minnesota Vikings

Kevin Turner – NFL fullback for the New England Patriots and Philadelphia Eagles

Roy Walford – gerontologist and life extensionist

Henry A. Wallace – 33rd Vice President of the United States to Franklin D. Roosevelt

Charlie Wedemeyer – former athlete and coach; motivational speaker

Doddie Weir – former Scottish rugby union player

Joost van der Westhuizen – former South African Rugby Union player; former Supersport commentator

Michael Zaslow – soap actor

Catherine G. Wolf – American psychologist and expert in human-computer interaction

Little Feller (nuclear tests)

Little Feller II and Little Feller I were code names for a set of nuclear tests undertaken by the United States at the Nevada Test Site on July 7 and 17, 1962 as part of Operation Sunbeam. They were both tests of stockpiled W54 warheads, the smallest nuclear warheads known to have been produced by the United States, used in both the Davy Crockett warhead and the Special Atomic Demolition Munition.

In Little Feller II (July 7), the warhead was suspended only three feet above the ground and had a yield equivalent to only 22 tons of TNT. In Little Feller I (July 17), the warhead was launched as a Davy Crockett device from a stationary 155 millimeter launcher and set to detonate between 20 and 40 feet above the ground around 1.7 miles from the launch point, with a yield of 18 tons. This test was performed in conjunction with Operation Ivy Flats, a simulated military environment, and was observed by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and presidential adviser General Maxwell D. Taylor.

Little Feller I has the additional distinction of being the last near-ground atmospheric nuclear detonation conducted by the United States of America (the high altitude

Fishbowl tests concluded in November 1962 with a detonation at around 21 km altitude).

All further tests were conducted under ground, in accordance with the Partial Test Ban Treaty. An additional footnote is Operation Roller Coaster. Although this later series of tests involved no true nuclear detonation, they did disperse radioactive material using conventional explosives and thus may alternatively be considered the last aboveground nuclear test.

Lyman Lemnitzer

Lyman Louis Lemnitzer (August 29, 1899 – November 12, 1988) was a United States Army general, who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1960 to 1962. He then served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO from 1963 to 1969.

McNamara–Taylor mission

The McNamara–Taylor mission was a 10-day fact-finding expedition to South Vietnam in September 1963 by the Kennedy administration to review progress in the battle by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam and its American advisers against the communist insurgency of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. The mission was led by US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Maxwell D. Taylor, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The mission came in the wake of the Krulak–Mendenhall mission in which United States Marine Corps General Victor Krulak and State Department official Joseph Mendenhall gave diametrically differing outlooks on the military and political situation in Vietnam. Upon their return, McNamara and Taylor recommended measures intended to restrict the regime of President Ngô Đình Diệm, feeling that Diệm was pre-occupied with suppressing dissent rather than fighting the communists. The measures also sought to pressure Diệm to respect human rights more.

Order of Boyaca

The Order of Boyacá (Spanish: Orden de Boyacá) is the highest peacetime decoration of Colombia. The order is awarded for exceptional service to distinguished Colombian military officers and civilians as well as foreign citizens of friendly nations. Established in 1922, the Order of Boyacá traces its origin to a Cruz de Boyacá that was awarded to the generals who led their forces to victory in the Battle of Boyaca in 1819. Reestablished in 1919 as an award for military personnel the order has undergone revisions and expansions into its current form, with the biggest change happening in 1922 where civilians became eligible to be awarded the Order of Boyaca.

Path to War

Path to War is a 2002 American biographical television film, produced by HBO and directed by John Frankenheimer. It was the final film (theatrical or made-for-TV) that was directed by Frankenheimer, who died seven weeks after the film debuted on HBO. It was also the last film produced by Edgar J. Scherick during his lifetime—he died seven months after its initial airing on HBO.

The Longest Day (book)

The Longest Day is a book by Cornelius Ryan published in 1959, telling the story of D-Day, the first day of the World War II invasion of Normandy. It includes details of Operation Deadstick, the coup de main operation by gliderborne troops to capture both Pegasus Bridge and Horsa Bridge before the main assault on the Normandy beaches. It sold tens of millions of copies in eighteen different languages.The book is not a dry military history, but rather a story about people, and reads at times like a novel. It is based on interviews with a cross-section of participants, including U.S., Canadian, British, French and German officers and civilians.

The book begins and ends in the village of La Roche-Guyon. The book refers to the village as being the most occupied village in occupied France and states that for each of the 543 inhabitants of La Roche-Guyon there were more than 3 German soldiers in the village and surrounding area. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel commander-in-chief of Army Group B had his headquarters in the castle of the village which was the seat of the Duc de La Rochefoucauld.

Ryan's book is divided into three parts: the first part is titled The Wait, the second part is named The Night and the third part is named The Day. The book includes a section on the casualties of D-Day and also lists the contributors including their service details on the day of the invasion and their occupations at the time the book was first published.

Researchers spent almost three years locating survivors of D-Day and over 3000 interviews were undertaken in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, France and Germany. 383 accounts of D Day were used in the text of the book.

Senior Allied officers who assisted the author included General Maxwell D. Taylor, Lieutenant General James M. Gavin, Lieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan and General Sir Richard Nelson Gale. German officers who assisted with the book included Generaloberst Franz Halder, Hauptmann Hellmuth Lang and General der Infanterie Günther Blumentritt. The author also used Allied and German post action reports, War diaries, histories and official records.

On 6 June 1965, the author published an article "More of The Longest Day" in Reader's Digest as a supplement.Cornelius Ryan dedicated his book for all the men of D-Day.

The book takes its name from a comment made by Erwin Rommel to his aide Hauptmann Helmuth Lang on 22 April 1944: "...the first 24 hours of the invasion will be decisive...the fate of Germany depends on the outcome...for the Allies, as well as Germany, it will be the longest day."

The Longest Day is also the name of a 1962 film based on the book, featuring many star actors.

Thomas Happer Taylor

Thomas Happer Taylor (December 11, 1934 – October 1, 2017) was a highly decorated veteran of the United States Army, a military historian, an author of seven books, and a champion triathlete. He served in Vietnam following in the footsteps of his father, General Maxwell D. Taylor.

William C. Lee

William Carey "Bill" Lee (March 12, 1895 –June 25, 1948) was a senior United States Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II, where he commanded the 101st Airborne Division, nicknamed the "Screaming Eagles". Lee is often referred to as the "Father of the U.S. Airborne".

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