Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. He was instead proclaimed Emperor elect by Pope Julius II at Trent, thus breaking the long tradition of requiring a papal coronation for the adoption of the imperial title. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal. He ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 to his father's death in 1493.

Maximilian expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, though he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon.[2]

Maximilian I
Holy Roman Emperor
Albrecht Dürer - Portrait of Maximilian I - Google Art Project
Maximilian holding his personal emblem, the pomegranate. Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign4 February 1508 – 12 January 1519
Proclaimed4 February 1508, Trento[1]
PredecessorFrederick III
SuccessorCharles V
King of the Romans
Reign16 February 1486 – 12 January 1519
Coronation9 April 1486
PredecessorFrederick III
SuccessorCharles V
Archduke of Austria
Reign19 August 1493 – 12 January 1519
PredecessorFrederick V
SuccessorCharles I
Born22 March 1459
Wiener Neustadt, Inner Austria
Died12 January 1519 (aged 59)
Wels, Upper Austria
Burial
Spouse
Issue
more...
HouseHabsburg
FatherFrederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
MotherEleanor of Portugal
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Background and childhood

Frederick III and Eleanor of Portugal
Frederick III and Eleanor of Portugal.

Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459. His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint, Maximilian of Tebessa, who Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. One source relates that, during the siege's bleakest days, the young prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants and men-at-arms for bits of bread.[3] The young prince was an excellent hunter, his favorite hobby was the hunting for birds as a horse archer.

At the time, the dukes of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the French royal family, with their sophisticated nobility and court culture, were the rulers of substantial territories on the eastern and northern boundaries of France. The reigning duke, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and, to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian. After the Siege of Neuss (1474–75), he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on 19 August 1477.[4]

Reign in Burgundy and The Netherlands

Huldigung
The hommage ceremony of the estates to the emperor (depiction from the Liber missarum of Margaret of Austria, 1515)

Maximilian's coin with the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece

Maximilian I 1505 av
Maximilian I 1505 rv

Maximilian's wife had inherited the large Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her father's death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Already before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs.[5]

The Duchy of Burgundy was also claimed by the French crown under Salic Law,[6] with Louis XI of France vigorously contesting the Habsburg claim to the Burgundian inheritance by means of military force. Maximilian undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI and defeated the French forces at Guinegate, the modern Enguinegatte, on 7 August 1479.[7]

Maximilian and Mary's wedding contract stipulated that their children would succeed them but that the couple could not be each other's heirs. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded. After Mary's death in a riding accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilian's aim was now to secure the inheritance to his and Mary's son, Philip the Handsome.[5]

Some of the Netherlander provinces were hostile to Maximilian, and, in 1482, they signed a treaty with Louis XI in Arras that forced Maximilian to give up Franche-Comté and Artois to the French crown.[6] They openly rebelled twice in the period 1482–1492, attempting to regain the autonomy they had enjoined under Mary. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and even Maximilian himself, but they were defeated when Frederick III intervened.[8][9] Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. After the regency ended, Maximilian and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis (1493). Thus a large part of the Netherlands (known as the Seventeen Provinces) stayed in the Habsburg patrimony.[6]

Reign in the Holy Roman Empire

Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his father's initiative and crowned on 9 April 1486 in Aachen. He became ruler of the Holy Roman Empire upon the death of his father in 1493. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule when he took power, as they had occupied the territory under the reign of Frederick. In 1490, Maximilian reconquered the territory and entered Vienna.

Italian and Swiss wars

Sallet of Emperor Maximilian I (1459–1519) MET DP-12880-034
Sallet of Maximilian I, c. 1490–95, by Lorenz Helmschmid, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
IA GoldenesDachl-A
The "Golden Roof" residence in Innsbruck, Tyrol

As the Treaty of Senlis had resolved French differences with the Holy Roman Empire, King Louis XII of France had secured borders in the north and turned his attention to Italy, where he made claims for the Duchy of Milan. In 1499/1500 he conquered it and drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile.[10] This brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan.[6][10] However, Maximilian was unable to hinder the French from taking over Milan.[10] The prolonged Italian Wars resulted[6] in Maximilian joining the Holy League to counter the French. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France. His campaigns in Italy were not as successful, and his progress there was quickly checked.

The situation in Italy was not the only problem Maximilian had at the time. The Swiss won a decisive victory against the Empire in the Battle of Dornach on 22 July 1499. Maximilian had no choice but to agree to a peace treaty signed on 22 September 1499 in Basel that granted the Swiss Confederacy independence from the Holy Roman Empire.

In addition, the County of Tyrol and Duchy of Bavaria went to war in the late 15th century. Bavaria demanded money from Tyrol that had been loaned on the collateral of Tyrolean lands. In 1490, the two nations demanded that Maximilian I step in to mediate the dispute. In response, he assumed control of Tyrol and its debt. Because Tyrol had no law code at this time, the nobility freely expropriated money from the populace, which caused the royal palace in Innsbruck to fester with corruption. After taking control, Maximilian instituted immediate financial reform. In order to symbolize his new wealth and power, he built the Golden Roof, a canopy overlooking the town center of Innsbruck, from which to watch the festivities celebrating his assumption of rule over Tyrol. The canopy is made entirely from golden shingles. Gaining theoretical control of Tyrol for the Habsburgs was of strategic importance because it linked the Swiss Confederacy to the Habsburg-controlled Austrian lands, which facilitated some imperial geographic continuity.

Banning of Jewish literature and expulsion of Jews

In 1496, Maximilian issued a decree which expelled all Jews from Styria and Wiener Neustadt.[11] Similarly, in 1509 he passed the "Imperial Confiscation Mandate" which ordered the destruction of all Jewish literature apart from the Bible.[12]

Reforms

Schlacht Schoenberg
Maximilian personally led his troops at the battle of Wenzenbach in 1504.

Within the Holy Roman Empire, Maximilian faced pressure from local rulers who believed that the King's continued wars with the French to increase the power of his own house were not in their best interests. There was also a consensus that deep reforms were needed to preserve the unity of the Empire.[13] The reforms, which had been delayed for a long time, were launched in the 1495 Reichstag at Worms. A new organ was introduced, the Reichskammergericht, that was to be largely independent from the Emperor. A new tax was launched to finance it, the Gemeine Pfennig, though its collection was never fully successful.[13] The local rulers wanted more independence from the Emperor and a strengthening of their own territorial rule. This led to Maximilian agreeing to establish an organ called the Reichsregiment, which would meet in Nuremberg and consist of the deputies of the Emperor, local rulers, commoners, and the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. The new organ proved itself politically weak and its power returned to Maximilian in 1502.[10]

Due to the difficult external and internal situation he faced, Maximilian also felt it necessary to introduce reforms in the historic territories of the House of Habsburg in order to finance his army. Using Burgundian institutions as a model, he attempted to create a unified state. This was not very successful, but one of the lasting results was the creation of three different subdivisions of the Austrian lands: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, and Vorderösterreich.[10]

Maximilian was always troubled by financial shortcomings; his income never seemed to be enough to sustain his large-scale goals and policies. For this reason he was forced to take substantial credits from Upper German banker families, especially from the Baumgarten, Fugger and Welser families. Jörg Baumgarten even served as Maximilian's financial advisor. The Fuggers, who dominated the copper and silver mining business in Tyrol, provided a credit of almost 1 million gulden for the purpose of bribing the prince-electors to choose Maximilian's grandson Charles V as the new Emperor. At the end of Maximilian's rule, the Habsburgs' mountain of debt totalled six million gulden, corresponding to a decade's worth of tax revenues from their inherited lands. It took until the end of the 16th century to repay this debt.

In 1508, Maximilian, with the assent of Pope Julius II, took the title Erwählter Römischer Kaiser ("Elected Roman Emperor"), thus ending the centuries-old custom that the Holy Roman Emperor had to be crowned by the pope.

Tu felix Austria nube

Der Weisskunig 26 Detail Maximilian on horseback in besieged town
Der Weisskunig: Maximilian on horseback in besieged town

As part of the Treaty of Arras, Maximilian betrothed his three-year-old daughter Margaret to the Dauphin of France (later Charles VIII), son of his adversary Louis XI. Under the terms of Margaret's betrothal, she was sent to Louis to be brought up under his guardianship. Despite Louis's death in 1483, shortly after Margaret arrived in France, she remained at the French court. The Dauphin, now Charles VIII, was still a minor, and his regent until 1491 was his sister Anne.[14][15]

Dying shortly after signing the Treaty of Le Verger, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, left his realm to his daughter Anne. In her search of alliances to protect her domain from neighboring interests, she betrothed Maximilian I in 1490. About a year later, they married by proxy.[16][17][18]

However, Charles and his sister wanted her inheritance for France. So, when the former came of age in 1491, and taking advantage of Maximilian and his father's interest in the succession of their adversary Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary,[19] Charles repudiated his betrothal to Margaret, invaded Brittany, forced Anne of Brittany to repudiate her unconsummated marriage to Maximilian, and married Anne of Brittany himself.[20][21][22]

Margaret then remained in France as a hostage of sorts until 1493, when she was finally returned to her father with the signing of the Treaty of Senlis.[23][24]

In the same year, as the hostilities of the lengthy Italian Wars with France were in preparation,[25] Maximilian contracted another marriage for himself, this time to Bianca Maria Sforza, daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, with the intercession of his brother, Ludovico Sforza,[26][27][28][29] then regent of the duchy after the former's death.[30]

Der Weisskunig 58 Detail Maximilian talking to German knights
Maximilian talking to German knights (depiction from the contemporary Weisskunig)

Years later, in order to reduce the growing pressures on the Empire brought about by treaties between the rulers of France, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, and Russia, as well as to secure Bohemia and Hungary for the Habsburgs, Maximilian met with the Jagiellonian kings Ladislaus II of Hungary and Bohemia and Sigismund I of Poland at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515. There they arranged for Maximilian's granddaughter Mary to marry Louis, the son of Ladislaus, and for Anne (the sister of Louis) to marry Maximilian's grandson Ferdinand (both grandchildren being the children of Philip the Handsome, Maximilian's son, and Joanna of Castile).[31][32] The marriages arranged there brought Habsburg kingship over Hungary and Bohemia in 1526.[33][34] Both Anne and Louis were adopted by Maximilian following the death of Ladislaus.

Thus Maximilian through his own marriages and those of his descendants (attempted unsuccessfully and successfully alike) sought, as was current practice for dynastic states at the time, to extend his sphere of influence.[34] The marriages he arranged for both of his children more successfully fulfilled the specific goal of thwarting French interests, and after the turn of the sixteenth century, his matchmaking focused on his grandchildren, for whom he looked away from France towards the east.[34][35] These political marriages were summed up in the following Latin elegiac couplet: Bella gerant aliī, tū fēlix Austria nūbe/ Nam quae Mars aliīs, dat tibi regna Venus, "Let others wage war, but thou, O happy Austria, marry; for those kingdoms which Mars gives to others, Venus gives to thee."[36]

Succession

Maximilian's policies in Italy had been unsuccessful, and after 1517 Venice reconquered the last pieces of their territory. Maximilian began to focus entirely on the question of his succession. His goal was to secure the throne for a member of his house and prevent Francis I of France from gaining the throne; the resulting "election campaign" was unprecedented due to the massive use of bribery.[37] The Fugger family provided Maximilian a credit of one million gulden, which was used to bribe the prince-electors.[38] However, the bribery claims have been challenged.[39] At first, this policy seemed successful, and Maximilian managed to secure the votes from Mainz, Cologne, Brandenburg and Bohemia for his grandson Charles V. The death of Maximilian in 1519 seemed to put the succession at risk, but in a few months the election of Charles V was secured.[10]

Death and legacy

Innsbruck 1 287
Maximilian's cenotaph, Hofkirche, Innsbruck

In 1501, Maximilian fell from his horse and badly injured his leg, causing him pain for the rest of his life. Some historians have suggested that Maximilian was "morbidly" depressed: from 1514, he travelled everywhere with his coffin.[40] Maximilian died in Wels, Upper Austria, and was succeeded as Emperor by his grandson Charles V, his son Philip the Handsome having died in 1506. For penitential reasons, Maximilian gave very specific instructions for the treatment of his body after death. He wanted his hair to be cut off and his teeth knocked out, and the body was to be whipped and covered with lime and ash, wrapped in linen, and "publicly displayed to show the perishableness of all earthly glory".[41] Although he is buried in the Castle Chapel at Wiener Neustadt, an extremely elaborate cenotaph tomb for Maximilian is in the Hofkirche, Innsbruck, where the tomb is surrounded by statues of heroes from the past.[42] Much of the work was done in his lifetime, but it was not completed until decades later.

Maximilian was a keen supporter of the arts and sciences, and he surrounded himself with scholars such as Joachim Vadian and Andreas Stoberl (Stiborius), promoting them to important court posts. Many of them were commissioned to assist him complete a series of projects, in different art forms, intended to glorify for posterity his life and deeds and those of his Habsburg ancestors.[43][44] He referred to these projects as Gedechtnus ("memorial"),[44][45] which included a series of stylised autobiographical works: the epic poems Theuerdank and Freydal, and the chivalric novel Weisskunig, both published in editions lavishly illustrated with woodcuts.[43] In this vein, he commissioned a series of three monumental woodblock prints: The Triumphal Arch (1512–18, 192 woodcut panels, 295 cm wide and 357 cm high – approximately 9'8" by 11'8½"); and a Triumphal Procession (1516–18, 137 woodcut panels, 54 m long), which is led by a Large Triumphal Carriage (1522, 8 woodcut panels, 1½' high and 8' long), created by artists including Albrecht Dürer, Albrecht Altdorfer and Hans Burgkmair.

Maximilian had a great passion for armour, not only as equipment for battle or tournaments, but as an art form. The style of armour that became popular during the second half of his reign featured elaborate fluting and metalworking, and became known as Maximilian armour. It emphasized the details in the shaping of the metal itself, rather than the etched or gilded designs popular in the Milanese style. Maximilian also gave a bizarre jousting helmet as a gift to King Henry VIII – the helmet's visor featured a human face, with eyes, nose and a grinning mouth, and was modelled after the appearance of Maximilian himself.[46] It also sported a pair of curled ram's horns, brass spectacles, and even etched beard stubble.

Maximilian had appointed his daughter Margaret as both Regent of the Netherlands and the guardian and educator of his grandsons Charles and Ferdinand (their father, Philip, having predeceased Maximilian), and she fulfilled this task well. Through wars and marriages he extended the Habsburg influence in every direction: to the Netherlands, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, and Italy. This influence would last for centuries and shape much of European history. The Habsburg Empire would survive as the Austria-Hungary Empire until it was dissolved November 3, 1918–399 years 11 months and 9 days after the demise of Maximilian. Among his descendants are King Felipe VI of Spain and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

Official style

Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I Arms
Coats of arms

Maximilian I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, etc. Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Count Palatine of Burgundy, Princely Count of Habsburg, Hainaut, Flanders, Tyrol, Gorizia, Artois, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Zutphen, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, the Enns, Burgau, Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Salins, Mechelen, etc. etc.

Chivalric order

Maximilian I was a member of the Order of the Garter, nominated by King Henry VII of England in 1489. His Garter stall plate survives in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[56]

Marriages and offspring

Bernhard Strigel 003b
Emperor Maximilian I and his family; with his son Philip the Fair, his wife Mary of Burgundy, his grandsons Ferdinand I and Charles V, and Louis II of Hungary (husband of his granddaughter Mary of Austria).

Maximilian was married three times, but only the first marriage produced offspring:

Habsburg Map 1547
Habsburg realms (green) under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
  1. Philip I of Castile (1478–1506) who inherited his mother's domains following her death, but predeceased his father. He married Joanna of Castile, becoming King-consort of Castile upon her accession in 1504, and was the father of the Holy Roman Emperors Charles V and Ferdinand I
  2. Margaret of Austria (1480–1533), who was first engaged at the age of 2 to the French Dauphin (who became Charles VIII of France a year later) to confirm peace between France and Burgundy. She was sent back to her father in 1492 after Charles repudiated their betrothal to marry Anne of Brittany. She was then married to the Crown Prince of Castile and Aragon John, Prince of Asturias, and after his death to Philibert II of Savoy, after which she undertook the guardianship of her deceased brother Philip's children, and governed Burgundy for the heir, Charles.
  3. Francis of Austria, who died shortly after his birth in 1481.
  • Anne of Brittany (1477–1514) — they were married by proxy in Rennes on 18 December 1490, but the contract was dissolved by the Pope in early 1492, by which time Anne had already been forced by the French King, Charles VIII (the fiancé of Maximilian's daughter Margaret of Austria) to repudiate the contract and marry him instead.
  • Bianca Maria Sforza (1472–1510) — they were married in 1493, the marriage bringing Maximilian a rich dowry and allowing him to assert his rights as Imperial overlord of Milan. The marriage was unhappy, and they had no children.

In addition, he had several illegitimate children:

  • By unknown mistress:
  1. Margareta (1480–1537), wife of Count Ludwig von Helfenstein-Wiesentheid, was killed by peasants on 16 April 1525 in the Massacre of Weinsberg during the German Peasants' War.
  • By Margareta von Edelsheim:
  1. Barbara von Rottal (1500–1550), wife of Siegmund von Dietrichstein.[57]
  2. George of Austria (1505–1557), Prince-Bishop of Liège.
  • By Anna von Helfenstein:
  1. Cornelius (1507–c. 1527).
  2. Maximilian Friedrich von Amberg (1511–1553), Lord of Feldkirch.
  3. Leopold (c. 1515–1557), Bishop of Córdoba, Spain (1541–1557), with illegitimate succession.
  4. Dorothea (1516–1572), heiress of Falkenburg, Durbuy and Halem, lady in waiting to Queen Maria of Hungary; wife of Johan I of East Frisia.
  5. Anna Margareta (1517–1545), lady in waiting to Queen Maria of Hungary; wife of François de Melun ( -1547), 2nd count of Epinoy.
  6. Anne (1519–?). She married Louis d'Hirlemont.
  7. Elisabeth (d. 1581/1584), wife of Ludwig III von der Marck, Count of Rochefort.
  8. Barbara, wife of Wolfgang Plaiss.
  9. Christoph Ferdinand (d. c. 1522).
  • By unknown mistress (parentage uncertain):
  1. Guielma, wife of Rudiger (Rieger) von Westernach.

See also

Peter Paul Rubens 120b
Maximilian in armour, a posthumous portrait in 1618 by Peter Paul Rubens.
Austria 50 Schilling 1969 Maximilian I Silver Coin
Austria 50 Schilling 1969 Silver Coin: 450th anniversary of the death of Maximilian I
  • Family tree of the German monarchs. He was related to every other king of Germany.
  • First Congress of Vienna - The First Congress of Vienna was held in 1515, attended by the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, and the Jagiellonian brothers, Vladislaus II, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia, and Sigismund I, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
  • Landsknecht - The German Landsknechts, sometimes also rendered as Landsknechte were colorful mercenary soldiers with a formidable reputation, who became an important military force through late 15th- and 16th-century Europe

References

  1. ^ Cuyler, Louise E. (1 June 1972). "The Imperial Motet: Barometer of Relations between State and Church". In Charles Trinkaus & Heiko Oberman (eds.). The Pursuit of Holiness. Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought. 10. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 490. ISBN 978-90-04-03791-5.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Maximilian I. Excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Ed. Vol XVII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910. 923. Luminarium.org (2007-01-26). Retrieved on 2012-01-02.
  3. ^ Janssen, Gesch. des deutschen Volkes, i. page 593
  4. ^ G. R. Potter (Edited by), The New Cambridge Modern History - Volume I: The Renaissance (1493-1520), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1957, p. 228.
  5. ^ a b Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. Dynastie und Kaiserreiche. ISBN 3-406-44754-6. pp. 45–53
  6. ^ a b c d e World Book Encyclopedia, Field Enterprises Educational Corporation, 1976.
  7. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 1911
  8. ^ Jacoba Van Leeuwen (2006). "Balancing Tradition and Rites of Rebellion: The Ritual Transfer of Power in Bruges on 12 February 1488". Symbolic Communication in Late Medieval Towns. Leuven University Press.
  9. ^ Frederik Buylaert; Jan Van Camp; Bert Verwerft (2011). Anne Curry; Adrian R. Bell (eds.). "Urban militias, nobles and mercenaries. The organization of the Antwerp army in the Flemish-Brabantine revolt of the 1480s". Journal of Medieval Military History. IX.
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  11. ^ Dean Phillip Bell (2001). Sacred Communities: Jewish and Christian Identities in Fifteenth-Century Germany. BRILL. p. 119. ISBN 0-391-04102-9.
  12. ^ "This Day in Jewish History / Holy Roman Emperor Orders All Jewish Books - Except the Bible - Be Destroyed".
  13. ^ a b Whaley, Joachim Germany and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume I: Maximilian I to the Peace of Westphalia: 1490-1648, Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 32-33, accessed 15 July 2012
  14. ^ Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. pp. 22–23.
  15. ^ Hare, Christopher (1913). Maximilian The Dreamer, Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519. Stanley Paul & Co. pp. 57–58.
  16. ^ Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. p. 43.
  17. ^ Seton-Watson, Robert William (1902). Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor : Stanhope historical essay 1901. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. p. 23. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  18. ^ Hare, Christopher (1913). Maximilian The Dreamer, Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519. Stanley Paul & Co. p. 69.
  19. ^ Tóth, Gábor Mihály (2008). "Trivulziana Cod. N. 1458: A New Testimony of the "Landus Report"" (PDF). Verbum Analecta Neolatina. X (1): 139–158. doi:10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.9. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  20. ^ Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. pp. 43–44.
  21. ^ Seton-Watson, Robert William (1902). Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor : Stanhope historical essay 1901. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 23–24, 28–29. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  22. ^ Hare, Christopher (1913). Maximilian The Dreamer, Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519. Stanley Paul & Co. p. 70.
  23. ^ Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. pp. 45–46, 47.
  24. ^ Hare, Christopher (1913). Maximilian The Dreamer, Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519. Stanley Paul & Co. p. 71.
  25. ^ Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. p. 49.
  26. ^ Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. p. 59.
  27. ^ Cartwright, Julia Mary (1910). Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475-1497 (6th ed.). London: J. M. Dent & Sons. pp. 179–180. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  28. ^ Hare, Christopher (1913). Maximilian The Dreamer, Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519. Stanley Paul & Co. p. 74.
  29. ^ Seton-Watson, Robert William (1902). Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor : Stanhope historical essay 1901. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. p. 34. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  30. ^ Cartwright, Julia Mary (1910). Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475-1497 (6th ed.). London: J. M. Dent & Sons. p. 24. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  31. ^ Hare, Christopher (1913). Maximilian The Dreamer, Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519. Stanley Paul & Co. pp. 194, 230.
  32. ^ Seton-Watson, Robert William (1902). Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor : Stanhope historical essay 1901. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 69–70. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  33. ^ Hare, Christopher (1913). Maximilian The Dreamer, Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519. Stanley Paul & Co. p. 208.
  34. ^ a b c Fichtner, Paula Sutter (1976). "Dynastic Marriage in Sixteenth-Century Habsburg Diplomacy and Statecraft: An Interdisciplinary Approach". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical Association. 81 (2): 243–265. doi:10.2307/1851170. JSTOR 1851170.
  35. ^ Aikin, Judith Popovich (1977). "Pseudo-ancestors in the Genealogical Projects of the Emperor Maximilian I". Renaissance et Réforme. 13 (1): 8–15. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  36. ^ Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. p. 48.
  37. ^ H. Wiesflecker, Kaiser Maximilian I, vol. IV (Munich, 1981), pp.457-458
  38. ^ H. Rabe, Deutsche Geschichte 1500-1600 (Munich, 1991), pp. 221-222
  39. ^ Claims that he gained the imperial crown through bribery have been refuted. H.J. Cohn, "Did Bribes Induce the German Electors to Choose Charles V as Emperor in 1519?" German History (2001) 19#1 pp 1–27
  40. ^ See, for example, Andrew Petegree, Europe in the Sixteenth Century (Oxford, 2002), p. 14; Gerhard Benecke, Maximilian I (London, 1982), p. 10.
  41. ^ Weiss-Krejci, Estella (2008) Unusual Life, Unusual Death and the Fate of the Corpse: A Case Study from Dynastic Europe, in "Deviant Burial in the Archaeological Record", edited by Eileen M. Murphy. Oxford: Oxbow, p. 186.
  42. ^ The Memorial Tomb for Maximilian I. hofkirche.at
  43. ^ a b Watanabe-O'Kelly, Helen (12 June 2000). The Cambridge History of German Literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-521-78573-0.
  44. ^ a b Westphal, Sarah (20 July 2012). "Kunigunde of Bavaria and the 'Conquest of Regensburg': Politics, Gender and the Public Sphere in 1485". In Emden, Christian J.; Midgley, David (eds.). Changing Perceptions of the Public Sphere. Berghahn Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-85745-500-0.
  45. ^ Kleinschmidt, Harald (January 2008). Ruling the Waves: Emperor Maximilian I, the Search for Islands and the Transformation of the European World Picture C. 1500. Antiquariaat Forum. p. 162. ISBN 978-90-6194-020-3.
  46. ^ The horned helmet royalarmouries.org
  47. ^ a b Voigt, Georg (1877), "Friedrich III.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 7, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 448–452
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h Stephens, Henry Morse (1903). The Story of Portugal. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 139. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  49. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Ernst der Eiserne" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 178 – via Wikisource.
  50. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Cimburgis von Masovien" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 158 – via Wikisource.
  51. ^ a b c d e f de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 497.
  52. ^ a b Huber, Alfons (1889), "Leopold III.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 29, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 392–395
  53. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1885). "Visconti, Viridis" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 51. p. 54 – via Wikisource.
  54. ^ a b Supruniuk, Anna. "Siemowit IV". Internetowy Polski Słownik Biograficzny [Internet Polish Biographical Dictionary] (in Polish). pl:Filmoteka Narodowa – Instytut Audiowizualny.
  55. ^ a b Biržiška, Vaclovas, ed. (1933–1944). "Aleksandra". Lietuviškoji enciklopedija (in Lithuanian). I. Kaunas: Spaudos Fondas. p. 219.
  56. ^ "Maximilian I, King of the Romans, later Holy Roman Emperor". www.royalcollection.org.uk.
  57. ^ "Barbara von Rottal b. 1500 d. 31 März 1550 - Gesamter Stammbaum". de.rodovid.org.

Bibliography

  • Hermann Wiesflecker, Kaiser Maximilian I. 5 vols. Munich 1971–1986.
  • Manfred Hollegger, Maximilian I., 1459–1519, Herrscher und Mensch einer Zeitenwende. Stuttgart 2005.
  • Larry Silver, Marketing Maximilian: The Visual Ideology of a Holy Roman Emperor (Princeton / Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008).

External links

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 22 March 1459  Died: 12 January 1519
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Frederick III
Holy Roman Emperor-elect
4 February 1508 – 12 January 1519
Succeeded by
Charles V
King of the Romans
16 February 1486 – 12 January 1519
Archduke of Austria
19 August 1493 – 12 January 1519
Preceded by
Sigismund
Archduke of Further Austria
19 March 1490 – 19 August 1493
Reunited rule
Preceded by
Mary the Rich
as sole ruler
Duke of Brabant, Limburg,
Lothier, Luxemburg and Guelders;
Margrave of Namur;
Count of Zutphen, Artois,
Flanders, Charolais,
Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland;
Count Palatine of Burgundy

19 August 1477 – 27 March 1482
with Mary the Rich
Succeeded by
Philip the Fair
Bianca Maria Sforza

Bianca Maria Sforza (5 April 1472 – 31 December 1510) was a Queen of the Romans and Holy Roman Empress as the second spouse of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the eldest legitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, by his second wife, Bona of Savoy.

Burgundian Wars

The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies. Open war broke out in 1474, and in the following years the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was defeated three times on the battlefield and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. The Duchy of Burgundy and several other Burgundian lands then became part of France, while the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté were inherited by Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy, and eventually passed to the House of Habsburg upon her death because of her marriage to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Edzard I, Count of East Frisia

Edzard I, also Edzard the Great (15 January 1462 in Greetsiel – 14 February 1528 in Emden) was count of East Frisia from 1491 till his death in 1528.

Edzard succeeded his brother Enno in 1492. He fought with George, Duke of Saxony over Friesland and Groningen. The city of Groningen accepted him as its lord in 1506, but in 1514 renounced him again in favor of Charles of Guelders.

After he returned from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1492, he took over the rule of East Frisia together with his mother Theda. After his mother died in 1494, he ruled together with his less significant brother Uko.

Edzard's rule was characterized by his energetic approach against his opponents, the East Frisian leaders Hero Oomkens from Harlingerland and Edo Wiemken from Jever, whom he quickly managed to subdue. He was also a supporter of the Protestant Reformation in his territories, through the creation of new East Frisian laws, the reform of the coinage and the introduction of primogeniture for his house, the house of Cirksena.

His foreign policies led to a three-year war (1514–1517) against Duke George of Saxony. The war was mostly fought on East Frisian territory, and caused destruction in large areas. The city of Aurich, for example, was burned to the ground.

Duke George of Saxony was appointed stadtholder of all Frisian territories in 1514 by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. This was not accepted by the city of Groningen. Count Edzard saw this as a chance to expand his influence in the province of Groningen, and proclaimed himself protector of the city. As a result, 24 German dukes and counts invaded the Frisian lands with their troops and devastated the region. Edzard was proclaimed an outlaw (Reichsacht) by the emperor.

During the three-year war, Edzard eventually managed to keep the majority of East Frisia under his control. Only when Charles V came to power in the Netherlands did Edzard manage to end the war by getting himself confirmed as ruler of East Frisia.

Emperor Maximilian

Emperor Maximilian may refer to:

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459–1519)

Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (1564–1576)

Maximilian I of Mexico, Austrian-born Emperor of Mexico (1861–1867)

Eva of Isenburg

Eva von Isenburg (died 1531) was sovereign Princess-Abbess of Thorn Abbey from 1486 until 1531.

She was born to Gerlach II von Isenburg-Grenzau and Hildgard von Sirck of Meinsberg and Frauenberg. She was elected to succeed Gertrudis de Sombreffe as ruling princess abbess. From 1486 until 1502, she was in conflict with Amalia van Rennenberg, who claimed the right to her office. She was supported by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Amalia by her brother count Willem van Rennenberg, who attacked the realm, which was defended by the emperor in 1494 and 1499. The feud was terminated in 1502, when Eva was acknowledged as lawful abbess. Her tenure in office was marred by discontent over her high taxes and alleged immoral lifestyle. She was succeeded by Margareta IV van Brederode.

Felipe I

Felipe I is the name of two Iberian kings:

Philip I of Castile (1478–1506), known as the Handsome or the Fair, son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Philip I of Portugal (II of Spain)

Hans von Reutlingen

Hans von Reutlingen (1492-1524) was a German goldsmith and seal engraver who was born in, lived, and plied his trade in the city of Aachen. He worked under the patronage of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The Metropolitan Museum of Art holds one of his works, a gold-gilted bishop statuette. Some of his pieces are also housed in the Aachen Cathedral.

Hieronymus Lauweryn van Watervliet

Count Hieronymus Lauweryn or Jerome Laurinus of Watervliet was a courtier at the court of Philip the Handsome, (Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy then briefly King of Castile) to whom Lauweryn was treasurer. He was also a courtier at the courts of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and of Margaret of Austria. Of common origins, the lordship of Watervliet was awarded to Hieronymus by Philip in 1507. He married twice His son Matthias Lauweryn, or Matthias Laurinus (d.1540), the second lord of Watervliet, was well known to Erasmus. He was responsible for the construction of the Church of Our Lady's Ascension in Watervliet.He is primarily remembered for having commissioned a chansonnier, which is named after him, around 1505/6 in Bruges. His chansonnier contains works by Alexander Agricola, Loyset Compère, Jean Mouton and Josquin. The songs are composed in various languages, comprising 36 French, and 25 Dutch, 14 Latin and 2 Italian works. Finally there is one Latin-French double-texted motet-chanson.An edition of the chansonnier, with an introduction by W. McMurtry, was published by Alamire Music Publishers in 1989, and a selection of songs, including all Dutch songs, of the chansonnier recorded on 2 CDs by the Egidius Kwartet in 2007.

Johannes Stabius

Johannes Stabius (Johann Stab) (1450–1522) was an Austrian cartographer of Vienna who developed, around 1500, the heart-shape (cordiform) projection map later developed further by Johannes Werner. It is called the Werner map projection, but also the Stabius-Werner or the Stab-Werner projection.

After its introduction by Werner in his 1514 book, Nova translatio primi libri geographiaae C. Ptolemaei, the Werner projection was commonly used for world maps and some continental maps through the 16th century and into the 17th century. It was used by Mercator, Oronce Fine, and Ortelius in the late 16th century for maps of Asia and Africa. By the 18th century, it was replaced by the Bonne projection for continental maps. The Werner projection is only used today for instructional purposes and as a novelty.

In 1512, Stabius published a work called the Horoscopion. He also devised a card dial.[1]

Stabius was a member of a circle of humanists based in Vienna. This circle included the scholars Georg Tannstetter, Stiborius, Thomas Resch, Stefan Rosinus, Johannes Cuspinianus, and the reformer Joachim Vadianus. These humanists were associated with the court of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.[2]

Konrad Seusenhofer

Konrad Seusenhofer (died 30 August 1517, in Innsbruck, Tirol) was a leading 16th-century Austrian armourer who worked for Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.In 1514 Maximilian I presented Henry VIII with a suit of armour which included the most unusual ‘Horned helmet’ or armet, later chosen as the symbol of the Royal Armouries in Leeds. Three suits of similar design were made by Seusenhofer, but only the armour given to Maximilian's grandson, the future Emperor Charles V, survives intact in Vienna. Henry's armour no longer survives and, because of its extraordinary appearance, the horned helmet was thought to have been that of the jester Will Somers. Originally the helmet had silver-gilt panels placed over rich, velvet cloth.

Leopoldo de Austria

Leopoldo de Austria (between 1513 and 1515 in Austria – 27 September 1557 in Cordoba) was an illegitimate son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Bishop of Cordoba (1596–1601).

List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 15th century

This is a List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 15th century .

Ludwig Senfl

Ludwig Senfl (born around 1486, died between December 2, 1542 and August 10, 1543) was a Swiss composer of the Renaissance, active in Germany. He was the most famous pupil of Heinrich Isaac, was music director to the court of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and was an influential figure in the development of the Franco-Flemish polyphonic style in Germany.

Margaret of Savoy

Margaret of Savoy may refer to:

Margaret of Savoy (d. 1254), daughter of Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy, and Anne of Burgundy; wife firstly of Boniface II, Marquess of Montferrat; and secondly of Aymar III, Count of Valentinois

The Blessed Margaret of Savoy (1390–1464), Marchioness of Montferrat, and a Dominican Sister

Margaret of Savoy, Duchess of Anjou, wife of Louis III, titular king of Naples; Louis IV, Elector Palatine; and Ulrich V, Count of Württemberg; mother of Philip, Elector Palatine

Margaret of Savoy, Countess of Saint-Pol (1439–1483), daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, and wife firstly of John IV, Marquess of Montferrat, and secondly of Peter II, Count of Saint-Pol

Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy (1480–1530), daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Mary of Burgundy; wife firstly of John of Castile and secondly of Philibert of Savoy

Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry (1523–1574), daughter of Francis I, King of France, and Claude, Duchess of Brittany; wife of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy

Margaret of Savoy, Vicereine of Portugal (1589–1655), Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat and last Vicereine of Portugal

Margherita of Savoy (1851–1926), queen consort of Italy, wife of Umberto I

Marguerite de Helfenstein

Marguerite de Helfenstein (1480–1537) was the illegitimate daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

She married the German Count Louis de Helfenstein. They were taken hostage after the Siege of Weinsberg in 1525 during the Peasant's Revolt. She was liberated by the army of the Princes, and took refuge at the court of Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, the regent of the Netherlands. She was given an allowance by Margaret and the emperor.

Minoritenplatz

The Minoritenplatz is one of the oldest public squares in Vienna. It is located in the first district Innere Stadt, and is dominated by the Minoritenkirche church, after which the square is named. The church itself was constructed by the Greyfriars (Minoriten), after the Austrian Duke Leopold VI of Austria invited them to Austria in 1224. Since the square is in direct proximity to the Hofburg Imperial Palace, a number of aristocratic families took up residence in the square from the 16th to the 18th century.

City-palaces (Palais) located at the Minoritenplatz are:

Palais Dietrichstein (constructed in the 17th century, located at Minoritenplatz 3)

Palais Liechtenstein (1706, Minoritenplatz 4, entrance also at Bankgasse 9)

Palais Starhemberg (1650-1661, Minoritenplatz 5)

Palais Niederösterreich (1839-1848, Minoritenplatz 7, entrance also at Herrengasse 13)

Landeshauptmannschaft (formerly Statthaltereigebäude, Minoritenplatz 9, entrance also at Herrengasse 11)Located on Minoritenplatz 1 are the Austrian State Archives (Österreichisches Staatsarchiv), founded in the 15th century by Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor as the Family, Court and State Archive (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv). The building itself now only dates back to 1901.

Close to the Archives is the Austrian Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs, located at Minoritenplatz 8.

Small monuments to the artist Rudolf von Alt, the cleric Clemens Maria Hofbauer, and the politician Leopold Figl also decorate the square.

Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I

The Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I is an oil painting by Albrecht Dürer, dating to 1519 and now at the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna, Austria. It portrays the emperor Maximilian I.

Thomas Resch

Thomas Resch (1460-1520) was an Austrian Renaissance humanist. He went by the Latin name of Thomas Velocianus. He was a member of a circle of humanists based in Vienna. This circle included the scholars Georg Tannstetter, Johannes Stabius, Stiborius, Stefan Rosinus (1470-1548), Johannes Cuspinianus, and the reformer Joachim Vadianus. These humanists were associated with the court of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Treaty of Mechlin (1513)

The Treaty of Mechlin (1513) (also known as the Treaty of Malines) was an agreement between Henry VIII, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Pope Leo X to form an alliance against France. The treaty was the first of a series of treaties (the others being the Treaties of London of 1516 and 1518 and the Treaty of Cambrai of 1517) which attempted to unite the main European powers by building a holy league in order to establish a respublica christiana.Mechlin (Mechelen) was the seat of Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy and location of her Hof van Savoye.

Ancestors of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
16. Albert II, Duke of Austria[52]
8. Leopold III, Duke of Austria[49]
17. Joanna of Pfirt[52]
4. Ernest, Duke of Austria[47]
18. Bernabò Visconti[53]
9. Viridis Visconti[49]
19. Beatrice Regina della Scala[53]
2. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
20. Siemowit III, Duke of Masovia[54]
10. Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia[50]
21. Euphemia of Opava[54]
5. Cymburgis of Masovia[47]
22. Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania[55]
11. Alexandra of Lithuania[50]
23. Uliana of Tver[55]
1. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
24. Peter I of Portugal[48]
12. John I of Portugal[48]
25. Teresa Lourenço[48]
6. Edward, King of Portugal[48]
26. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster[48]
13. Philippa of Lancaster[48]
27. Blanche of Lancaster[48]
3. Eleanor of Portugal
28. John I of Castile[51]
14. Ferdinand I of Aragon[51]
29. Eleanor of Aragon[51]
7. Eleanor of Aragon[48]
30. Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque[51]
15. Eleanor of Alburquerque[51]
31. Beatrice of Portugal[51]
Carolingian Empire
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Holy Roman Empire
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East Francia within the
Carolingian Empire (843–911)
East Francia (911–962)
Kingdom of Germany within the
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)
German Confederation (1815–1848)
German Empire (1848/1849)
German Confederation (1850–1866)
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