Max (software)

Max, also known as Max/MSP/Jitter, is a visual programming language for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling '74. Over its more than thirty-year history, it has been used by composers, performers, software designers, researchers, and artists to create recordings, performances, and installations.[1]

The Max program is modular, with most routines existing as shared libraries. An application programming interface (API) allows third-party development of new routines (named external objects). Thus, Max has a large user base of programmers unaffiliated with Cycling '74 who enhance the software with commercial and non-commercial extensions to the program. Because of this extensible design, which simultaneously represents both the program's structure and its graphical user interface (GUI), Max has been described as the lingua franca for developing interactive music performance software.[2]

Cycling 74 max 7 logo
Developer(s)Cycling '74
Stable release
8.0.4 / March 19, 2019
Written inC, C++ (on JUCE platform)
Operating systemMicrosoft Windows, macOS
TypeMusic and multimedia development
Cycling 74 max 7 logo
Max 7
Paradigmvisual, flow-based, declarative, domain-specific
DeveloperCycling '74
Stable release
7.3.5 / March 8, 2018


1980s: Miller Puckette began work on Max in 1985, at the Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) in Paris.[3][4] Originally called The Patcher, this first version provided composers with a graphical interface for creating interactive computer music scores on the Macintosh. At this point in its development Max couldn't perform its own real-time sound synthesis in software, but instead sent control messages to external hardware synthesizers and samplers using MIDI or a similar protocol.[5] Its earliest widely recognized use in composition was for Pluton, a 1988 piano and computer piece by Philippe Manoury; the software synchronized a computer to a piano and controlled a Sogitec 4X for audio processing.[6]

In 1989, IRCAM developed Max/FTS ("Faster Than Sound"), a version of Max ported to the IRCAM Signal Processing Workstation (ISPW) for the NeXT. Also known as "Audio Max", it would prove a forerunner to Max's MSP audio extensions, adding the ability to do real-time synthesis using an internal hardware digital signal processor (DSP) board.[7][8] The same year, IRCAM licensed the software to Opcode Systems.[9]

1990s: Opcode launched a commercial version named Max in 1990, developed and extended by David Zicarelli. However, by 1997, Opcode was considering cancelling it. Instead, Zicarelli acquired the publishing rights and founded a new company, Cycling '74, to continue commercial development.[10][11][12] The timing was fortunate, as Opcode was acquired by Gibson Guitar in 1998 and ended operations in 1999.[13]

IRCAM's in-house Max development was also winding down; the last version produced there was jMax, a direct descendant of Max/FTS developed in 1998 for Silicon Graphics (SGI) and later for Linux systems. It used Java for its graphical interface and C for its real-time backend, and was eventually released as open-source software.

Setups @ One Step Beyond at Museum of Natural History 2010-09-09
Various synthesizers and instruments connected to Max.

Meanwhile, Puckette had independently released a fully redesigned open-source composition tool named Pure Data (Pd) in 1996, which, despite some underlying engineering differences from the IRCAM versions, continued in the same tradition. Cycling '74's first Max release, in 1997, was derived partly from Puckette's work on Pure Data. Called Max/MSP ("Max Signal Processing", or the initials Miller Smith Puckette), it remains the most notable of Max's many extensions and incarnations: it made Max capable of manipulating real-time digital audio signals without dedicated DSP hardware. This meant that composers could now create their own complex synthesizers and effects processors using only a general-purpose computer like the Macintosh PowerBook G3.

In 1999, the Netochka Nezvanova collective released nato.0+55, a suite of externals that added extensive real-time video control to Max.

2000s: Though nato became increasingly popular among multimedia artists, its development stopped in 2001. SoftVNS, another set of extensions for visual processing in Max, was released in 2002 by Canadian media artist David Rokeby. Cycling '74 released their own set of video extensions, Jitter, alongside Max 4 in 2003, adding real-time video, OpenGL graphics, and matrix processing capabilities. Max 4 was also the first version to run on Windows. Max 5, released in 2008, redesigned the patching GUI for the first time in Max's commercial history.

2010s: In 2011, Max 6 added a new audio engine compatible with 64-bit operating systems, integration with Ableton Live sequencer software, and an extension called Gen, which can compile optimized Max patches for higher performance.[14] Max 7 was released in 2014 and focused on 3D rendering improvements.[15] On September 25, 2018 Max 8, the most recent major version of the software, was released.[16] Some of the new features include MC, a new way to work with multiple channels, JavaScript support with Node for Max, and Vizzie 2.[17]

On June 6, 2017, Ableton announced its purchase of Cycling '74, with Max continuing to be published by Cycling '74 and David Zicarelli remaining with the company.[18] Programs sharing Max's visual programming concepts are now commonly used for real-time audio and video synthesis and processing.


LandMap Max patcher
Screenshot of an older Max/Msp interface.

Max is named after composer Max Mathews, and can be considered a descendant of his MUSIC language, though its graphical nature disguises that fact. Like most MUSIC-N languages, Max distinguishes between two levels of time: that of an event scheduler, and that of the DSP (this corresponds to the distinction between k-rate and a-rate processes in Csound, and control rate vs. audio rate in SuperCollider).

The basic language of Max and its sibling programs is that of a data-flow system: Max programs (named patches) are made by arranging and connecting building-blocks of objects within a patcher, or visual canvas. These objects act as self-contained programs (in reality, they are dynamically linked libraries), each of which may receive input (through one or more visual inlets), generate output (through visual outlets), or both. Objects pass messages from their outlets to the inlets of connected objects.

Max supports six basic atomic data types that can be transmitted as messages from object to object: int, float, list, symbol, bang, and signal (for MSP audio connections). Several more complex data structures exist within the program for handling numeric arrays (table data), hash tables (coll data), XML information (pattr data), and JSON-based dictionaries (dict data). An MSP data structure (buffer~) can hold digital audio information within program memory. In addition, the Jitter package adds a scalable, multi-dimensional data structure for handling large sets of numbers for storing video and other datasets (matrix data).

Max is typically learned through acquiring a vocabulary of objects and how they function within a patcher; for example, the metro object functions as a simple metronome, and the random object generates random integers. Most objects are non-graphical, consisting only of an object's name and several arguments-attributes (in essence class properties) typed into an object box. Other objects are graphical, including sliders, number boxes, dials, table editors, pull-down menus, buttons, and other objects for running the program interactively. Max/MSP/Jitter comes with about 600 of these objects as the standard package; extensions to the program can be written by third-party developers as Max patchers (e.g. by encapsulating some of the functionality of a patcher into a sub-program that is itself a Max patch), or as objects written in C, C++, Java, or JavaScript.

The order of execution for messages traversing through the graph of objects is defined by the visual organization of the objects in the patcher itself. As a result of this organizing principle, Max is unusual in that the program logic and the interface as presented to the user are typically related, though newer versions of Max provide several technologies for more standard GUI design.

Max documents (named patchers) can be bundled into stand-alone applications and distributed free or sold commercially. In addition, Max can be used to author audio and MIDI plugin software for Ableton Live through the Max for Live extension.

With the increased integration of laptop computers into live music performance (in electronic music and elsewhere), Max/MSP and Max/Jitter have received attention as a development environment available to those serious about laptop music/video performance.

See also


  1. ^ "Max/MSP for average music junkies". Hopes&Fears. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  2. ^ Place, T.; Lossius, T. (2006). "A modular standard for structuring patches in Max" (PDF). Jamoma. New Orleans, US: In Proc. of the International Computer Music Conference 2006. pp. 143–146. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  3. ^ "Synthetic Rehearsal: Training the Synthetic Performer" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  4. ^ "Synthetic Rehearsal: Training the Synthetic Performer". ICMC. 1985. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  5. ^ Puckette, Miller S. (11 August 1988). "The Patcher" (PDF). ICMC. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  6. ^ Puckette, Miller S. "Pd Repertory Project - History of Pluton". CRCA. Archived from the original on 2004-07-07. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  7. ^ "A brief history of MAX". IRCAM. Archived from the original on 2009-06-03.
  8. ^ "Max/MSP History - Where did Max/MSP come from?". Cycling74. Archived from the original on 2009-06-09. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  9. ^ The Contemporary Violin: Extended Performance Techniques By Patricia Strange, Allen Strange Accessed 10 September 2018
  10. ^ Battino, David; Richards, Kelli (2005). The Art of Digital Music. Backbeat Books. p. 110. ISBN 0-87930-830-3.
  11. ^ "About Us". Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  12. ^ "FAQ Max4". Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  13. ^ "Harmony Central News". Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  14. ^ "GEN - Extend the power of Max".
  15. ^ "Max 7 is Patching Reimagined". Cycling '74. 2014.
  16. ^ "Article: Max 8 is here | Cycling '74". Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  17. ^ "What's New in Max 8? | Cycling '74". Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  18. ^ A conversation with David Zicarelli and Gerhard Behles, Peter Kirn - June 6, 2017 Accessed 10 September 2018

External links

Official website

@MAX SyncUp

@MAX SyncUp is a free proprietary backup and file synchronization program developed by @MAX Software for Windows. It is targeted at individuals and small businesses. The software supports backup to locally writable folders, including attached USB devices, network drives and local directories. It also supports backup and synchronization to WebDAV servers, (S)FTP servers and the cloud storages such as Google Drive and Dropbox.

AfterBurn (plugin)

AfterBurn is a popular 3D Studio Max plugin, created by Sitni Sati. The latest version is 4.0.

Autodesk 3ds Max

Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, games and images. It is developed and produced by Autodesk Media and Entertainment. It has modeling capabilities and a flexible plugin architecture and can be used on the Microsoft Windows platform. It is frequently used by video game developers, many TV commercial studios and architectural visualization studios. It is also used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization. For its modeling and animation tools, the latest version of 3ds Max also features shaders (such as ambient occlusion and subsurface scattering), dynamic simulation, particle systems, radiosity, normal map creation and rendering, global illumination, a customizable user interface, new icons, and its own scripting language.

Boeing 737 MAX

The Boeing 737 MAX is a narrow-body aircraft series designed and produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes as the fourth generation of the Boeing 737, succeeding the Boeing 737 Next Generation (NG).

This 737 series was publicly announced on August 30, 2011. The first 737 MAX airplane, named The Spirit of Renton, performed its first flight on January 29, 2016. The 737 MAX series gained FAA certification on March 8, 2017. The first delivery was a MAX 8 on May 6, 2017, to Malindo Air, which placed the aircraft into service on May 22, 2017. The 737 MAX is based on earlier 737 designs. It is re-engined with more efficient CFM International LEAP-1B engines, aerodynamic improvements (including distinctive split-tip winglets), and airframe modifications.The 737 MAX series has been offered in four variants, typically offering 138 to 230 seats and a 3,215 to 3,825 nmi (5,954 to 7,084 km) range. The 737 MAX 7, MAX 8, and MAX 9 are intended to replace the 737-700, -800, and -900, respectively. Additional length is offered with the further stretched 737 MAX 10. As of January 2019, the Boeing 737 MAX has received 5,011 firm orders and delivered 350 aircraft.After two fatal crashes of MAX 8 aircraft in October 2018 and March 2019, regulatory authorities around the world grounded the aircraft series indefinitely. On March 19, 2019, the U.S. Department of Transportation requested an audit of the regulatory process that led to the aircraft's certification in 2017.

Boeing 737 MAX groundings

In March 2019, airlines and governments around the world grounded the Boeing 737 MAX passenger airliner after two crashes within five months killed all 346 people on both flights. On October 29, 2018, Lion Air Flight 610 crashed into the Java Sea twelve minutes after takeoff with 189 passengers and crew. On March 10, 2019, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crashed six minutes after takeoff with 157 passengers and crew. In each accident, the aircraft was less than four months old.

Attention quickly focused on the 737 MAX's newly introduced Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), which automatically lowers the nose of the aircraft when sensors indicate that a stall may be imminent. Satellite tracking data showed that after takeoff, both aircraft experienced extreme fluctuations in vertical speed. Pilots in both aircraft radioed they had flight control problems and wanted to return to the airport.On March 11, Ethiopian Airlines announced it grounded its 737 MAX 8 fleet "effective yesterday March 10". On March 11, the China Civil Aviation Administration, citing its zero-tolerance policy for any safety hazards, became the first government authority to ground its 737 MAX aircraft. In the next two days, countries and airlines around the world either grounded or prohibited the aircraft from flying in their airspace.In the U.S., the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) initially stated it had not received any evidence to justify taking action against the 737 MAX. On March 13 President Trump announced a policy reversal and said the U.S. would ground the aircraft. The FAA explained that new information about the similarity of the two crashes supported the government's decision, and the agency said there was a "possibility of a shared cause" for the accidents. The worldwide fleet of 737 MAX aircraft at the time of the FAA grounding was 387.While the airplanes are out of service, Boeing has been developing and evaluating a software fix to the MCAS that is subject to review by a panel of global aviation regulators. Airline users of the 737 MAX have announced daily flight cancellations that are expected to extend through August 2019.The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Inspector General opened an investigation into the FAA's approval of the Boeing 737 MAX aircraft series; the probe focuses on potential failures in the FAA's safety-review and certification process. The day after the Ethiopian Airlines crash, a federal grand jury issued a subpoena on behalf of the U.S. Justice Department for documents related to development of the 737 MAX.

David Rokeby

David Rokeby (born November 14, 1960 in Tillsonburg, Ontario) is an artist who has been making works of electronic, video and installation art since 1982. He lives with his wife, pianist Eve Egoyan, and daughter in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

His early work Very Nervous System (1982–1991) is acknowledged as a pioneering work of interactive art, translating physical gestures into real-time interactive sound environments. Very Nervous System was presented at the Venice Biennale in 1986.


I-CubeX comprises a system of sensors, actuators and interfaces that are configured by a personal computer. Using MIDI,

Bluetooth or the Universal Serial Bus (USB) as the basis for all communication, the complexity is managed behind a variety of software tools, including an end-user configuration editor, Max (software) plugins, and a C++ Application Programming Interface (API), which allows applications to be developed in Mac OS X, Linux and Windows operating systems.

Usage is primarily focused on allowing exploration and construction of alternative physical computer interaction systems, but have most notably been adopted by music enthusiasts, as they greatly simplify musical instrument mods and creation of novel electronic musical instruments, MIDI controllers and audio control surfaces (such as presented at NIME), e.g. for electronic music generation, and visual artists, as they greatly simplify interactive installation art and electronic art (such as presented at Ars Electronica and SIGGRAPH). In both cases, it is extensively used for teaching. It allows the construction of complex interactive systems out of simpler components. I-CubeX is designed and produced by Infusion Systems.

Impromptu (programming environment)

Impromptu is a Mac OS X programming environment for live coding. Impromptu is built around the Scheme language, which is a member of the Lisp family of languages. The source code of its core has been opened as the Extempore project.

Jeremy Castro Baguyos

Jeremy Castro Baguyos (born 1968 in Quezon City, Philippines) is a musician-researcher specializing in the realization of live interactive computer music. Based at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (USA), he is a Professor of Music.

His most notable contributions to the field are in the area of live performance combined with interactive computer technology. For the state of Nebraska (USA), Baguyos established the state's first interactive computer music ensemble, Ensemble A.M.I. (Artificial Music Initiative), in conjunction with its first and only electronic music festival featuring interactive computer music, Virtual Music Week. For his own instrument, the double bass, he was one of the early practitioners of interactive computer music performance on the double bass. Inspired by the early electronic pioneers such as Robert Black and Bertram Turetzky and building on foundational studies at the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music, Baguyos studied computer music at the Peabody Conservatory of Johns Hopkins University. It was at Peabody where he performed with the Peabody Computer Music Consort and collaborated with other students of computer music and established composers of computer music who shared his enthusiasm for the emerging art form. The result was the creation and performance, between 2002 and 2005, of some of the first significant repertoire for double bass and interactive electronics and probably the very first double bass repertoire to utilize the MSP extensions to the Max (software) digital audio programming language. It is for this reason, his work differed from the few earlier experiments in interactive computer music for double bass. His realizations in public presentation were implemented in software as opposed to reliance on the much more limited hardware-based synthesis. He performed repertoire that utilized real-time audio capture and DSP, the use of automation in live performance, and simulations of musical machine intelligence. His experimental work in this area has been recorded on the "Music From SEAMUS" annual CD series of the Society for Electroacoustic Music in the United States as well as his own solo CD released in 2005, "Uncoiled Oscillations," (OCD).

He appears frequently at notable academic conferences such as the International Computer Music Conference the Society for Electroacoustic Music in the United States.,

and the Seoul International Computer Music Festival. He is also the Principal Double Bassist of the Des Moines Metro Opera Summer Festival Orchestra, and has performed with the National Symphony (Washington, DC), the Kennedy Center Opera House Orchestra (Washington, DC), and the DC-based early music group the Washington Bach Consort.

List of backup software

This is a list of notable backup software that performs data backups. Archivers, transfer protocols, and version control systems are often used for backups but only software focused on backup should be listed here. See Comparison of backup software for features.

Systems listed on a light purple background are no longer in active development.

List of music software

This is a list of notable software for creating, performing, learning, analyzing, researching, broadcasting and editing music. This article only includes software, not services. For streaming services such as iHeartRadio, Pandora, Prime Music, and Spotify, see Comparison of on-demand streaming music services. For storage, uploading, downloading and streaming of music via the cloud, see Comparison of online music lockers. This list does not include discontinued historic or legacy software, with the exception of trackers that are still supported. For example, the company Ars Nova produces music education software, and its software program Practica Musica has remnants of the historic Palestrina software. Practica will be listed here, but not Palestrina. If a program fits dozens of categories, such as a comprehensive DAW or a foundation programming language (e.g. Pure Data), listing is limited to its top three categories.

Nick at Nite

Nick at Nite (stylized as nick@nite) is an American programming block that broadcasts nightly over the channel space of Nickelodeon. It broadcasts usually from 9:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m on weekdays, Saturdays from 10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m., and Sundays from 8:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time). Its programming start time varies with holidays and special programming among the two networks.

Although it shares channel space with its parent channel, Nick at Nite is counted as a separate channel from Nickelodeon for ratings purposes. Both services are sometimes collectively referred to as "Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite," due to their common association as two individual channels sharing the same channel space.Nick at Nite appeals to adult and adolescent audiences with a lineup of mainly live-action sitcom reruns and a limited amount of original programming. However, because it shares channel space with Nickelodeon (prefiguring Cartoon Network and Adult Swim), some of Nick at Nite's programming – mainly programs that lead off the lineup each night – is aimed at preteens and adolescents between 8 and 16 years of age. The content on Nick at Nite (though looser in regards to profanity and suggestive dialogue compared to the children's-oriented Nickelodeon) is not as raunchy or violent as content on other primetime networks, encouraging a crossover audience between it and Nickelodeon viewers. Due to its reliance on sitcom reruns whose cable syndication rights are limited to a certain part of the day owing to contracts with studios and/or distributors (for instance, Viacom holds the exclusive cable nighttime rights to run Friends, airing it on both Nick at Nite and the Paramount Network, while TBS holds exclusive cable daytime rights to said series), Nick at Nite has no video on demand service (formerly its past original series were usually combined within Nickelodeon's VOD section); along with this, the network's website features no video content.

As of January 2016, Nick at Nite (same as Nickelodeon), is available in 92.0 million households in North America.

Processing (programming language)

Processing is an open-source graphical library and integrated development environment (IDE) / playground built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching non-programmers the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context.

Processing uses the Java language, with additional simplifications such as additional classes and aliased mathematical functions and operations. As well as this, it also has a graphical user interface for simplifying the compilation and execution stage.

The Processing language and IDE were the precursor to numerous other projects, notably Arduino, Wiring and p5.js.

St. Andrew's-Sewanee School

St. Andrew’s-Sewanee School is a private, coeducational, Episcopal, boarding and day college preparatory school serving 250 students in grades six through twelve. It is located in Sewanee, Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau between Nashville and Chattanooga and adjacent to the University of the South, which is also affiliated with the Episcopal Church. In addition to outstanding college preparation, the school is known for its close and welcoming community, emphasis on creativity, and opportunities for outdoor adventure.

Visual programming language

In computing, a visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation. For example, many VPLs (known as dataflow or diagrammatic programming) are based on the idea of "boxes and arrows", where boxes or other screen objects are treated as entities, connected by arrows, lines or arcs which represent relations.

Programs and

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