Mawlid

Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (Arabic: مَولِد النَّبِيmawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.[2] 12th Rabi' al-awwal[3] is the accepted date among most of the Sunni scholars, while Shi'a scholars regard 17th Rabi' al-awwal as the accepted date.

The history of this celebration goes back to the early days of Islam when some of the Tabi‘un began to hold sessions in which poetry and songs composed to honour Muhammad were recited and sung to the crowds.[4] The Ottomans declared it an official holiday in 1588,[5] known as Mevlid Kandil.[6] The term Mawlid is also used in some parts of the world, such as Egypt, as a generic term for the birthday celebrations of other historical religious figures such as Sufi saints.[7]

Most denominations of Islam approve of the commemoration of Muhammad's birthday;[8][9] however, with the emerge of Wahhabism/Salafism,[10] Muslims began to disapprove its commemoration, considering it an illicit religious innovation (bid'ah or bidat).[11][12] Mawlid is recognized as a national holiday in all Muslim-majority countries of the world except Saudi Arabia and Qatar which are officially Wahhabi/Salafi.[13][14][15]

Mawlid
Maulidur Rasul (8413657269)
Malaysian Sunni Muslims in a Mawlid procession in capital Putrajaya, 2013.
Also calledMawlid an-Nabawī (المولد النبوي),Milad un-Nabi, Havliye, Donba, Gani[1]
Observed byAdherents of mainstream Sunni Islam, Shia Islam and various other Islamic denominations. As a public holiday in Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Chad, Egypt, Gambia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen
TypeIslamic
SignificanceTraditional commemoration of the birth of Muhammad
ObservancesHamd, Tasbih, fasting, public processions, Na`at (religious poetry), family and other social gatherings, decoration of streets and homes
Date12 Rabi' al-awwal
2019 date10 November (Sunni, Ibadi)
15 November (Shia)
Frequencyonce every Islamic year

Etymology

Mawlid is derived from the Arabic root word (Arabic: ولد‎), meaning to give birth, bear a child, descendant.[16] In contemporary usage, Mawlid refers to the observance of the birthday of Muhammad.[2]

Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid also refers to the 'text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad's nativity celebration' or "a text recited or sung on that day".[17]

Date

The date of Muhammad's birth is a matter of contention since the exact date is unknown and is not definitively recorded in the Islamic traditions.[18][19][20][21] The issue of the correct date of the Mawlid is recorded by Ibn Khallikan as constituting the first proven disagreement concerning the celebration.[22] Among the most recognisable dates, Sunni Muslims believe the date to have been on the twelfth of Rabi' al-awwal, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe the date to have been on the seventeenth. Since the Islamic calendar came into existence after Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina) the date of death is known (according to some, twelfth of Rabi' al-awwal) but the date of birth is not known.

History

Mawlid an-Nabi SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam procession at Boulac Avenue in 1904 at Cairo, Egypt
Mawlid an-Nabi procession at Boulac Avenue in 1904 at Cairo, Egypt.
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM In een optocht te Yogyakarta wordt een gunungan (ceremoniële rijstberg) gedragen ter gelegenheid van de 'Garebeg TMnr 10003399
The Garebeg festival celebrating Mawlid in Yogyakarta, Java Island, Indonesia.

In early days of Islam, observation of Muhammad's birth as a holy day was usually arranged privately and later was an increased number of visitors to the Mawlid house that was open for the whole day specifically for this celebration.[23] This celebration was introduced into the city Sabta by Abu 'l'Abbas al-Azafi as a way of strengthening the Muslim community and to counteract Christian festivals.[24]

The early celebrations, included elements of Sufic influence, with animal sacrifices and torchlight processions along with public sermons and a feast.[8][25] The celebrations occurred during the day, in contrast to modern day observances, with the ruler playing a key role in the ceremonies.[26] Emphasis was given to the Ahl al-Bayt with presentation of sermons and recitations of the Qur'an.

According to the hypothesis of Nico Kaptein of Leiden University, the Mawlid was initiated by the Fatimids,[27] with Marion Holmes Katz adding "The idea that the celebration of the mawlid originated with the Fatimid dynasty has today been almost universally accepted among both religious polemicists and secular scholars."[28] This Shia origin is frequently noted by those Sunnis who oppose Mawlid.[29] Among Sunnis, the Mawlid celebration emerged in the 12th century,[30] and the first detailed description of a Sunni Mawlid celebration was of one sponsored by emir Gökböri.[31]

Observance by Islamic tradition

Madhhab Date of Mawlid an-Nabi Permissibility
Hanafi 12 Rabi Al-Awwal Permissible
Hanbali No date Forbidden
Maliki 12 Rabi Al-Awwal Permissible
Shafi'i 12 Rabi Al-Awwal Recommended
Ibadi 12 Rabi Al-Awwal Recommended
Ismaili 12 Rabi Al-Awwal Recommended
Zaidi 12 Rabi Al-Awwal Recommended
Jafari 17 Rabi Al-Awwal Recommended

Observances

Sekaten Yogyakarta 2011 1
Sekaten fair in Indonesia, a week-long celebration of Mawlid.
International Mawlid Conference at Minar-e-Pakistan Lahore by Minhaj-ul-Quran1
International Mawlid Conference, Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan.

Mawlid is celebrated in almost all Islamic countries, and in other countries that have a significant Muslim population, such as India, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, France, Germany, Italy, Russia[32] and Canada.[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] The only exceptions are Qatar and Saudi Arabia where it is not an official public holiday and is forbidden.[42][43][44] However, as a result of Wahhabi and other strict traditionalistic Muslim influence, since the last decades of the late 20th century there has been a trend to "forbid or discredit" Mawlid (along with similar festivals) in the Sunni Muslim world.[45][46]

In Turkey, Mawlid (Turkish: Mevlud Kandili) is celebrated as a public holiday and traditional poems regarding Muhammad's life are recited both in public mosques and at home on the evening.[47] Often organized in some countries by the Sufi orders,[17] Mawlid is celebrated in a carnival manner, large street processions are held and homes or mosques are decorated. Charity and food is distributed, and stories about the life of Muhammad are narrated with recitation of poetry by children.[48][49] Scholars and poets celebrate by reciting Qaṣīda al-Burda Sharif, the famous poem by 13th-century Arabic Sufi Busiri. A general Mawlid appears as "a chaotic, incoherent spectacle, where numerous events happen simultaneously, all held together only by the common festive time and space".[50] These celebrations are often considered an expression of the Sufi concept of the pre-existence of Muhammad.[51] However, the main significance of these festivities is expression of love for Muhammad.[50]

During Pakistan's Mawlid, the day starts with a 31-gun salute in federal capital and a 21-gun salute at the provincial capitals and religious hymns are sung during the day.[52]

In many parts of Indonesia, the celebration of the Mawlid al-nabi "seems to surpass in importance, liveliness, and splendour" the two official Islamic holidays of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.[53]

In Qayrawan, Tunisia, Muslims sing and chant hymns of praise to Muhammad, welcoming him in honor of his birth.[54] Also, generally in Tunisia, people usually prepare Assidat Zgougou to celebrate the Mawlid.[55]

Among non-Muslim countries, India is noted for its Mawlid festivities.[56] The relics of Muhammad are displayed after the morning prayers in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir at the Hazratbal Shrine, where night-long prayers are also held.[57] Hyderabad Telangana is noted for its grand milad festivities Religious meetins,Night long prayers, Rallies, Parades and decorations are made throughout the city

Mawlid texts

Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid also refers to the 'text especially composed for and recited at Muhammad's nativity celebration' or "a text recited or sung on that day".[17] Such poems have been written in many languages, including Arabic, Kurdish and Turkish.[58] These texts contain stories of the life of Muhammad, or at least some of the following chapters from his life, briefly summarized below:[17]

  1. The Ancestors of Muhammad
  2. The Conception of Muhammad
  3. The Birth of Muhammad
  4. Introduction of Halima
  5. Life of Young Muhammad in Bedouins
  6. Muhammad's orphanhood
  7. Abu Talib's nephew's first caravan trip
  8. Arrangement of Marriage between Muhammad and Khadija
  9. Al-Isra'
  10. Al-Mi'radj, or the Ascension to heaven
  11. Al-Hira, first revelation
  12. The first converts to Islam
  13. The Hijra
  14. Muhammad's death

These text are only part of the ceremonies. There are many different ways that people celebrate Mawlid, depending on where they are from. There appears to be a cultural influence upon what kind of festivities are a part of the Mawlid celebration. In Indonesia, it is common the congregation recite Simthud Durar, especially among Arab Indonesians.

Permissibility

Maulidi Day in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
A banner with Maulid greetings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Among Muslim scholars, the legality of Mawlid "has been the subject of intense debate" and has been described as "perhaps one of the most polemical discussions in Islamic law".[21] Traditionally, most Sunni and nearly all of the Shia scholars have approved of the celebration of Mawlid,[8][9][59][60][61] while Wahhabi and Ahmadiyya scholars oppose the celebration.[12][62][63]

Support

Examples of historic Sunni scholars who permitted the Mawlid include the Shafi'i scholar Al-Suyuti (d 911 A.H.) who stated that:

My answer is that the legal status of the observance of the Mawlid – as long as it just consists of a meeting together by the people, a recitation of apposite parts of the Qur'an, the recounting of transmitted accounts of the beginning of (the biography of) the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and the wonders that took place during his birth, all of which is then followed by a banquet that is served to them and from which they eat-is a good innovation (bid'a hasana), for which one is rewarded because of the esteem shown for the position of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – that is implicit in it, and because of the expression of joy and happiness on his – may God bless him and grant him peace – noble birth.[64]

The Shafi'i scholar Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d 852 A.H.) too approved of the Mawlid[65] and states that:

As for what is performed on the day of the Mawlid, one should limit oneself to what expresses thanks to God, such as the things that have already been mentioned: [Qur'anic] recitation, serving food, alms-giving, and recitation of praise [poems] about the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and asceticism which motivate people to perform good deeds and act in view of the next world.[66]

The Damascene Shafi'i scholar Abu Shama (d 665 A.H.) (who was a teacher of Imam al-Nawawi (d 676 A.H.)) also supports the celebration of the Mawlid[67][68] as does the Maliki scholar Ibn al-Hajj (d 737 A.H.) who spoke positively of the observance of the Mawlid in his book al-Madhkal.[69] Likewise, the Shafi'i Egyptian scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 A.H.) was an avid supporter of the Mawlid and wrote a text in praise of it.[70] This was supported and commented on by the Egyptian scholar and former head of Al-Azhar University Ibrahim al-Bajuri[70] and by the Hanafi Syrian Mufti Ibn Abidin.[71] Another Hanafi Mufti Ali al-Qari (d. 1014 A.H.) too supported the celebration of the Mawlid and wrote a text on the subject[72] as did the Moroccan Maliki scholar Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar al-Kattānī (d. 1345 A.H.).[73] Ibn al-Jazari (d. 833 A.H.), a Syrian Shafi'i scholar considers the celebration of the Mawlid to be a means of gaining Paradise.[74]

In the Muslim world, the majority of Sunni Islamic scholars are in favor of the Mawlid.[75] Examples include the former Grand Mufi of Al-Azhar University Ali Gomaa,[76] Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki[77][78] of Saudi Arabia, Yusuf al-Qaradawi,[79][80] the primary scholar of the Muslim Brotherhood movement, Habib Ali al-Jifri,[81] Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri,[82][83] Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy[83][84] of Syria, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Khazraji, president of the Heritage and History Committee of the United Arab Emirates[85] and Zaid Shakir, all of whom subscribe to Sunni Islam, have given their approval for the observance of Mawlid.

Opposition

Ibn Taymiyya's position on the Mawlid has been described as "paradoxical" and "complex" by some academics. He ruled that it was a reprehensible (makrūh) devotional innovation and criticised those who celebrated the Mawlid out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus' birthday.[86][87] At the same time, he recognised that some observe the Prophet's birthday out of a desire to show their love and reverence of the Prophet and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions.[86][88][89][90] The Salafi writer Hamid al-Fiqi (d. 1959) criticised Ibn Taymiyya for holding this view and stating that "How can they receive a reward for this when they are opposing the guidance of God's Messenger (pbuh)?".[78]

The Mawlid was not accepted by Wahhabi and Salafi.[91] Taj al-Din al-Fakihani (d. 1331), an Egyptian Maliki, considered Mawlid to be a blameworthy innovation that was either makruh or haram. This view was shared by fellow Egyptian Maliki Ibn al-Haj al-Abdari, who added that the celebration was never practiced by the Salaf.[92] However Ibn al-Haj affirms the auspicious qualities of the month of the Mawlid in the most effusive terms[93] and considers Muhammad's date of birth as a particularly blessed time of the year.[94] The Maliki scholar Al-Shatibi considered Mawlid an illegitimate innovation.[95] The Andalusian jurist Abu 'Abd Allah al-Haffar (d. 1408) opposed Mawlid, noting that had the Sahaba celebrated it then its exact date would not be a matter of uncertainty.[96] The former Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, along with Hammud ibn 'Abd Allah al-Tuwayjiri (d. 1992), another Saudi scholar, in their opposition also argued that there were many worthy occasions in Muhammad's life which he never commemorated, such as the revelation of the first verses of the Qur'an, the Night Journey and the hijra.[97][78]

While the Ahmadiyya deem the perpetual commemoration of Muhammad's life as highly desirable and consider the remembrance of him as a source of blessings, they condemn the common, traditional practices associated with the Mawlid as blameworthy innovations,[12][62][98] Gatherings limited to the recounting of Muhammad's life and character and the recitation of poetry eulogising him, whether held on a specific date of Rabi' al-awwal or in any other month, are deemed permissible.[62][99] Formal gatherings called Jalsa Seerat-un-Nabi commemorating Muhammad's life and legacy, rather than specifically his birth, are frequently held by Ahmadis and are often oriented towards both Muslim and non-Muslim audiences. These gatherings could be held in the month of the Mawlid but are promoted often throughout the year.[100][99]

Other uses

In some countries, such as Egypt and Sudan, Mawlid is used as a generic term for the celebration of birthdays of local Sufi saints and not only restricted to the observance of the birth of Muhammad.[101] Around 3,000 Mawlid celebrations are held each year. These festivals attract an international audience, with the largest one in Egypt attracting up to three million people honouring Ahmad al-Badawi, a local 13th-century Sufi saint.[7]

Gallery

Mawlid an-Nabawi SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam Celebrations in Cairo in 1878

Mawlid an-Nabawi celebrations in Cairo in 1878

Mawlid Celebrations in Ottoman Benghazi

The Ottoman flag is raised during Mawlid an-Nabi celebration of Mohammad's birthday in 1896 in the field of municipal Libyan city of Benghazi

Собрание на празднике маулид в Керале (Индия). 25 апреля 2007

Mawlid under the supervision of Shaykh Sufi Riaz Ahmed Naqshbandi Aslami, 2007

See also

References

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  73. ^ Katz, Marion Holmes (7 May 2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 9781135983949. there is no doubt that the Prophet's (s) recompense to someone who does something for him will be better, more momentous, more copious, greater and more abundant than [that person's] action, because gifts correspond to the rank of those who give them and presents vary according to their bestowers; it is the custom of kings and dignitaries to recompense small things with the greatest of boons and the most splendid treasures, so what of the master of the kings of this world and the next?
  74. ^ Katz, Marion Holmes (7 May 2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 9781135983949. If Abu Lahab, the unbeliever whose condemnation was revealed in the Qur'an, was rewarded (juziya) in hell for his joy on the night of the Prophet's birth, what is the case of a Muslim monotheist of the community of Muhammad the Prophet who delights in his birth and spends all that he can afford for love of him? By my life, his reward (jaza ') from the Beneficent God can only be that He graciously causes him to enter the gardens of bliss!
  75. ^ Katz (2007), p. 169: "In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the celebration of the Prophet's (s) birthday and the recitation of mawlid texts were ubiquitous practices endorsed by the majority of mainstream Sunni scholars... by the modern period the celebration of the Mawlid was overwhelmingly accepted and practiced at all levels of religious education and authority. Prominent elite scholars continued to contribute to the development of the tradition."
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  85. ^ Katz (2007), p. 203
  86. ^ a b Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 117. ISBN 9781135983949. The rationale of expressing love for the Prophet was so compelling that it occasionally forced even opponents of the mawlid celebration to qualify their disapproval. Ibn Taymiya remarks that people may celebrate the mawlid either in order to emulate the Christians' celebration of Jesus's birthday, or "out of love (mahabba) and reverence (ta'zim) for the Prophet." Although the first motive is manifestly invalid, Ibn Taymiya acknowledges the latter intention as legitimate; one who acts on this motivation may be rewarded for his love and his effort, although not for the sinful religious innovation in itself.
  87. ^ Rapoport, Yosef (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 324–325. ISBN 9780199402069. At the same time, Ibn Taymiyya recognizes that people observe the mawlid for different reasons and should be recompessed according to their intentions. Some, for example, observe the mawlid out of a desire to imitate the Christian celebration of Jesus's birthday on Christmas. This intention is reprehensible
  88. ^ Islamic Law in Theory: Studies on Jurisprudence in Honor of Bernard Weiss. BRILL. 9 May 2014. ISBN 9789004265196. Not only does Ibn Taymiyyah recognize the pious elements within devotional innovations, but he asserts that sincere practitioners of these innovations merit a reward. As I argue elsewhere, Ibn Taymiyyah's paradoxical position stems from a practical awareness of the way that Muslims of his day engaged in devotional practices. Ibn Taymiyya states that: "There is no doubt that the one who performs these [innovated festivals], either because of his own interpretation and independent reasoning or his being a blind imitator (muqallid) of another, receives a reward for his good purpose and for the aspects of his acts that confirm with the lawful and he is forgiven for those aspects that fall under the scope of the innovated if his independent reasoning or blind obedience is pardonable."
  89. ^ Ahmed, editors, Yossef Rapoport, Shahab (2010). Ibn Taymiyya and his times. Karachi: Oxford University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780195478341. At the same time he recognized that some observe the Prophet's (s) birthday out of a desire to show their love of the Prophet and thus deserve a great reward for their good intentions.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  90. ^ Woodward, Mark (28 October 2010). Java, Indonesia and Islam. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 170. ISBN 9789400700567. The Mawlid is among the most commonly mentioned examples of praiseworthy innovation. This view is shared even by some of the most strident opponents of most other modalities of popular Islam. Ibn Taymiyyah, the Kurdish reformer who most Indonesian and other Islamists take as their spiritual ancestor and mentor, was subdued in his critique of the Mawlid. His position was that those who performed it with pious intent and out of love for the Prophet Muhammad (s) would be rewarded for their actions, and forgiven any sin from bid'ah that they might incur.
  91. ^ Bowering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad Qasim; Mirza, Mahan (28 November 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 335. ISBN 140083855X.
  92. ^ Katz (2007), p. 71
  93. ^ Katz (2007), p. 201
  94. ^ Katz (2007), p. 65
  95. ^ Katz (2007), p. 73
  96. ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. pp. 159–60. ISBN 9781135983949.
  97. ^ Marion Holmes Katz (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. pp. 203–4. ISBN 9781135983949.
  98. ^ "Does “Milad” Have Any Validity Whatsoever in the Holy Qur’an?" Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha'at-e-Islam
  99. ^ a b "Rabīʿ al-Awwal (I): The Blessed month of the Blessed Prophet (saw)", MuslimSunrise
  100. ^ https://www.alislam.org/v/k-Seerat-un-Nabi.html?page=1 Seerat-un-Nabi
  101. ^ Kaptein (2007)

Bibliography

  • Kaptein, N. J. G. (1993). Muhammad's Birthday Festival: Early History in the Central Muslim Lands and Development in the Muslim West Until the 10th/16th Century. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09452-9.
  • Kaptein, N. J. G. (2007). "Mawlid". In P. Bearman; T. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill.
  • Katz, Marion Holmes (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. ISBN 9781135983949.

Further reading

  • Hagen, Gottfried (2014), "Mawlid (Ottoman)", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO.
  • Malik, Aftab Ahmed (2001). The Broken Chain: Reflections Upon the Neglect of a Tradition. Amal Press. ISBN 0-9540544-0-7.
  • Picken, Gavin (2014), "Mawlid", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO.
  • Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad (2014). Mawlid al-Nabi: Celebration and Permissibility. Minhaj-ul-Quran Publications. ISBN 978-1908229144.
  • Ukeles, Raquel. "The Sensitive Puritan? Revisiting Ibn Taymiyya's Approach to Law and Spirituality in Light of 20th-century Debates on the Prophet's Birthday (mawlid al-nabī)." Ibn Taymiyya and His Times, ed. Youssef Rapport and Shahab Ahmed, 319–337. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010.

External links

Abu al-Abbas al-Azafi

Abu al-Abbas al-Azafi or in full Abu al-Abbas Ahmad abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Lakhmi al-Sabti (1162–1236) was a religious and legal scholar and member of the Banu al-Azafi who ruled Ceuta in the 13th century. Al-Azafi was an expert in the analysis of oral tradition (riwaya wa diraya). He wrote a biography of the Berber saint Sidi Abu Yaaza Yalnour ibn Maymun ibn Abdallah Dukkali Hazmiri al-Gharbi (d. 572/1157): Di'amat al-yaqin fi za'amat al-muttaqin (The Pillar of certainty in the leadership of the God-conscious). His most important work is Kitab ad-durr al-munazzam fi i ‘l-mawlid al-mu’azzam. It was completed, after his death, by his son Abu l’Qasim. Al-Azafi established the custom of celebrating Mawlid in Ceuta. His son Abu'l-Qasim propagated it throughout the Maghreb.

Al-Mustafa Islamic Cultural Centre Ireland

Al-Mustafa Islamic Cultural Centre Ireland, which started its activities as Clonee Mosque based in the village of Clonee, is the mainstream and leading Islamic Centre in Dublin 15 Ireland.

It was established in January 2004 as Clonee Mosque, to cater as a place of worship for the Muslim community in Clonee (Dublin 15).

Due to the high number of attendees during the Friday prayers , Clonee Mosque moved to an industrial unit in Damastown in 2007. The Islamic Center represents more traditional Sufi oriented Barelvi movement.

Asida

Asida (Arabic: عصيدة‎ ‘aṣīdah) is a dish made up of a cooked wheat flour lump of dough, sometimes with added butter or honey. Similar to gruel or porridge, it is eaten in many North African and Middle Eastern countries. Considered one of the most popular desserts and traditional dish in many Arab countries. It is particularly popular in Yemen, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Algeria, Libya, Somalia, Tunisia, and Indonesia. It is usually eaten by hand, without the use of utensils. Often served during religious holidays such as Mawlid and Eid, it is also served during traditional ceremonies accompanying the birth of child, such as the ‘aqīqah, the cutting of the hair of a newborn seven days after birth.A simple yet rich dish, often eaten without other complementary dishes, it is traditionally served at breakfast and is also fed to women in labor.

Badawiyya

The Badawiyyah, Sufi tarika, was founded in the thirteenth century in Egypt by Ahmad al-Badawi (1199-1276). As a tarika, the Badawiyyah lacks any distinct doctrines. It was, however, extremely popular during both the Mamluk and Ottoman periods of Egypt. Mamluk Sultans often supported elaborate 'Mawlids' at the resting place of Sheikh Ahmed al-Badawi (or Seyyid Badawi as he is more commonly known) in the Nile Delta town of Tanta.

During the Ottoman period, this order spread to Turkey and there were several Tekkes or zawiyas in Istanbul many of which survived until the founding of the Turkish republic.

The mawlid of Seyyid Badawi is still celebrated in Egypt every year where the population of Tanta swells to almost double. Tents are placed in the streets around the Mosque of Seyyid Badawi where Qur'an recitations and sermons by important scholars from al-Azhar Mosque are delivered.

Birthday

A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution. Birthdays of people are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with birthday gifts, birthday cards, a birthday party, or a rite of passage.

Many religions celebrate the birth of their founders or religious figures with special holidays (e.g. Christmas, Mawlid, Buddha's Birthday, and Krishna Janmashtami).

There is a distinction between birthday and birthdate: The former, other than February 29, occurs each year (e.g. January 15), while the latter is the exact date a person was born (e.g., January 15, 2001).

Gamelan Sekaten

The Gamelan Sekaten (or Sekati) is a ceremonial gamelan (musical ensemble) from central Java, Indonesia, played during the annual Sekaten festival. The word "sekaten" itself is derived from syahadatain or shahada, the first requirement for converting into Islamic faith. Traditionally it is played once per year, on the occasion of Mawlid, Muhammad's birthday, for the week from the 6-12 of the month of Mulud (the third month of the Javanese calendar, corresponding to the Islamic Rabi' al-awwal). On this celebration it is brought from the palace at 11 pm to two pavilions before the Great Mosque. It is played every day during that week except the Thursday night/Friday morning. On the eve of the birthday proper, it is returned at 11 pm.The ensemble is said to have been created by Java's first Muslim prince, or one of the Wali Sanga, in order to convert reluctant Javanese to the Islamic faith. However, it almost certainly already existed, though the music was probably used to propagate the faith. The style of the Sekaten ensemble is very loud and majestic, because it seeks to attract people to the mosque. It was said that if a saron player was able to play so hard that he broke one of the bronze keys, he would get a reward from the sultan. The gamelan sekaten includes neither singers nor the soft instruments, unlike most Javanese ensembles.The ensembles are kept in the royal palaces. Two sets dating to the 16th century are found in each of the kraton in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, and two in Cirebon, one at Keraton Kasepuhan and one at Keraton Kanoman. Previously they were found in Madura and Banten as well. The names of the sets at Yogyakarta are Kyai Guntur Madu and Kyai Naga Wilaga; those at Surakarta are Kyai Guntur Madu and Kyai Guntur Sari. According to Benjamin Brinner, the gamelan sekaten, exists in halves: divided between the two rival courts in Surakarta and Yogyakorta, each court had a matching second half made.The pitches of the Sekaten ensemble is in pelog, but lower than standard ensembles today. According to Benjamin Brinner it is the lowest pitched, largest, and loudest ensemble in Java. In recent times the gamelan at ISI Surakarta commissioned a special Sekaten set that would be compatible with their other gamelan, to be used in new experimental compositions.

Historically, the Sekaten ensemble is notable in the development of the gamelan because it marked the change from the use of the bonang as the most important melody instrument, as it is in the earlier Munggang and Kodokngorek ensembles, to "leading" the ensemble by playing the pitches in anticipating patterns. In the ensemble, players sit on opposite sides of the bonang, which may have led to the modern configuration of pots, which is aimed at making octaves comfortable.

Jesenice Mosque

The Jesenice Mosque (Slovene: Džamija Jesenice, Bosnian: Mesdžid Jesenice) is a Sunni mosque located in the town of Jesenice, Municipality of Jesenice, Slovenia, on Viktor Kejžar street, no 19. It is the center of the Jesenice jamaat.

Many Muslims were among the wave of migrants from other Yugoslav republics attracted to Jesenice by steel-industry jobs in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 2002 census, 18% of the population of Jesenice were listed as Muslim, the highest percentage of any single municipality in Slovenia.The first Islamic observances in Jesenice took place in July 1969, when Mawlid was celebrated in a temporary hall in the railway station. The current mosque was bought in 1988, and its first governing community board established in October 1989. The building was renovated to its present appearance in 1992, when an 80 cm minaret was also added.

The Jesenice jamaat serves the area of Jesenice, Bled, Radovljica, Žirovnica, Kranjska Gora, Bohinjska Bistrica and Lesce with a total Muslim population of over 5,000, mostly hailing from Western Bosnia, the Republic of Macedonia and Kosovo.

A library, a classroom, an ablution fountain and the Imam's offices and quarters are also part of the complex.

Kahk

Kahk, or Ka'ak al-Eid (Arabic: كحك or كعك العيد), is a small circular biscuit eaten by Egyptians and Sudanese people to celebrate Eid al-Fitr and Easter. It is covered with powdered sugar and can be stuffed with ‘agameya (عجمية, a mixture of honey, nuts, and ghee), lokum, walnuts, pistachios, or dates, or simply served plain. Date-filled kahk are believed to be the origin of ma'amoul, a similar Eid biscuit eaten in the Levant.Kahk is an important part of Egyptian culture. In addition to its role in Eid and Easter, when it is often served to guests, it is also eaten as part of a wedding feast and is occasionally served at other holiday feasts, namely Christmas and Mawlid. Baking kahk is a traditional and social activity in the region: women of a village or neighborhood, Christian and Muslim alike, gather together to bake kahk, chat, and swap stories and recipes. Sometimes, Egyptians will prepare their kahk at home before taking it to a communal or commercial bakery to be baked and cooled. Families typically exchange kahk as gifts, and friendly informal competitions over whose kahk is best are common. The designs stamped on kahk can be elaborate and are sources of pride for Egyptian families. Kahk molds, typically made from wood or ceramic, are often passed down from generation to generation. While bakeries have always sold premade kahk, buying kahk from a bakery has increased in popularity in urban Egypt in recent years. However, store-bought kahk is relatively expensive—reaching 70 guineas ($12.69) per kilo in 2009—so many Egyptians, particularly those in rural areas, still bake their own.

Mawlid Hayir

Mawlid Hayir or Hon. Mawlid Hayir Hassan (in Somali as Mudane Mawliid Haayir Xassan ), is the regional vice-president of one of the nine divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia: The Somali regional state. He is a member of the Somali regional parliament and a member of the ruling party Ethiopian Somali People Democratic Party (ESPDP). He is also head of BOE and Co-Chair for the RNCB and hails from the Makahildhere clan of the Makahil section of Gadabursi.

Mawlid al-Barzanjī

Mawlid al-Barzanjī (مولد البرزنجي) is the popular name of one of the most important and universally accepted panegyrics of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Arabic vernacular. The complete title of the work is, “‘Iqd al-Jawhar fī Mawlid al-Nabiy al-Azhar (عقد الجوهر فى مولد النبي الأزهر) – The Jewelled Necklace of the Resplendent Prophet’s Birth”. It is work of the poet and Islamic jurist of the city of Medina Jaʿfar b. Ḥasan al-Barzanjī.

Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki

Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki (1944–2004) was a Sunni (Sufi) Islamic scholar from Saudi Arabia.

Muhyuddin Andavar Mosque

Muhyuddin Andavar Mosque (Tamil: முஹ்யுத்தீன் ஆண்டவர் பள்ளிவாசல் - Muḥyuddīn Āndavar Pallivāsal, Arabic: مسجد سيد محي الدين - Masjid Sayyid Muhyu-d Din, English: Saint Muhyuddin Mosque) is the only congregational mosque in the town of Thiruppanandal in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, India. It is administered according to the Sunni-Hanafi school of jurisprudence. It is part of a complex that houses a mausoleum, a cemetery, and a number of shops that are rented out to generate income for the running of the mosque.

Nasheed

A nasheed (Arabic: singular نشيد nashīd, plural أناشيد anāshīd, meaning: "chants"; also nasyid in Malaysia and Indonesia, and neşid in Turkey) is a work of vocal music that is either sung acappella or accompanied by percussion instruments such as the daf. In general, Islamic anasheed do not contain lamellaphone instruments, string instruments, or wind and brass instruments, although digital remastering – either to mimic percussion instruments or create overtones – is permitted. This is because many Muslim scholars state that Islam prohibits the use of musical instruments except for some basic percussion.

Nasheed are popular throughout the Islamic world. The material and lyrics of a nasheed usually make reference to Islamic beliefs, history, and religion, as well as current events.

Public holidays in Bangladesh

Bangladesh has numerous public holidays, including national memorial, religious and secular holidays of Bengali origin. The Bengali traditional calendar, known as Banggabda is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh. The holidays are celebrated according to Bengali, Islamic or Gregorian calendars for religious and civil purposes, respectively. Religious festivals like Eid are celebrated according to the Islamic calendar whereas other national holidays are celebrated according to the Bengali and Gregorian calendar. While the Islamic calendar is based on the movement of the moon, it loses synchronization with the seasons, through seasonal drift. Therefore, some public holidays are subject to change every year based on the lunar calendar.

There are fifteen public holidays in Bangladesh. Muslims and non-Muslims have four religious holidays each in addition to the secular seven national holidays. For the Muslims, four major Islamic holidays: Muharram, Mawlid, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are observed. For the Hindus: Krishna Janmashtami and Durga Puja are celebrated. As for the Christians and Buddhists: Christmas and Vesak (one day each) are celebrated.

Public holidays in India

India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals; however, there are only three national holidays in India: Republic Day (26 January), Independence Day (15 August) and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday (2 October).States have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular Hindu festivals of Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Maha Shivratri, Onam, Janmashtami, Saraswati Puja, Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Raksha Bandhan, Holi, Durga Puja, Dussehra and Diwali; Jain festivals are Mahavir Jayanti and Paryushan; Sikh festivals like Guru Nanak Jayanti and Vaisakhi; Muslim festivals of Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, Mawlid, Muharram; Buddhist festivals like Ambedkar Jayanti, Buddha Jayanti, Dhammachakra Pravartan Day and Losar; Parsi Zoroastrian holidays such as Nowruz, and Christian festivals of Christmas and Easter as well as days of observances such as Good Friday are observed throughout India.

Public holidays in Lebanon

The primary national holiday is Independence Day which is celebrated on November 22.

Rabi' al-awwal

Rabīʿ al-Awwal (Arabic: ربيع الأوّل, rabī‘u ’l-awwal) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. The name Rabī‘ al-awwal means "the first [month] or beginning of spring", referring to its position in the pre-Islamic Arabian calendar.

During this month, many Muslims celebrate Mawlid - the birthday of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Although the exact date is unknown, Sunni Muslims believe the date of birth of Muhammad to have been on the twelfth of this month, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe him to have been born on the dawn of the seventeenth day.

Muhammad himself never celebrated the mawlid; instead he encouraged Muslims to fast on Mondays of every week due to his birthday being “on a Monday”.

Religion in the Comoros

The predominant religion in the Comoros is Islam. Although the constitution, as revised in 2018, removed the reference to a state religion in the 2009 constitution, stating simply that Sunni Islam is the source of national identity, a 2008 law promulgated in January 2013 outlawed the practice of other forms of Islam in the country.

Tijaniyyah

The Tijāniyyah (Arabic: الطريقة التجانية‎, romanized: Al-Ṭarīqah al-Tijāniyyah, lit. 'The Tijānī Path') is a sufi tariqa (order, path) within sufism, originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, Niger, Chad, Ghana, Northern and South-western Nigeria and some part of Sudan. The Tijāniyyah order is also present in the state of Kerala in India. Its adherents are called Tijānī (spelled Tijaan or Tiijaan in Wolof, Tidiane or Tidjane in French). Tijānī place great importance on culture and education, and emphasize the individual adhesion of the disciple (murīd). To become a member of the order, one must receive the Tijānī wird, or a sequence of holy phrases to be repeated twice daily, from a muqaddam, or representative of the order.

Islamic holidays and observances
The two Eids
Other holidays and observances
January
February
March
April
May
June–July–August
June
July
September
October
November
December
Varies (year round)

Languages

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