Maui

The island of Maui (/ˈmaʊ.i/; Hawaiian: [ˈmɐwwi])[3] is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States.[4] Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010[5] and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei (including Wailea and Makena in the Kihei Town CDP, the island's second-most-populated CDP), Lahaina (including Kāʻanapali and Kapalua in the Lahaina Town CDP), Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.

Maui
Nickname: The Valley Isle
Maui Landsat Photo
Landsat satellite image of Maui. The small island to the southwest is Kahoʻolawe.
Map of Hawaii highlighting Maui
Location in the state of Hawaii
Geography
Location20°48′N 156°20′W / 20.800°N 156.333°W
Area727.2 sq mi (1,883 km2)
Area rank2nd largest Hawaiian Island
Highest elevation10,023 ft (3,055 m)[1]
Highest pointHaleakalā
Administration
United States
Symbols
FlowerLokelani
ColourʻĀkala (pink)
Largest settlementKahului
Demographics
Population154,834 (2015-16)
Pop. density162 /sq mi (62.5 /km2)
ISS-38 Hawaiian Island chain
Maui (center right, surrounded by Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and Kahoʻolawe) as seen from the International Space Station[2]

Name

Native Hawaiian tradition gives the origin of the island's name in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. According to it, Hawaiʻiloa named the island after his son, who in turn was named for the demigod Māui. The earlier name of Maui was ʻIhikapalaumaewa.[6] The Island of Maui is also called the "Valley Isle" for the large isthmus separating its northwestern and southeastern volcanic masses.

Geology and topography

Maui's diverse landscapes are the result of a unique combination of geology, topography, and climate. Each volcanic cone in the chain of the Hawaiian Islands is built of dark, iron-rich/quartz-poor rocks, which poured out of thousands of vents as highly fluid lava over a period of millions of years. Several of the volcanoes were close enough to each other that lava flows on their flanks overlapped one another, merging into a single island. Maui is such a "volcanic doublet," formed from two shield volcanoes that overlapped one another to form an isthmus between them.[7]

Mount Haleakala Crater Maui Hawaii (45740764101)
Looking into the Haleakalā crater
Maui, Hawaii beach
Volcanic rocks protrude on a Maui beach

The older, western volcano has been eroded considerably and is cut by numerous drainages, forming the peaks of the West Maui Mountains (in Hawaiian, Mauna Kahalawai). Puʻu Kukui is the highest of the peaks at 5,788 feet (1,764 m). The larger, younger volcano to the east, Haleakalā, rises to more than 10,000 feet (3,000 m) above sea level, and measures 5 miles (8.0 km) from seafloor to summit.

The eastern flanks of both volcanoes are cut by deeply incised valleys and steep-sided ravines that run downslope to the rocky, windswept shoreline. The valley-like Isthmus of Maui that separates the two volcanic masses was formed by sandy erosional deposits.

Maui's last eruption (originating in Haleakalā's Southwest Rift Zone) occurred around 1790; two of the resulting lava flows are located (1) at Cape Kīnaʻu between ʻĀhihi Bay and La Perouse Bay on the southwest shore of East Maui, and (2) at Makaluapuna Point[8] on Honokahua Bay on the northwest shore of West Maui. Although considered to be dormant by volcanologists, Haleakalā is certainly capable of further eruptions.[9]

Maui is part of a much larger unit, Maui Nui, that includes the islands of Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi, and the now submerged Penguin Bank. During periods of reduced sea level, including as recently as 20,000 years ago, they are joined together as a single island due to the shallowness of the channels between them.

Climate

Rainbow in Hawaii
Rainbow over the West Maui Mountains after rainfall in Kāʻanapali

The climate of the Hawaiian Islands is characterized by a two-season year, tropical and uniform temperatures everywhere (except at high elevations), marked geographic differences in rainfall, high relative humidity, extensive cloud formations (except on the driest coasts and at high elevations), and dominant trade-wind flow (especially at elevations below a few thousand feet). Maui itself has a wide range of climatic conditions and weather patterns that are influenced by several different factors in the physical environment:

  • Half of Maui is situated within 5 miles (8.0 km) of the island's coastline. This, and the extreme insularity of the Hawaiian Islands account for the strong marine influence on Maui's climate.
  • Gross weather patterns are typically determined by elevation and orientation towards the Trade winds (prevailing air flow comes from the northeast).
  • Maui's rugged, irregular topography produces marked variations in conditions. Air swept inland on the Trade winds is shunted one way or another by the mountains, valleys, and vast open slopes. This complex three-dimensional flow of air results in striking variations in wind speed, cloud formation, and rainfall.

Maui displays a unique and diverse set of climatic conditions, each of which is specific to a loosely defined sub-region of the island. These sub-regions are defined by major physiographic features (such as mountains and valleys) and by location on the windward or leeward side of the island.

Subregions

  • Windward lowlands – Below 2,000 feet (610 m) on north-to-northeast sides of an island. Roughly perpendicular to direction of prevailing trade winds. Moderately rainy; frequent trade wind-induced showers. Skies are often cloudy to partly cloudy. Air temperatures are more uniform (and mild) than those of other regions.
  • Leeward lowlands – Daytime temperatures are a little higher and nighttime temperatures are lower than in windward locations. Dry weather is prevalent, with the exception of sporadic showers that drift over the mountains to windward and during short-duration storms.
  • Interior lowlands – Intermediate conditions, often sharing characteristics of other lowland sub-regions. Occasionally experience intense local afternoon showers from well-developed clouds that formed due to local daytime heating.
  • Leeward side high-altitude mountain slopes with high rainfall – Extensive cloud cover and rainfall all year long. Mild temperatures are prevalent, but humidity is higher than any other sub-region.
  • Leeward side lower mountain slopes – Rainfall is higher than on the adjacent leeward lowlands, but much less than at similar altitudes on the windward side; however, maximum rainfall usually occurs leeward of the crests of lower mountains. Temperatures are higher than on the rainy slopes of the windward sides of mountains; cloud cover is almost as extensive.
  • High mountains – Above about 5,000 feet (1,500 m) on Haleakalā, rainfall decreases rapidly with elevation. Relative humidity may be ten percent or less. The lowest temperatures in the state are experienced in this region: air temperatures below freezing are common.
Wainapanapa sm
Black sand beach at Wai'anapanapa State Park

Rainfall

Showers are very common; while some of these are very heavy, the vast majority are light and brief. Even the heaviest rain showers are seldom accompanied by thunder and lightning. Throughout the lowlands in summer an overwhelming dominance of trade winds produces a drier season. At one extreme, the annual rainfall averages 17 inches (430 mm) to 20 inches (510 mm) or less in leeward coastal areas, such as the shoreline from Maalaea Bay to Kaupo, and near the summit of Haleakalā. At the other extreme, the annual average rainfall exceeds 300 inches (7,600 mm) along the lower windward slopes of Haleakalā, particularly along the Hāna Highway. Big Bog, a spot on the edge of Haleakala National Park overlooking Hana at about 5,400 feet elevation had an estimated mean annual rainfall of 404.4 inches over the 30-year period of 1978 to 2007.[10] If the islands of the State of Hawaii did not exist, the average annual rainfall on the same patch of water would be about 25 inches (640 mm). Instead, the mountainous topography of Maui and the other islands induce an actual average of about 70 inches (1,800 mm).

KahikinuiCoastlineMaui
Kahikinui coastline near Kaupo
Daily variations

In the lowlands rainfall is most likely to occur throughout the year during the night or morning hours, and least likely in mid-afternoon. The most pronounced daily variations in rainfall occur during the summer because most summer rainfall consists of trade winds showers that most often occur at night. Winter rainfall in the lowlands is the result of storm activity, which is as likely to occur in the daytime as at night. Rainfall variability is far greater during the winter, when occasional storms contribute appreciably to rainfall totals. With such wide swings in rainfall, it is inevitable that there are occasional droughts, sometimes causing economic losses. These occur when winter rains fail to produce sufficient significant rainstorms, impacting normally dry areas outside the trade winds that depend on them the most. The winter of 2011-2012 produced extreme drought on the leeward sides of Moloka'i, Maui, and Island of Hawaii.

Microclimates

Westküste Maui Hawaii (45740526221)
West Coast of Maui

The blend of warm tropical sunshine, varying humidity, ocean breezes and trade winds, and varying elevations create a variety of microclimates. Although the Island of Maui is small, it can feel quite different in each district resulting in a unique selection of micro-climates that are typical to each of its distinctive locations: Central Maui; leeward South Maui and West Maui; windward North Shore and East Maui; and Upcountry Maui.

Although Maui’s daytime temperatures average between 75 and 90 degrees year round, evening temperatures are about 15 degrees cooler in the more humid windward areas, about 18 degrees cooler in the dryer leeward areas, and cooler yet in higher elevations.

Makena Beach, Maui Hawaii (45015180584)
Makena Beach, South Maui

Central Maui consists primarily of Kahului and Wailuku. Kahului is literally the center of the island, and tends to keep steady, high temperatures throughout the year. The micro-climate in Kahului can be at times muggy, but it usually feels relatively dry and is often very breezy. The Wailuku area is set closer to the West Maui Mountain range. Here, more rainfall will be found throughout the year, and higher humidity levels.

Leeward side includes South Maui (Kihei, Wailea and Makena) and West Maui (Lahaina, Kaanapali and Kapalua). These areas are typically drier, with higher daytime temperature (up to 92 degrees), and the least amount of rainfall. (An exception is the high-altitude, unpopulated West Maui summit, which boasts up to 400 inches of rainfall per year on its north and east side.)

Waianapanapa State Park Maui Hawaii Road to Hana (45690767052)
Waianapanapa State Park in East Maui, next to Hana

Windward side includes the North Shore (Paia and Haiku) and East Maui (Keanae, Hana and Kipahulu). Located in the prevailing, northeast trade winds, these areas have heavier rainfall levels, which increase considerably at higher elevations.

Upcountry Maui (Makawao, Pukalani, and Kula) at the 1,700- to 4,500-foot levels, provides mild heat (70s and low 80s) during the day and cool evenings. The higher the elevation, the cooler the evenings. During Maui's winter, Upper Kula can be as cold as 40 degrees in the early morning hours, and the Haleakala summit can dip below freezing.

An exception to the normal pattern is the occasional winter “Kona storms” which bring rainfall to the South and West areas accompanied by high southwesterly winds (opposite of the prevailing trade wind direction).

Natural history

Maui is a leading whale-watching center in the Hawaiian Islands due to Humpback whales wintering in the sheltered ʻAuʻau Channel between the islands of Maui county. The whales migrate approximately 3,500 miles (5,600 km) from Alaskan waters each autumn and spend the winter months mating and birthing in the warm waters off Maui, with most leaving by the end of April. The whales are typically sighted in pods: small groups of several adults, or groups of a mother, her calf, and a few suitors. Humpbacks are an endangered species protected by U.S. federal and Hawaiʻi state law. There are estimated to be about 22,000 humpbacks in the North Pacific.[11] Although Maui's Humpback face many dangers, due to pollution, high-speed commercial vessels, and military sonar testing, their numbers have increased rapidly in recent years, estimated at 7% growth per year.[12]

Maui is home to a large rainforest on the northeastern flanks of Haleakalā, which serves as the drainage basin for the rest of the island. The extremely difficult terrain has prevented exploitation of much of the forest.

Agricultural and coastal industrial land use has had an adverse effect on much of Maui's coastal regions. Many of Maui's extraordinary coral reefs have been damaged by pollution, run-off, and tourism, although finding sea turtles, dolphins, and Hawaii's celebrated tropical fish, is still common. Leeward Maui used to boast a vibrant dry 'cloud forest' as well but this was destroyed by human activities over the last three hundred years.[13]

Wildlife

Green Sea Turtle, Maui
A green sea turtle near Maui

The birdlife of Maui does not have as high a concentration of endemic birdlife as some other Hawaiian islands, as recently as 200,000 years ago it was linked to the neighboring islands of Molokai, Lanai and Kaho'olawe in a large island called Maui Nui, thus reducing the chance of species endemic to any single one of these. Although Molokai does have several endemic species of birds, some extinct and some not, in modern times Maui, Lanai and Kaho'olawe have not had a whole lot of endemic birdlife. In ancient times during and after the period in which Maui was part of Maui Nui, Maui boasted a species of moa-nalo (which was also found on Molokai, Lanai and Kaho'olawe), a species of harrier (the Wood harrier, shared with Molokai), an undescribed sea eagle (Maui only), and three species of ground-dwelling flightless ibis (Apteribis sp.), plus a host of other species. Today, the most notable non-extinct endemics of Maui are probably the 'Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei) and the Maui parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), both of which are critically endangered and only found in alpine forest on the windward slopes of Haleakala. Birds found on other islands as well as Maui include the I'iwi (Drepanis coccinea], 'Apapane (Himatione sanguinea), as well as the Nene (Branta sandvicensis, the state bird of Hawaii), Hawaiian coot (Fulica alai), and a number of others.

History

Iao Needle MO
The "needle" of ʻĪao Valley

Polynesians from Tahiti were the original people to populate Maui. The Tahitians introduced the kapu system, a strict social order that affected all aspects of life and became the core of Hawaiʻian culture. Modern Hawaiʻian history began in the mid-18th century. Kamehameha I, king of the island of Hawaiʻi, invaded Maui in 1790 and fought the inconclusive Battle of Kepaniwai, but returned to Hawaiʻi to battle a rival, finally subduing Maui a few years later.

On November 26, 1778, explorer James Cook became the first European to see Maui. Cook never set foot on the island because he was unable to find a suitable landing. The first European to visit Maui was the French admiral Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse, who landed on the shores of what is now known as La Perouse Bay on May 29, 1786. More Europeans followed: traders, whalers, loggers (e.g., of sandalwood) and missionaries. The latter began to arrive from New England in 1823, settling in Lahaina, which at that time was the capital. They clothed the natives, banned them from dancing hula, and greatly altered the culture. The missionaries taught reading and writing, created the 12-letter Hawaiian alphabet, started a printing press in Lahaina, and began writing the islands' history, which until then was transmitted orally.[14] Ironically, the missionaries both altered and preserved the native culture. The religious work altered the culture while the literacy efforts preserved native history and language. Missionaries started the first school in Lahaina, which still exists today: Lahainaluna Mission School, which opened in 1831.

'Japanese Laborers on Spreckelsville Plantation', oil on canvas painting by Joseph Dwight Strong, 1885, private collection
Japanese laborers on Maui harvesting sugarcane in 1885.

At the height of the whaling era (1843–1860), Lahaina was a major center. In one season over 400 ships visited with up to 100 anchored at one time in Lāhainā Roads. Ships tended to stay for weeks rather than days, fostering extended drinking and the rise of prostitution, against which the missionaries vainly battled. Whaling declined steeply at the end of the 19th century as petroleum replaced whale oil.

Kamehameha's descendants reigned until 1872. They were followed by rulers from another ancient family of chiefs, including Queen Liliʻuokalani, deposed in the 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii by American business interests. One year later, the Republic of Hawaii was founded. The island was annexed by the United States in 1898 and made a territory in 1900. Hawaiʻi became the 50th U.S. state in 1959.

In 1937, Vibora Luviminda trade union conducted the last strike action of an ethnic nature in the Hawaiʻian Islands against four Maui sugarcane plantations, demanding higher wages and the dismissal of five foremen. Manuel Fagel and nine other strike leaders were arrested, and charged with kidnapping a worker. Fagel spent four months in jail while the strike continued. Eventually, Vibora Luviminda made its point and the workers won a 15% increase in wages after 85 days on strike, but there was no written contract signed.

Maui was centrally involved in the Pacific Theater of World War II as a staging center, training base, and rest and relaxation site. At the peak in 1943-44, more than 100,000 soldiers were there. The main base of the 4th Marine Division was in Haiku. Beaches were used to practice landings and train in marine demolition and sabotage.

Modern development

KahakuloaHead sml
Kahakuloa Head near the tiny village of Kahakuloa on the north side of west Maui

The island experienced rapid population growth through 2007, with Kīhei one of the most rapidly growing towns in the United States (see chart, below). The island attracted many retirees, adding service providers for them to the rapidly increasing number of tourists. Population growth produced strains, including traffic congestion, housing unaffordability, and issues of access to water.

Historical population
Census Pop.
195040,103
196035,717−10.9%
197038,6918.3%
198062,82362.4%
199091,36145.4%
2000117,64428.8%
2010144,44422.8%
State of Hawaii [5]

Most recent years have brought droughts, resulting in the ʻĪao aquifer being drawn at possibly unsustainable rates above 18 million U.S. gallons (68,000 m3) per day. Recent estimates indicate that the total potential supply of potable water on Maui is around 476 million U.S. gallons (1,800,000 m3) per day, virtually all of which runs off into the ocean.

Water for sugar cultivation comes mostly from the streams of East Maui, routed through a network of tunnels and ditches hand dug by Chinese labor in the 19th century. In 2006, the town of Paia successfully petitioned the county against mixing in treated water from wells known to be contaminated with both 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane from former pineapple cultivation in the area (Environment Hawaii, 1996). Agricultural companies have been released from all future liability for these chemicals (County of Maui, 1999). In 2009, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs and others successfully argued in court that sugar companies should reduce the amount of water they take from four streams.[15]

In 1974, Emil Tedeschi of the Napa Valley winegrower family of Calistoga, California, established the first Hawaiian commercial winery, the Tedeschi Winery at Ulupalakua Ranch.

In the 2000s, controversies over whether to continue rapid real-estate development, vacation rentals in which homeowners rent their homes to visitors, and Hawaii Superferry preoccupied local residents. In 2003, Corey Ryder of the Earth Foundation gave a presentation regarding the unique situation on Maui, "Hazard mitigation, safety & security", before the Maui County Council.[16] In 2009, the county approved a 1,000-unit development in South Maui in the teeth of the financial crisis. Vacation rentals are now strictly limited, with greater enforcement than previously. Hawaii Superferry, which offered transport between Maui and Oahu, ceased operations in May 2009, ended by a court decision that required environmental studies from which Governor Linda Lingle had exempted the operator.[17]

In 2016, Maui residents convinced officials to switch to organic pesticides for highway applications after they found out that label requirements for glyphosate formulations were not being followed.[18]

Economy

Fleming Beach, Maui
Fleming Beach near Kapalua

The major industry on Maui is tourism. Other large sectors include retail, health care, business services and government. Maui also has a significant presence in agriculture and information technology.

The unemployment rate reached a low of 1.7% in December 2006, rising to 9% in March 2009[19] before falling back to 4.6% by the end of 2013[20] and to 2.1% in January, 2018.[21]

Agriculture

Maui's primary agriculture products are corn and other seeds, fruits, cattle and vegetables.[22] Specific products include coffee, macadamia nuts, papaya, flowers and fresh pineapple. Historically, Maui's primary products were sugar and pineapple. Maui Land & Pineapple Company[23] and Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company[24] (HC&S, a subsidiary of Alexander and Baldwin Company) dominated agricultural activity. In 2016, sugar production ended.[25] Haliimaile Pineapple Co. grows pineapple on former Maui Land & Pineapple Co. land.[26]

In November 2014, a Maui County referendum enacted a moratorium on genetically engineered crops.[27] Shortly thereafter Monsanto and other agribusinesses obtained a court injunction suspending the moratorium.[28]

Information technology

The Maui High Performance Computing Center at the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing observatory[29] in Kīhei is a United States Air Force research laboratory center that is managed by the University of Hawaii. It provides more than 10 million hours of computing time per year to the research, science and military communities.

Another promoter of high technology on the island is the Maui Research and Technology Center,[30] also located in Kihei. It[31] is a program of the High Technology Development Corporation,[32] an agency of the State of Hawaii, whose focus is to facilitate the growth of Hawaii's commercial high-technology sector.[33]

Astrophysics

Maui is an important center for advanced astronomical research. The Haleakala Observatory[34] was Hawaii's first astronomical research and development facility, operating at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) electro-optical facility. "At the 10,023-foot summit of the long dormant volcano Haleakala, operational satellite tracking facilities are co-located with a research and development facility providing superb data acquisition and communication support. The high elevation, dry climate, and freedom from light pollution offer virtually year-round observation of satellites, missiles, man-made orbital debris, and astronomical objects."[35]

Sports

Snorkeling

Hawaii Maui Makena Big Beach (22649774315)
"Big Beach" in Makena, on the Island's southwest shore

Snorkeling is one of the most popular activities on Maui. There are over 30 beaches and bays to snorkel at around the island. The Hawaiian Island of Maui has been voted "Best Island in the World" because of the nice weather environment and due to the fact that Maui has many swimmable beaches. Hawaiian Islands are known for having year round trade winds[36]. Maui's trade winds tend to come in from the northeast, making the most popular places to snorkel on the south and west shores of Maui. Having many mountains on Maui, helps with the trade winds not being able to reach the beaches located on the south and west of the island, making the ocean water very clear and peaceful.

Windsurfing

Maui is a well known destination for windsurfing. Kanaha Beach Park is a very well-known windsurfing spot and may have stand-up paddle boarders or surfers if there are waves and no wind. Windsurfing has evolved on Maui since the early 1980s when it was recognized as an ideal location to test equipment and publicize the sport.

Surfing

One of the most popular sports in Hawaii. Ho'okipa Beach Park is one of Maui's most famous surfing and windsurfing spots. Other famous or frequently surfed areas include Slaughterhouse Beach, Honolua Bay, Pe'ahi (Jaws), and Fleming Beach. The north side of Maui absorbs the most swell during the winter season and the south and west in the summer time. Due to island blocking, summer south swells tend to be weak and rare.

Kiteboarding and kitesurfing

One of the newest sports on Maui is Kiteboarding/Surfing. Kanaha Beach Park is where beginner, intermediate and advanced Kiters gather. It is known as Kite Beach. Kiters share the water with Windsurfers who have dominated the area since the early 1980s. Since 2008 there has been an explosion in the number of Kiters mostly due to advances in equipment and safety.

Tourism

Kaanapali beach sunset on Maui Hawaii (45015472644)
Kaanapali beach in Lahaina

The big tourist spots in Maui include the Hāna Highway, Haleakalā National Park, Iao Valley, and Lahaina.

The Hāna Highway runs along the east coast of Maui, curving around mountains and passing by black sand beaches and waterfalls. Haleakalā National Park is home to Haleakalā, a dormant volcano. Snorkeling can be done at almost any beach along the Maui coast. Surfing and windsurfing are also popular on Maui.

The main tourist areas are West Maui (Kāʻanapali, Lahaina, Nāpili-Honokōwai, Kahana, Napili, Kapalua) and South Maui (Kīhei, Wailea-Mākena). The main port of call for cruise ships is located in Kahului. There are also smaller ports located at Lahaina Harbor (located in Lahaina) and Maʻalaea Harbor (located between Lahaina and Kihei). Lahaina is one of the main attractions on the island with an entire street of shops and restaurants which leads to a wharf where many set out for a sunset cruise or whale watching journey. Known locally as Lahainatown, it has a long and diverse history from its Hawaiian population beginnings to the arrival of travelers and settlers and its use as a significant whaling port.[37]

Maui County welcomed 2,207,826 tourists in 2004 rising to 2,639,929 in 2007 with total tourist expenditures north of US$3.5 billion for the Island of Maui alone. While the island of Oʻahu is most popular with Japanese tourists, the Island of Maui appeals to visitors mostly from the U.S. mainland and Canada: in 2005, there were 2,003,492 domestic arrivals on the island, compared to 260,184 international arrivals.

While winning many travel industry awards as Best Island In The World[38] in recent years concerns have been raised by locals and environmentalists about the overdevelopment of Maui. A number of activist groups, including Save Makena[39] have gone as far as taking the government to court to protect the rights of local citizens.[40]

Throughout 2008 Maui suffered a major loss in tourism compounded by the spring bankruptcies of Aloha Airlines and ATA Airlines. The pullout in May of the second of three Norwegian Cruise Line ships also hurt. Pacific Business News reported a $166 million loss in revenue for Maui tourism businesses.

Sunrise at Haleakalā
Sunrise at Haleakalā

Transportation

The Maui Bus is a county-funded program that provides transportation around the island for nominal fares.[41]

Airports

Three airports provide air service to Maui:

Health care

There are two hospitals on the island of Maui. The first, Maui Memorial Medical Center, is the only acute care hospital in Maui County. It is centrally located in the town of Wailuku approximately 4 miles from Kahului Airport. The second, Kula Hospital, is a critical access hospital located on the southern half on the island in the rural town of Kula. Kula Hospital, along with Lanai Community Hospital (which is located in Maui County but on the neighboring island of Lanai), are affiliates of Maui Memorial Medical Center. All three hospitals are open 24/7 for emergency access. Although not technically a hospital or emergency room, Hana Health Clinic (or Hana Medical Center), located in the remote town of Hana on the southeastern side of the island, works in cooperation with American Medical Response and Maui Memorial Medical Center to stabilize and transport patients with emergent medical conditions. It too is open 24/7 for urgent care and emergency access.[42][43][44]

International relations

Maui is twinned with:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Table 5.11 - Elevations of Major Summits", 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book (PDF), State of Hawaii, 2004, retrieved 2007-07-23
  2. ^ "Hawaii January 29, 2014". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  3. ^ Kinney, Ruby Kawena (1956). "A Non-purist View of Morphomorphemic Variations in Hawaiian Speech". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 65 (3): 282–286.
  4. ^ "Table 5.08 - Land Area of Islands: 2000", 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book (PDF), State of Hawaii, 2004, retrieved 2007-07-23
  5. ^ a b "Table 1.05 - Resident Population of Islands 1950 to 2010", 2010 State of Hawaii Data Book (PDF), State of Hawaii, 2010, retrieved 2011-09-25
  6. ^ Sterling, Elspeth P. (1 June 1998). Sites of Maui. Bishop Museum Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-930897-97-0.
  7. ^ "Hawaiian Volcano Observatory". volcanoes.usgs.gov.
  8. ^ "Makaluapuna Point". Archived from the original on 2007-10-14.
  9. ^ Observatory, HVO, Hawaiian Volcano. "East Maui volcano (Haleakala), Hawai`i". hvo.wr.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
  10. ^ "'Big Bog' ranks among wettest spots in Hawaii, possibly world - Mauinews.com - The Maui News". www.mauinews.com. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
  11. ^ "Population Estimates". iwc.int. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  12. ^ "Record Number of Whales Sighted During Great Whale Count". pacificwhale.org.
  13. ^ "History of Sandalwood on Maui". tourmaui.com.
  14. ^ Goldman, Rita (May 2008). "Hale Pa'i". Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  15. ^ "Pending ruling restores water to 4 streams on Maui". Honolulu Star-Advertiser - Hawaii Newspaper. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  16. ^ "Earth foundation-corey-ryder". Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  17. ^ "Supreme Court ruling forces Hawaii Superferry shutdown, layoffs".
  18. ^ "How Activists Are Restricting Use of a Major Pesticide". Time. Archived from the original on 2018-01-29. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
  19. ^ "Unemployment rate". Yahoo. 4 December 2010.
  20. ^ "VIDEO: Maui Unemployment Rate Lowest Since 2008 - Maui Now". mauinow.com.
  21. ^ "Maui Now: Maui Unemployment Rate Remains Low in January". Maui Now | Maui Unemployment Rate Remains Low in January. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  22. ^ US Department of Agriculture (2013). "20121 Census of Agriculture - Maui County" (PDF).
  23. ^ "Maui Land & Pineapple Company homepage". Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  24. ^ "Commercial and Sugar Company". Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  25. ^ "Bittersweet End to Cane Plantation Days". hpr2.org. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  26. ^ "Maui Pine assets sold for quarter of worth - Pacific Business News". Pacific Business News. Retrieved 2016-01-15.
  27. ^ "Election results show money doesn't guarantee votes". November 5, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  28. ^ Audrey McAvoy; and KHON2 (November 14, 2014). "Federal judge blocks Maui GMO moratorium". Archived from the original on 2014-12-22. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  29. ^ "Maui High Performance Computing Center homepage". Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  30. ^ "Maui Research & Technology Center". Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  31. ^ "What is the Maui Research & Technology Center?". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  32. ^ "TTDC homepage". Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  33. ^ "Hawaii's Emerging Technology Industry" (PDF). January 2000.
  34. ^ "Institute for Astronomy, Maui homepage". Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  35. ^ "Maui Space Surveillance Site". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  36. ^ "Maui Snorkeling Secrets! The Complete Guide to Snorkeling in Maui!". www.hawaiisnorkelingguide.com. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  37. ^ "Lahaina Town History Timeline | Maui, Hawaii Events". lahainatown.com. Archived from the original on 2018-01-26. Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  38. ^ "Best Island In The World" (PDF) (Press release). Maui Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-22.
  39. ^ "Save Makena". Save Makena.
  40. ^ Tayfun King Fast Track (2009-03-09). "Concerns Of Overdevelopment In Maui". BBC World News.
  41. ^ "Bus Service Information". County of Maui. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  42. ^ "Maui Memorial Medical Center". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  43. ^ "Kula Hospital". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  44. ^ "Hana Health Clinic". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  45. ^ "Sister Cities". The Local Government of Quezon City. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2019.

References

External links

Coordinates: 20°48′N 156°20′W / 20.800°N 156.333°W

2016 Tennis Championships of Maui

The 2016 Tennis Championships of Maui was a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was the seventh (ATP) and first (ITF) editions of the tournament and part of the 2016 ATP Challenger Tour and the 2016 ITF Women's Circuit, offering a total of $50,000 in prize money for both genders. It took place in Lahaina, Maui, United States, on 25–31 January, 2016.

Haleakalā

Haleakalā (; Hawaiian: [ˈhɐlɛˈjɐkəˈlaː]), or the East Maui Volcano, is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. The western 25% of the island is formed by another volcano, Mauna Kahalawai, also referred to as the West Maui Mountains.

The tallest peak of Haleakalā ("house of the sun"), at 10,023 feet (3,055 m), is Puʻu ʻUlaʻula (Red Hill). From the summit one looks down into a massive depression some 11.25 km (7 mi) across, 3.2 km (2 mi) wide, and nearly 800 m (2,600 ft) deep. The surrounding walls are steep and the interior mostly barren-looking with a scattering of volcanic cones.

Haleakalā National Park

Haleakalā National Park is an American national park located on the island of Maui in the state of Hawaii. The park covers an area of 33,265 acres (52.0 sq mi; 134.6 km2), of which 19,270 acres (30.1 sq mi; 78.0 km2) is a wilderness area.

Hawke's Bay Region

Hawke's Bay Region (Māori: Te Matau-a-Māui) is a region of New Zealand on the east coast of the North Island. It is governed by Hawke's Bay Regional Council, which sits in the city of Napier. The region's name derives from Hawke Bay, which was named by Captain James Cook in honour of Admiral Edward Hawke.

Kahoolawe

Kahoʻolawe (; Hawaiian: [kəˈhoʔoˈlɐve]) is the smallest of the eight main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. Kahoʻolawe is located about seven miles (11 km) southwest of Maui and also southeast of Lānaʻi, and it is 11 mi (18 km) long by 6.0 mi (9.7 km) wide, with a total land area of 44.97 sq mi (116.47 km2). The highest point on Kahoʻolawe is the crater of Lua Makika at the summit of Puʻu Moaulanui, which is about 1,477 feet (450 m) above sea level. Kahoʻolawe is relatively dry (average annual rainfall is less than 65 cm or 26 in) because the island's low elevation fails to generate much orographic precipitation from the northeastern trade winds, and Kahoʻolawe is located in the rain shadow of eastern Maui's 10,023-foot-high (3,055 m) volcano, Haleakalā. More than one quarter of Kahoʻolawe has been eroded down to saprolitic hardpan soil, largely on exposed surfaces near the summit.

Kahoʻolawe has always been sparsely populated, due to its lack of fresh water. During World War II, Kahoʻolawe was used as a training ground and bombing range by the Armed Forces of the United States. After decades of protests, the U.S. Navy ended live-fire training exercises on Kahoʻolawe in 1990, and the whole island was transferred to the jurisdiction of the state of Hawaii in 1994. The Hawaii State Legislature established the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve to restore and to oversee the island and its surrounding waters. Today Kahoʻolawe can be used only for native Hawaiian cultural, spiritual, and subsistence purposes.

The U.S. Census Bureau defines Kahoʻolawe as Block Group 9, Census Tract 303.02 of Maui County, Hawaii. Kahoʻolawe has no permanent residents.

Kahului, Hawaii

Kahului is a census-designated place (CDP) on the island of Maui in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It hosts Maui's main airport (Kahului Airport), deep-draft harbor, light industrial areas, and commercial shopping centers. The population was 26,337 at the 2010 census. Kahului is part of the Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina Metropolitan Statistical Area which includes nearby Wailuku and the town and former whaling village of Lahaina.

The retail center for Maui residents, Kahului has several malls and major stores (including department stores in the Queen Kaahumanu Center); other significant groupings of stores are in Lāhainā such as the Lahaina Cannery Mall, the Happy Valley area of Wailuku, Maui Market Place and Maui Mall, which are both also located in Kahului; and The Shops at Wailea in Wailea.

Kahului is not generally considered a tourist destination. It does feature the Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum, Kanaha Pond State Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanaha Beach County Park, and the Maui Arts and Cultural Center.

Kahului is served by Kahului Airport, located outside the CDP.

Kahului Airport

Kahului Airport (IATA: OGG, ICAO: PHOG, FAA LID: OGG) is a regional airport in the state of Hawai'i, United States, located east of the Kahului CDP in Maui County on the island of Maui near Haleakala. It has offered full airport operations since 1952. Most flights into Kahului Airport originate from Daniel K. Inouye International Airport in Honolulu; the Honolulu–Kahului corridor is one of the busiest air routes in the US, ranking 13th in 2004 with 1,632,000 passengers.The IATA airport code OGG pays homage to aviation pioneer Bertram J. "Jimmy" Hogg, a Kauai native and aviation pioneer who worked for what is now Hawaiian Airlines flying aircraft ranging from eight-passenger Sikorsky S-38 amphibians to Douglas DC-3s and DC-9s into the late 1960s.It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a medium-hub primary commercial service facility.

Lahaina, Hawaii

Lahaina is the largest census-designated place (CDP) in West Maui, Maui County, Hawaii, United States and includes the Ka'anapali and Kapalua beach resorts. As of the 2010 census, the CDP had a resident population of 11,704. Lahaina encompasses the coast along Hawaii Route 30 from a tunnel at the south end, through Olowalu and to the CDP of Napili-Honokowai to the north. During the tourist season, the population can swell to nearly 40,000 people.

Lahaina's popularity as a tropical getaway has made its real estate some of the most expensive in Hawaii; many luxury homes and condos sell for more than $5 million.

Lanai

Lānaʻi (; Hawaiian: [laːˈnɐʔi, naː-]) is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands and the smallest publicly accessible inhabited island in the chain. It is colloquially known as the Pineapple Island because of its past as an island-wide pineapple plantation. The island's only settlement of note is the small town of Lānaʻi City. As of 2012, the island was 97% owned by Larry Ellison (Founder and Chairman of Oracle), with the remaining 3% owned by the state of Hawaiʻi and privately owned homes.Lānaʻi is a roughly apostrophe-shaped island with a width of 18 miles (29 km) in the longest direction. The land area is 140.5 square miles (364 km2), making it the 42nd largest island in the United States. It is separated from the island of Molokaʻi by the Kalohi Channel to the north, and from Maui by the Auʻau Channel to the east. The United States Census Bureau defines Lānaʻi as Census Tract 316 of Maui County. Its total population shrank from 3,193 as of the 2000 census to 3,102 as of 2010. Many of the island's landmarks are accessible only by dirt roads that require a four-wheel drive vehicle.There is one school, Lanai High and Elementary School, serving the entire island from kindergarten through 12th grade. There is also one hospital, Lanai Community Hospital, with 24 beds, and a community health center providing primary care, dental, behavioral health and selected specialty services in Lānaʻi City. There are no traffic lights on the island.

List of places in Hawaii

This is a list of census-designated places in Hawaii. There are no separately incorporated cities in the entire state; Honolulu is both a city and county. Population data from the 2010 Census.

Maui County, Hawaii

Maui County, officially the County of Maui, is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It consists of the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai (except for a portion of Molokai that comprises Kalawao County), Kahoolawe, and Molokini. The latter two are uninhabited. As of the 2010 census, the population was 154,834. The county seat is Wailuku.Maui County is included in the Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Maui Fever

Maui Fever is an American reality television series on MTV. The series debuted on Wednesday, January 17, 2007 at 10:30PM on MTV. The series reveals the daily lives of several young friends living in the Kaanapali area on the island of Maui.Following the style of MTV's Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, The Hills, and 8th & Ocean, Maui Fever was shot as a "reality drama" (in the format of a scripted television show). Maui Fever cast members never spoke directly to the camera or gave testimonials, a tactic used in MTV's The Real World and in traditional documentaries. However, a voice-over narrative spoken by Cheyne Magnusson, one of the main characters, was used at the beginning of each episode to set up the scene and tie together storylines.The opening credits of Maui Fever featured the song, "Horndog" by Overseer.

Maui Invitational Tournament

The Maui Invitational, currently known as the Maui Jim Maui Invitational, is an annual early-season college basketball tournament that takes place Thanksgiving Week in Lahaina, Hawaii, at the Lahaina Civic Center on the island of Maui. It is hosted by Chaminade University of Honolulu, an NCAA Division II school. Seven NCAA Division I men's basketball teams are invited to Maui to complete the field. The Maui Invitational has been played since 1984, is carried by ESPN. Maui Jim became the title sponsor of the tournament in 2015; the previous fourteen tournaments sponsored by EA Sports.

Moana (2016 film)

Moana (), also known as Vaiana or Oceania in some markets, is a 2016 American 3D computer-animated musical adventure film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is the 56th Disney animated feature film. Directed by Ron Clements and John Musker, co-directed by Don Hall and Chris Williams, the film introduces Auliʻi Cravalho as Moana and features the voices of Dwayne Johnson, Rachel House, Temuera Morrison, Jemaine Clement, Nicole Scherzinger, and Alan Tudyk. The film features songs written by Lin-Manuel Miranda and Opetaia Foa'i and orchestral score composed by Mark Mancina.

The film tells the story of Moana, the strong-willed daughter of a chief of a Polynesian village, who is chosen by the ocean itself to reunite a mystical relic with a goddess. When a blight strikes her island, Moana sets sail in search of Maui, a legendary demigod, in the hope of returning the heart of Te Fiti and saving her people.

Moana was released theatrically in the United States on November 23, 2016 to positive reviews from critics, with particular praise going towards its animation, music, and vocal performances. The film went on to gross over $643 million worldwide. Along with Zootopia, it marked the first time since 2002 that Walt Disney Animation Studios released two feature films in the same year. It received two Academy Award nominations at the 89th Academy Awards: one for Best Animated Feature and another for Best Original Song ("How Far I'll Go").

Molokai

Molokaʻi (; Hawaiian: [ˈmoloˈkɐʔi]), nicknamed “The Friendly Isle”, is the fifth largest island of eight major islands that make up the Hawaiian Island Chain in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is 38 by 10 miles (61 by 16 km) in size at its extreme length and width with a usable land area of 260 square miles (673.40 km2), making it the fifth-largest of the main Hawaiian Islands and the 27th largest island in the United States. It lies east of Oʻahu across the 25-mile (40 km) wide Kaiwi Channel and north of Lānaʻi, separated from it by the Kalohi Channel.

The island has been known both for developments by Molokaʻi Ranch on much of the island, for pineapple production, cattle ranching and tourism. Residents or visitors to the west end of Molokaʻi can see the lights of Honolulu on Oʻahu at night; they can view nearby Lānaʻi and Maui from anywhere along the south shore of the island. In Kalawao County, on the Kalaupapa Peninsula on the north coast, settlements were established in 1866 for quarantined treatment of persons with leprosy; these operated until 1969. The Kalaupapa National Historical Park now preserves this entire county and area.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Hawaii

This is a list of properties and historic districts in Hawaii listed on the National Register of Historic Places. More than 340 listings appear on all but one of Hawaii's main islands (Niihau being the exception) and the Northwestern Islands, and in all of its five counties. Included are houses, schools, archeological sites, ships, shipwrecks and various other types of listings. These properties and districts are listed by island, beginning at the northwestern end of the chain.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted May 17, 2019.

North Island

The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,749,200 (June 2018).Twelve main urban areas (half of them officially cities) are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangarei, Auckland, Hamilton, Tauranga, Rotorua, Gisborne, New Plymouth, Napier, Hastings, Whanganui, Palmerston North, and Wellington, the capital, located at the south-west extremity of the island. About 77% of New Zealand's population lives in the North Island.

Tennis Championships of Maui

The Tennis Championships of Maui (formerly known as the Honolulu Challenger, the Maui Challenger and the Royal Lahaina Challenger) is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Lahaina, Maui. It was moved from Honolulu to Maui in 2013, and to the Royal Lahaina in 2014. The tournament was included in the ITF Women's Circuit for one year, in 2016.

Wailuku, Hawaii

Wailuku is a census-designated place (CDP) in and county seat of Maui County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 15,313 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Maui County.Wailuku is located just west of Kahului, at the mouth of the ʻĪao Valley. In the early 20th century Wailuku was the main tourist destination on Maui, though it has since been eclipsed with the rise of the resort towns such as Kaʻanapali, so much so that there are currently no hotels to speak of in Wailuku.

Historic sites in the town include Kaʻahumanu Church (named after one of Hawaiʻi's great monarchs, Queen Kaʻahumanu) which dates to 1876, the Wailuku Civic Center Historic District, the site of the Chee Kung Tong Society Building, and the Bailey House, a 19th-century former seminary and home that houses a history museum and the Maui Historical Society.

There are two ancient temples near Wailuku, called heiau — the Halekiʻi Heiau and the Pihanakalani Heiau. Both date back hundreds of years and were used for religious purposes by the native Hawaiians.Wailuku is served by Kahului Airport.

 State of Hawaii
Topics
Society
Main islands
Northwestern
Islands
Communities
Counties
Sovereignty Movement
Islands, municipalities, and communities of Maui County, Hawaii, United States
CDPs
Unincorporated
communities
Footnotes
Windward
Isles
Leeward
Isles
Emperor
Seamounts
Notable eruptions
and vents
Topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.