Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor

Matthias of Austria (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611. He was a member of the House of Habsburg.[1]

Matthias
Matthias, keizer van het Heilige Roomse Rijk (1557-1619). Rijksmuseum SK-A-1412.jpeg
Matthias with the Imperial Crown
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Germany
Reign13 June 1612 – 20 March 1619
Coronation26 June 1612, Frankfurt
PredecessorRudolf II
SuccessorFerdinand II
King of Bohemia
Reign11 March 1611 – 16 May 1617
Coronation23 May 1611, Prague
PredecessorRudolf II
SuccessorFerdinand II
Archduke of Austria
Reign25 June 1608 – 20 March 1619
PredecessorRudolf II
SuccessorFerdinand II
King of Hungary and Croatia
Reign25 June 1608 – 1 July 1618
Coronation19 November 1608, Pressburg
PredecessorRudolf II
SuccessorFerdinand II
Born24 February 1557
Vienna, Austria
Died20 March 1619 (aged 62)
Vienna, Austria
SpouseAnna of Austria-Tyrol
HouseHouse of Habsburg
FatherMaximilian II
MotherMaria of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Biography

Matthias was born in the Austrian capital of Vienna to Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain.

Matthias married Archduchess Anna of Austria, daughter of his uncle Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, whose successor in Further Austria Matthias became in 1595. Their marriage did not produce surviving children.

In 1578, Matthias was invited to the Netherlands by the States-General of the rebellious provinces, who offered him the position of Governor-General. Matthias accepted the appointment, although the position was not recognized by his uncle, Philip II of Spain, the hereditary ruler of the provinces. He set down the rules for religious peace within most of the United Provinces. His work is noted in Article 13 of the 1579 Union of Utrecht, which established freedom of religion as a locally determined issue.[2] Matthias continued as titular governor for the rebels until they deposed Philip II and declared full independence in 1581, at which point he returned home to Austria.

In 1593 he was appointed governor of Austria by his brother, Emperor Rudolf II. He formed a close association there with the Bishop of Vienna, Melchior Klesl, who later became his chief adviser. In 1605 Matthias forced the ailing emperor to allow him to deal with the Hungarian Protestant rebels. The result was the Peace of Vienna of 1606, which guaranteed religious freedom in Hungary and guaranteed the right of Transylvanians to elect their own independent princes in the future. In the same year Matthias was recognized as head of the House of Habsburg and as the future Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of Rudolf's illness. Allying himself with the estates of Hungary, Austria, and Moravia, Matthias forced his brother to yield rule of these lands to him in 1608; Rudolf later ceded Bohemia in 1611. Matthias's army then held Rudolf prisoner in his castle in Prague, until 1611, when Rudolf was forced to cede the crown of Bohemia to his brother.

Ritratto di Mattia d'Asburgo
Posthumous portrait of Matthias, XIXth century.

After Matthias's accession as Holy Roman Emperor, his policy was dominated by Klesl, who hoped to bring about a compromise between Catholic and Protestant states within the Holy Roman Empire in order to strengthen it. Matthias had already been forced to grant religious concessions to Protestants in Austria and Moravia, as well as in Hungary, when he had allied with them against Rudolf. Matthias imprisoned Georg Keglević who was the Commander-in-chief, General, Vice-Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia and since 1602 Baron in Transylvania, but soon left him free again. At that time the Principality of Transylvania was a fully autonomous area of Hungary, but under the nominal suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, where it was the time of the Sultanate of Women.

Matthias's conciliatory policies were opposed by the more intransigent Catholic Habsburgs, particularly Matthias's brother Archduke Maximilian, who hoped to secure the succession for the inflexible Catholic Archduke Ferdinand (later Emperor Ferdinand II). The start of the Bohemian Protestant revolt in 1618 provoked Maximilian to imprison Klesl and revise his policies. Matthias, old and ailing, was unable to prevent a takeover by Maximilian's faction. Ferdinand, who had already been crowned King of Bohemia (1617) and of Hungary (1618), succeeded Matthias as Holy Roman Emperor.

Names

Names in other languages:

Titles

Iimatyas
Coronation medal of Matthias II with the Holy Crown of Hungary

Matthias, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Luxemburg, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Prince of Swabia, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Moravia, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. etc.

See also

References

  1. ^ Matthias (Holy Roman emperor) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  2. ^ Union of Utrecht
  3. ^ a b Press, Volker (1990), "Maximilian II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 16, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 471–475; (full text online)
  4. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Spanien" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 19 – via Wikisource.
  5. ^ Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 112 – via Wikisource.
  6. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Joanna" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  7. ^ a b Priebatsch, Felix (1908), "Wladislaw II.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 54, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 688–696
  8. ^ a b Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. ^ a b Stephens, Henry Morse (1903). The story of Portugal. G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 125, 139, 279. Retrieved 11 July 2018.

External links

Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 24 February 1557 Died: 20 March 1619
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rudolf (II)
King of Bohemia
1611–1619
Succeeded by
Ferdinand II
King of Hungary and Croatia
1608–1619
King in Germany
1612–1618
Holy Roman Emperor
1612–1619
Archduke of Austria
1608–1619
Succeeded by
Albert VII
Preceded by
Ferdinand II
Archduke of Further Austria
1608–1619
1557

Year 1557 (MDLVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1610s

The 1610s decade ran from January 1, 1610, to December 31, 1619.

1612 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1612 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on June 13.

1619

1619 (MDCXIX)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1619th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 619th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1619, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1619 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1619 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on August 28.

Anna of Austria

Anna of Austria may refer to:

Anna of Austria (1275–1327), daughter of Albert I, Duke of Austria; wife of Margrave Hermann of Brandenburg-Salzwedel & Henry VI, Duke of Breslau

Anna of Austria (1318–1343), daughter of Frederick I of Austria and Isabella of Aragon, niece of previous

Anne, Duchess of Luxembourg (1432–1462), eldest daughter of Albert V, Duke of Austria and wife of William III, Duke of Luxembourg

Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547), only daughter of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and wife of Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria

Anna of Austria (1528–1590), daughter of Anna of Bohemia and Hungary and wife of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria

Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain (1549–1580), daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and fourth wife of Philip II of Spain

Anna of Austria (1573–1598), daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria and wife of King Sigismund III Vasa

Anna of Austria-Tirol (1585–1618), daughter of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria and wife of Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, king of Bohemia

Anne of Austria (1601–1666), daughter of King Philip III of Spain and wife of King Louis XIII of France

Anna of Hungary (disambiguation)

Anna of Hungary may refer to:

Anna of Hungary, Duchess of Macsó (born 1226), daughter of Bela IV of Hungary, wife of prince Rostislav Mikhailovich

Anna of Hungary (Byzantine empress) (c. 1260–1281), daughter of Stephen V of Hungary, first wife of Andronikos II Palaiologos.

Anne, Duchess of Luxembourg (1432–1462), daughter of Albert II of Germany, wife of her co-ruler William III, Duke of Luxembourg

Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547), daughter of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, wife of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Archduchess Anna of Austria (1528–1590), daughter of Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, wife of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria

Anna of Austria (1549–1580), daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, king of Hungary, fourth wife of Philip II of Spain

Anna of Tyrol (1585–1618), daughter of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria, wife of Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, king of Hungary

Anne of Bohemia (disambiguation)

Anne of Bohemia may refer to:

Anne of Bohemia (1204–1265), Duchess consort of Silesia

Anne of Bohemia (1290–1313), eldest surviving daughter of Venceslaus II of Bohemia, first wife of Henry of Carinthia, 1306–1310 king of Bohemia

Anne of Bohemia, Duchess of Austria (1323–1338), daughter of John of Bohemia, second wife of Otto, Duke of Austria

Anne of Bohemia (1366–1394), a daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, first wife of Richard II of England

Anne, Duchess of Luxembourg (1432–1462). Daughter of Elisabeth II of Bohemia, wife of William III, Duke of Luxembourg

Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547), the only daughter of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary

Anna of Austria (1528–1590), daughter of Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, wife of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria

Anna of Austria (1549–1580), daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, fourth wife of Philip II of Spain

Anna of Tyrol, also known as Anna of Austria, Empress Matthias (1585–1618), daughter of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria, wife of Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, king of Bohemia

Dorothea Sophia, Abbess of Quedlinburg

Duchess Dorothea Sophia of Saxe-Altenburg (19 December 1587 – 10 February 1645) was Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg.

She was the fourth child and second daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, and his first wife, Sophie of Württemberg.

Jankovský of Vlašim

Jankovský z Vlašimi is an old Czech family and a member of the House of Vlašim. In the 13th Century at Jankov in Bohemia, the family began to split into several branches.

List of ambassadors of Turkey to Austria

The Turkish Ambassador to Austria has his residence in Vienna.

List of state leaders in 1616

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1616.

Lothar von Metternich

Not to be confused with Lothar Friedrich von Metternich-Burscheid (1617–1675), Archbishop of Mainz.Lothar Johann Reinhard von Metternich (1551–1623) was the Archbishop-Elector of Trier from 1599 to 1623.

Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress

Archduchess Maria of Austria (21 June 1528 – 26 February 1603) was Holy Roman Empress and queen consort of Bohemia and Hungary as the spouse of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia and Hungary. She served as regent of Spain in the absence of her father Emperor Charles V from 1548 until 1551, and in the absence of her brother Philip II, from 1558 to 1561.

Matthias

Matthias is a name derived from the Greek Ματθαίος, in origin similar to Matthew.

See also: All pages with titles beginning with Matthias

Matthias Gate

Matthias Gate, or Matthias' Gate, is a gate between the first and the second courtyards of Prague Castle in Prague, Czech Republic. It was erected by Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor in 1614.

Matthias I

Matthias I may refer to:

Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine (1119–1176)

Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (1443–1490)

Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor (1557–1619)

Matthias II

Matthias II may refer to:

Matthias II, Duke of Lorraine (ca. 1193 – 1251)

Pope Matthew II of Alexandria, ruled in 1453–1466

Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor (1557–1619), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia

Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg (Pozsony in Hungarian; now Bratislava, Slovakia). On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.Maximilian's rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Though a Habsburg and a Catholic, he approached the Lutheran Imperial estates with a view to overcome the denominational schism, which ultimately failed. He also was faced with the ongoing Ottoman–Habsburg wars and rising conflicts with his Habsburg Spain cousins.

According to Fichtner, Maximilian failed to achieve his three major aims: rationalizing the government structure, unifying Christianity, and evicting the Turks from Hungary.

Ancestors of Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
8. Philip I of Castile[5]
4. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor[3]
9. Joanna I of Castile[6]
2. Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
10. Vladislas II of Bohemia and Hungary[7]
5. Anne of Bohemia and Hungary[3]
11. Anne of Foix-Candale[7]
1. Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
12. Philip I of Castile[8] (= 8)
6. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor[4]
13. Joanna I of Castile[8] (= 9)
3. Maria of Austria
14. Manuel I of Portugal[9]
7. Isabella of Portugal[4]
15. Maria of Aragon[9]
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